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Appendix G: Selected Prevalence Tables

90331 (8.1A)
Table G.1 – Types of Illicit Drug Use in Lifetime among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Numbers in Thousands, 2002-2008
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
2 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
3 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1 108,255b 110,205b 110,057b 112,085b 111,774b 114,275a 117,325
Marijuana and Hashish 94,946b 96,611b 96,772b 97,545b 97,825b 100,518 102,404
Cocaine 33,910b 34,891a 34,153b 33,673b 35,298 35,882 36,773
Crack 8,402 7,949 7,840 7,928 8,554 8,581 8,445
Heroin 3,668 3,744 3,145a 3,534 3,785 3,780 3,788
Hallucinogens 34,314 34,363 34,333 33,728a 35,281 34,215a 35,963
LSD 24,516 24,424 23,398 22,433 23,346 22,656 23,547
PCP 7,418 7,107 6,762 6,603 6,618 6,140 6,631
Ecstasy 10,150b 10,904b 11,130b 11,495b 12,262 12,426 12,924
Inhalants 22,870 22,995 22,798 22,745 22,879 22,477 22,274
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 47,958b 49,001b 49,157b 49,571a 50,965 50,415 51,970
Pain Relievers 29,611b 31,207b 31,768b 32,692b 33,472 33,060a 34,861
OxyContin® 1,924b 2,832b 3,072b 3,481b 4,098b 4,354 4,842
Tranquilizers 19,267b 20,220 19,852a 21,041 21,303 20,208 21,476
Stimulants3 23,496b 23,004a 22,297 20,983 22,468 21,654 21,206
Methamphetamine3 15,365b 15,139b 14,512b 12,663 14,206b 13,065 12,598
Sedatives 9,960a 9,510 9,891 8,982 8,822 8,396 8,882
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA1
70,300b 71,128b 70,657b 71,822b 72,906a 73,494 75,573
90331 (8.1B)
Table G.2 – Types of Illicit Drug Use in Lifetime among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Percentages, 2002-2008
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
2 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
3 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1 46.0 46.4 45.8a 46.1 45.4b 46.1 47.0
Marijuana and Hashish 40.4 40.6 40.2 40.1 39.8a 40.6 41.0
Cocaine 14.4 14.7 14.2 13.8a 14.3 14.5 14.7
Crack 3.6 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.4
Heroin 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Hallucinogens 14.6 14.5 14.3 13.9 14.3 13.8 14.4
LSD 10.4b 10.3b 9.7 9.2 9.5 9.1 9.4
PCP 3.2b 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.5 2.7
Ecstasy 4.3b 4.6b 4.6b 4.7a 5.0 5.0 5.2
Inhalants 9.7b 9.7b 9.5a 9.4 9.3 9.1 8.9
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 20.4 20.6 20.4 20.4 20.7 20.3 20.8
Pain Relievers 12.6b 13.1a 13.2a 13.4 13.6 13.3 14.0
OxyContin® 0.8b 1.2b 1.3b 1.4b 1.7b 1.8 1.9
Tranquilizers 8.2 8.5 8.3 8.7 8.7 8.2 8.6
Stimulants3 10.0b 9.7b 9.3b 8.6 9.1a 8.7 8.5
Methamphetamine3 6.5b 6.4b 6.0b 5.2 5.8b 5.3 5.0
Sedatives 4.2b 4.0a 4.1a 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.6
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA1
29.9 29.9 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 30.3
90331 (8.2A)
Table G.3 – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Numbers in Thousands, 2002-2008
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
2 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
3 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1 35,132 34,993 34,807 35,041 35,775 35,692 35,525
Marijuana and Hashish 25,755 25,231 25,451 25,375 25,378 25,085 25,768
Cocaine 5,902a 5,908a 5,658 5,523 6,069b 5,738 5,255
Crack 1,554b 1,406 1,304 1,381 1,479a 1,451a 1,109
Heroin 404 314 398 379 560 366 453
Hallucinogens 4,749b 3,936 3,878 3,809 3,956 3,762 3,678
LSD 999a 558b 592b 563b 666 620a 802
PCP 235b 219b 210b 164a 187a 137 99
Ecstasy 3,167b 2,119 1,915 1,960 2,130 2,132 2,139
Inhalants 2,084 2,075 2,255 2,187 2,218 2,080 2,047
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 14,795 15,163 14,849 15,346 16,482b 16,280a 15,166
Pain Relievers 10,992a 11,671 11,256 11,815 12,649 12,466 11,885
OxyContin® -- -- 1,213a 1,226 1,323 1,422 1,459
Tranquilizers 4,849 5,051 5,068 5,249 5,058 5,282 5,103
Stimulants3 3,380b 3,031a 3,254b 3,088a 3,791b 2,998 2,639
Methamphetamine3 1,755b 1,602b 1,808b 1,603b 1,889b 1,343b 850
Sedatives 981b 831a 737 750 926b 864a 621
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA1
20,423 20,305 19,658 20,109 21,254a 21,144 19,990
90331 (8.2B)
Table G.4 – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Percentages, 2002-2008
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
2 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
3 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1 14.9a 14.7 14.5 14.4 14.5 14.4 14.2
Marijuana and Hashish 11.0a 10.6 10.6 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.3
Cocaine 2.5b 2.5b 2.4a 2.3 2.5b 2.3 2.1
Crack 0.7b 0.6a 0.5 0.6a 0.6a 0.6a 0.4
Heroin 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2
Hallucinogens 2.0b 1.7a 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5
LSD 0.4b 0.2b 0.2b 0.2b 0.3 0.3a 0.3
PCP 0.1b 0.1b 0.1b 0.1b 0.1a 0.1 0.0
Ecstasy 1.3b 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9
Inhalants 0.9 0.9 0.9a 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 6.3 6.4 6.2 6.3 6.7b 6.6a 6.1
Pain Relievers 4.7 4.9 4.7 4.9 5.1a 5.0 4.8
OxyContin® -- -- 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
Tranquilizers 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0
Stimulants3 1.4b 1.3b 1.4b 1.3b 1.5b 1.2 1.1
Methamphetamine3 0.7b 0.7b 0.8b 0.7b 0.8b 0.5b 0.3
Sedatives 0.4b 0.3a 0.3 0.3 0.4b 0.3a 0.2
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA1
8.7b 8.5a 8.2 8.3 8.6b 8.5a 8.0
90331 (8.3A)
Table G.5 – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Numbers in Thousands, 2002-2008
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
2 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
3 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1 19,522 19,470 19,071 19,720 20,357 19,857 20,077
Marijuana and Hashish 14,584 14,638 14,576 14,626 14,813 14,448 15,203
Cocaine 2,020 2,281a 2,021 2,397b 2,421b 2,075 1,855
Crack 567a 604a 467 682b 702b 610b 359
Heroin 166 119 166 136 338 153 213
Hallucinogens 1,196 1,042 929 1,088 1,006 996 1,060
LSD 112 133 141 104 130 145 154
PCP 58 56a 49 48 30 41 24
Ecstasy 676 470 450 502 528 503 555
Inhalants 635 570 638 611 761 616 640
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 6,287 6,451 6,110 6,491 7,095b 6,895a 6,224
Pain Relievers 4,377 4,693 4,404 4,658 5,220 5,174 4,747
OxyContin® -- -- 325 334 276a 369 435
Tranquilizers 1,804 1,830 1,616 1,817 1,766 1,835 1,800
Stimulants3 1,303b 1,310b 1,312b 1,188b 1,385b 1,053 904
Methamphetamine3 683b 726b 706b 628b 731b 529a 314
Sedatives 436b 294 265 272 385 346 234
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA1
8,777 8,849 8,247 8,963 9,615b 9,270 8,565
90331 (8.3B)
Table G.6 – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Percentages, 2002-2008
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
2 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
3 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1 8.3 8.2 7.9 8.1 8.3 8.0 8.0
Marijuana and Hashish 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.8 6.1
Cocaine 0.9 1.0b 0.8 1.0b 1.0b 0.8 0.7
Crack 0.2b 0.3a 0.2 0.3b 0.3b 0.2b 0.1
Heroin 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Hallucinogens 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
LSD 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1
PCP 0.0a 0.0a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ecstasy 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Inhalants 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 2.7 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.9b 2.8a 2.5
Pain Relievers 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.1 1.9
OxyContin® -- -- 0.1 0.1 0.1a 0.1 0.2
Tranquilizers 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
Stimulants3 0.6b 0.6b 0.5b 0.5b 0.6b 0.4 0.4
Methamphetamine3 0.3b 0.3b 0.3b 0.3b 0.3b 0.2a 0.1
Sedatives 0.2b 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2a 0.1 0.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA1
3.7 3.7 3.4 3.7 3.9b 3.7 3.4
90331 (8.6B)
Table G.7 – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2002-2008
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
2 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
3 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1 11.6b 11.2b 10.6b 9.9 9.8 9.5 9.3
Marijuana and Hashish 8.2b 7.9b 7.6b 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.7
Cocaine 0.6a 0.6b 0.5 0.6a 0.4 0.4 0.4
Crack 0.1a 0.1b 0.1 0.1a 0.0 0.1 0.0
Heroin 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1
Hallucinogens 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.7a 0.7b 1.0
LSD 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2
PCP 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1
Ecstasy 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3a 0.4
Inhalants 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 4.0b 4.0b 3.6b 3.3a 3.3a 3.3a 2.9
Pain Relievers 3.2b 3.2b 3.0b 2.7a 2.7a 2.7a 2.3
OxyContin® -- -- 0.3 0.1 0.1a 0.2 0.2
Tranquilizers 0.8 0.9b 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.6
Stimulants3 0.8b 0.9b 0.7b 0.7a 0.7a 0.5 0.5
Methamphetamine3 0.3b 0.3b 0.2a 0.3b 0.2a 0.1 0.1
Sedatives 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA1
5.7b 5.7b 5.3b 4.9a 4.9a 4.7 4.4
90331 (8.9B)
Table G.8 – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25: Percentages, 2002-2008
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
2 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
3 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1 20.2 20.3 19.4 20.1 19.8 19.7 19.6
Marijuana and Hashish 17.3 17.0 16.1 16.6 16.3 16.4 16.5
Cocaine 2.0b 2.2b 2.1b 2.6b 2.2b 1.7 1.5
Crack 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3b 0.2 0.2 0.2
Heroin 0.1 0.1b 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2
Hallucinogens 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.7
LSD 0.1b 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2a 0.2 0.3
PCP 0.0 0.1a 0.1a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ecstasy 1.1 0.7 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.9
Inhalants 0.5a 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 5.5 6.1 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.0 5.9
Pain Relievers 4.1a 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.9 4.6 4.6
OxyContin® -- -- 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4
Tranquilizers 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.7 1.7
Stimulants3 1.3a 1.3 1.5b 1.4b 1.4a 1.1 1.1
Methamphetamine3 0.6b 0.6b 0.7b 0.7b 0.6b 0.4 0.2
Sedatives 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA1
7.9 8.4 8.1 8.8a 8.9b 8.1 7.8
90331 (8.12B)
Table G.9 – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older: Percentages, 2002-2008
Drug 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
2 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
3 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. For the 2002 through 2005 survey years, a Bernoulli stochastic imputation procedure was used to generate adjusted estimates comparable with estimates for survey years 2006 and later. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.8 6.1 5.8 5.9
Marijuana and Hashish 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 3.9 4.2
Cocaine 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7
Crack 0.3a 0.3a 0.2 0.3a 0.3b 0.3a 0.2
Heroin 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1
Hallucinogens 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1
LSD 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 *
PCP 0.0 * 0.0 0.0 * 0.0 *
Ecstasy 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Inhalants 0.1 0.1a 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.9 2.2a 2.2 1.9
Pain Relievers 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.4
OxyContin® -- -- 0.1a 0.1 0.1a 0.1 0.1
Tranquilizers 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6
Stimulants3 0.4a 0.4a 0.4a 0.3 0.4b 0.3 0.2
Methamphetamine3 0.2b 0.3b 0.2b 0.2 0.3b 0.2 0.1
Sedatives 0.2b 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2a 0.1 0.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA1
2.7 2.6 2.3 2.6 2.9 2.9 2.5
90331 (1.11B)
Table G.10 – Illicit Drug Use in Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month, by Detailed Age Category: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Age Category Lifetime
(2007)
Lifetime
(2008)
Past Year
(2007)
Past Year
(2008)
Past Month
(2007)
Past Month
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 46.1 47.0 14.4 14.2 8.0 8.0
12 9.9 11.2 5.4a 7.2 2.7 3.1
13 16.4 15.2 10.2 9.9 4.0 3.4
14 21.4 21.5 14.7 14.9 6.7 6.7
15 29.0 28.4 21.4 20.4 11.0 10.5
16 37.6 35.8 28.6 27.5 14.8 13.5
17 41.5 42.0 30.8 31.8 17.4 17.0
18 46.9 47.5 34.8 34.7 20.7 20.3
19 53.3 52.5 36.6 37.6 22.3 22.2
20 57.1 55.7 36.6 36.9 22.0 22.3
21 60.3 59.0 37.6 35.6 23.1 20.9
22 59.6 60.1 32.8 34.8 20.0 20.7
23 62.7a 59.1 31.6 28.8 17.5 17.3
24 62.1 59.9 28.7 29.6 16.1 17.4
25 60.1 61.7 25.4a 28.7 15.4 15.4
26-29 57.8a 61.1 23.0 23.4 12.8 13.0
30-34 55.5 55.4 16.9 16.4 9.4 9.6
35-39 56.1 55.2 13.9 14.6 7.3 8.6
40-44 58.6 60.2 13.1 12.9 7.0 6.3
45-49 61.0 62.7 11.9 11.5 7.2 7.0
50-54 58.9 58.0 10.6 8.1 5.7 4.3
55-59 51.6 51.9 8.0 7.7 4.1 5.0
60-64 35.0a 41.3 4.4 5.2 1.9 3.0
65 or Older 10.7a 13.5 1.0 1.4 0.7 1.0
90331 (1.19B)
Table G.11 – Illicit Drug Use in Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Lifetime
(2007)
Lifetime
(2008)
Past Year
(2007)
Past Year
(2008)
Past Month
(2007)
Past Month
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 46.1 47.0 14.4 14.2 8.0 8.0
AGE            
12-17 26.2 26.2 18.7 19.0 9.5 9.3
18-25 57.4 56.6 33.2 33.5 19.7 19.6
26 or Older 46.8 48.0 10.6 10.3 5.8 5.9
GENDER            
Male 50.6 51.3 17.4a 16.4 10.4 9.9
Female 41.8 42.9 11.6 12.2 5.8a 6.3
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 48.0 48.7 14.8 14.5 8.2 8.3
White 50.3 50.7 14.9 14.4 8.2 8.2
Black or African American 43.1 46.1 16.0 16.9 9.5 10.1
American Indian or Alaska Native 54.6 57.6 18.4 19.5 12.6 9.5
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * 13.3 * * 7.3
Asian 22.8 21.2 7.2 7.4 4.2 3.6
Two or More Races 51.5 56.1 22.1 21.2 11.8 14.7
Hispanic or Latino 34.2 36.4 12.2 12.3 6.6 6.2
90331 (1.20B)
Table G.12 – Illicit Drug Use in Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Lifetime
(2007)
Lifetime
(2008)
Past Year
(2007)
Past Year
(2008)
Past Month
(2007)
Past Month
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 26.2 26.2 18.7 19.0 9.5 9.3
GENDER            
Male 27.1 26.0 19.4 19.0 10.0 9.5
Female 25.4 26.3 18.0 18.9 9.1 9.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 26.6 26.0 19.1 19.0 9.9 9.3
White 27.0 26.2 19.9 19.7 10.2 9.8
Black or African American 26.7 26.2 17.6 17.6 9.4 8.2
American Indian or Alaska Native 43.1 43.8 * 31.3 * 18.2
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 16.3 16.8 10.9 9.8 6.0a 2.7
Two or More Races 28.4 30.1 18.9 24.8 9.2 13.5
Hispanic or Latino 24.7 27.0 17.1 18.8 8.1 8.9
GENDER/RACE/HISPANIC ORIGIN            
Male, White, Not Hispanic 27.2a 25.1 20.1 18.9 10.4 10.0
Female, White, Not Hispanic 26.7 27.4 19.8 20.6 9.9 9.6
Male, Black, Not Hispanic 27.7 29.0 18.0 20.3 10.1 9.0
Female, Black, Not Hispanic 25.8 23.5 17.1 15.0 8.8 7.3
Male, Hispanic 26.5 27.9 18.6 20.0 8.6 9.2
Female, Hispanic 22.9 26.1 15.5 17.5 7.6 8.6
90331 (1.23B)
Table G.13 – Illicit Drug Use in Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Lifetime
(2007)
Lifetime
(2008)
Past Year
(2007)
Past Year
(2008)
Past Month
(2007)
Past Month
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 The Other Employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 48.4 49.3 13.9 13.7 7.8 7.9
GENDER            
Male 53.5 54.2 17.1 16.1 10.4 9.9
Female 43.6 44.6 10.9 11.5 5.4a 6.0
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 50.3 51.0 14.3 14.1 8.1 8.2
White 52.6 53.1 14.4 13.9 8.0 8.1
Black or African American 45.5 49.0 15.8 16.8 9.5 10.3
American Indian or Alaska Native 56.3 59.6 16.7 17.8 12.0 8.3
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * 12.5 * * 6.5
Asian 23.5 21.6 6.8 7.2 4.0 3.7
Two or More Races 55.6 61.3 22.7 20.4 12.3 14.9
Hispanic or Latino 35.7 37.9 11.5 11.3 6.4 5.8
EDUCATION            
< High School 36.0 37.7 15.0 13.5 9.3a 8.1
High School Graduate 46.1 46.9 14.0 14.4 8.6 8.6
Some College 55.2 56.4 16.4 16.1 8.9 9.4
College Graduate 51.8 51.8 10.8 10.9 5.1 5.7
CURRENT EMPLOYMENT            
Full-Time 56.7 57.1 15.1 14.4 8.4 8.0
Part-Time 49.7 50.9 17.6 18.1 10.1 10.2
Unemployed 59.7 62.5 28.5 29.8 18.3 19.6
Other1 30.8 31.4 8.5 8.0 4.7 4.9
90406 (8.22A)
Table G.14 – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Gender: Numbers in Thousands, 2002-2008
Gender/Substance 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
2 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 71,499 70,757 70,257 71,519 72,873 70,939 70,868
Cigarettes 61,136 60,434 59,896 60,532 61,565 60,069 59,781
Smokeless Tobacco 7,787a 7,725a 7,154b 7,682a 8,231 8,051 8,670
Cigars 12,751 12,837 13,727 13,640 13,708 13,263 13,126
Pipe Tobacco 1,816 1,619 1,835 2,190 2,321a 2,046 1,877
ALCOHOL 119,820b 118,965b 120,934b 126,028a 125,309b 126,760 128,974
Binge Alcohol Use2 53,787b 53,770b 54,725b 55,090b 56,575 57,778 58,096
Heavy Alcohol Use2 15,860a 16,144a 16,689 16,035a 16,946 17,010 17,292
MALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 41,991 41,288 41,569 42,175 43,389 42,369 41,881
Cigarettes 32,636 32,263 32,278 32,312 33,220 32,607 31,942
Smokeless Tobacco 7,242a 7,096b 6,730b 7,174b 7,843 7,589 8,215
Cigars 10,669 10,372 11,375 11,355 11,092 10,940 10,900
Pipe Tobacco 1,487 1,400 1,579 1,877a 2,023a 1,797 1,486
ALCOHOL 65,210b 65,927b 66,317b 68,497 68,025a 68,088a 69,989
Binge Alcohol Use2 35,456b 35,565b 36,195b 36,025b 37,298 38,128 38,292
Heavy Alcohol Use2 12,216 11,958 12,388 12,172 12,775 12,786 12,882
FEMALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 29,509 29,469 28,688 29,344 29,484 28,570 28,986
Cigarettes 28,500 28,171 27,618 28,220 28,345 27,462 27,839
Smokeless Tobacco 545 628 424 508 388 461 455
Cigars 2,082 2,465 2,352 2,285 2,616a 2,323 2,226
Pipe Tobacco 330 219b 256 313 298 249a 391
ALCOHOL 54,610b 53,038b 54,616b 57,531 57,283 58,672 58,986
Binge Alcohol Use2 18,331a 18,205b 18,530a 19,065 19,276 19,651 19,805
Heavy Alcohol Use2 3,645b 4,186 4,301 3,863a 4,172 4,225 4,410
90406 (8.22B)
Table G.15 – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Gender: Percentages, 2002-2008
Gender/Substance 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
2 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 30.4b 29.8b 29.2 29.4a 29.6a 28.6 28.4
Cigarettes 26.0b 25.4b 24.9a 24.9a 25.0a 24.2 23.9
Smokeless Tobacco 3.3 3.3 3.0b 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.5
Cigars 5.4 5.4 5.7a 5.6 5.6 5.4 5.3
Pipe Tobacco 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9a 0.8 0.8
ALCOHOL 51.0 50.1b 50.3a 51.8 50.9 51.1 51.6
Binge Alcohol Use2 22.9 22.6 22.8 22.7 23.0 23.3 23.3
Heavy Alcohol Use2 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.6 6.9 6.9 6.9
MALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 37.0b 35.9 35.7 35.8 36.4a 35.2 34.5
Cigarettes 28.7b 28.1b 27.7a 27.4 27.8a 27.1 26.3
Smokeless Tobacco 6.4 6.2 5.8b 6.1a 6.6 6.3 6.8
Cigars 9.4 9.0 9.8a 9.6 9.3 9.1 9.0
Pipe Tobacco 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.6a 1.7b 1.5 1.2
ALCOHOL 57.4 57.3 56.9 58.1 57.0 56.6 57.7
Binge Alcohol Use2 31.2 30.9 31.1 30.5 31.2 31.7 31.6
Heavy Alcohol Use2 10.8 10.4 10.6 10.3 10.7 10.6 10.6
FEMALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 24.3b 24.0a 23.1 23.4 23.3 22.4 22.5
Cigarettes 23.4b 23.0a 22.3 22.5 22.4 21.5 21.7
Smokeless Tobacco 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4
Cigars 1.7 2.0a 1.9 1.8 2.1a 1.8 1.7
Pipe Tobacco 0.3 0.2a 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2a 0.3
ALCOHOL 44.9 43.2b 44.0a 45.9 45.2 46.0 45.9
Binge Alcohol Use2 15.1 14.8 14.9 15.2 15.2 15.4 15.4
Heavy Alcohol Use2 3.0a 3.4 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.4
90406 (8.23B)
Table G.16 – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Gender: Percentages, 2002-2008
Gender/Substance 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
2 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 15.2b 14.4b 14.4b 13.1b 12.9b 12.4a 11.4
Cigarettes 13.0b 12.2b 11.9b 10.8b 10.4b 9.8a 9.1
Smokeless Tobacco 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.1 2.4 2.4 2.2
Cigars 4.5b 4.5b 4.8b 4.2 4.1 4.2 3.8
Pipe Tobacco 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7
ALCOHOL 17.6b 17.7b 17.6b 16.5b 16.6b 15.9b 14.6
Binge Alcohol Use2 10.7b 10.6b 11.1b 9.9b 10.3b 9.7b 8.8
Heavy Alcohol Use2 2.5b 2.6b 2.7b 2.4a 2.4a 2.3 2.0
MALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 16.0b 15.6b 15.3b 14.2b 14.0a 14.1b 12.6
Cigarettes 12.3b 11.9b 11.3b 10.7b 10.0a 10.0a 9.0
Smokeless Tobacco 3.4 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.2 4.4 3.9
Cigars 6.2a 6.2a 6.6b 5.8 5.5 6.0 5.3
Pipe Tobacco 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8
ALCOHOL 17.4b 17.1b 17.2b 15.9b 16.3b 15.9b 14.2
Binge Alcohol Use2 11.4b 11.1b 11.6b 10.4b 10.7b 10.6b 8.9
Heavy Alcohol Use2 3.1b 2.9a 3.2b 3.0a 2.8a 2.8 2.3
FEMALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 14.4b 13.3b 13.5b 11.9b 11.8b 10.6 10.2
Cigarettes 13.6b 12.5b 12.5b 10.8b 10.7b 9.7 9.2
Smokeless Tobacco 0.4 0.3a 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5
Cigars 2.7 2.7 2.8a 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.2
Pipe Tobacco 0.4 0.3b 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6
ALCOHOL 17.9b 18.3b 18.0b 17.2b 17.0b 16.0 15.0
Binge Alcohol Use2 9.9a 10.1b 10.5b 9.4 9.9a 8.8 8.7
Heavy Alcohol Use2 1.9 2.3b 2.1a 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.6
90406 (8.24B)
Table G.17 – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 25, by Gender: Percentages, 2002-2008
Gender/Substance 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
2 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 45.3b 44.8b 44.6b 44.3b 43.9b 41.8 41.4
Cigarettes 40.8b 40.2b 39.5b 39.0b 38.4b 36.2 35.7
Smokeless Tobacco 4.8 4.7a 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4
Cigars 11.0 11.4 12.7b 12.0 12.1a 11.8 11.3
Pipe Tobacco 1.1a 0.9b 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.4
ALCOHOL 60.5 61.4 60.5 60.9 61.9 61.2 61.2
Binge Alcohol Use2 40.9 41.6 41.2 41.9 42.2 41.8 41.0
Heavy Alcohol Use2 14.9 15.1 15.1 15.3 15.6a 14.7 14.5
MALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 52.1b 51.7b 51.7b 51.6b 51.0a 50.0 48.8
Cigarettes 44.4b 44.2b 43.5b 42.9b 41.9a 40.5 39.5
Smokeless Tobacco 9.4 8.9b 9.5 9.7 9.9 9.9 10.3
Cigars 16.8 17.3 19.7b 18.3 18.7a 18.4 17.2
Pipe Tobacco 1.7 1.4b 2.1 2.3 2.2 1.9 2.0
ALCOHOL 65.2 66.9b 64.9 66.3a 65.9 65.3 64.3
Binge Alcohol Use2 50.2 51.3b 50.1 51.7b 50.2 49.8 48.4
Heavy Alcohol Use2 21.1 21.2 21.2 21.7a 21.0 19.9 19.9
FEMALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 38.4b 37.8b 37.4b 36.9b 36.8b 33.6 33.8
Cigarettes 37.1b 36.2b 35.5b 35.0b 34.9b 31.8 31.8
Smokeless Tobacco 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4
Cigars 5.2 5.5 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.1 5.3
Pipe Tobacco 0.4a 0.4a 0.4b 0.6 0.5a 0.5 0.7
ALCOHOL 55.7a 55.8a 56.0a 55.4b 57.9 57.1 58.0
Binge Alcohol Use2 31.7a 31.8a 32.3 31.9 34.0 33.7 33.6
Heavy Alcohol Use2 8.7 9.0 8.8 8.8 10.0a 9.5 9.0
90406 (8.25B)
Table G.18 – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 26 or Older, by Gender: Percentages, 2002-2008
Gender/Substance 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
2 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 29.9a 29.3 28.5 29.0 29.4 28.5 28.3
Cigarettes 25.2a 24.7 24.1 24.3 24.7 24.1 23.8
Smokeless Tobacco 3.2 3.2 2.7b 3.0 3.2 3.0 3.3
Cigars 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.4
Pipe Tobacco 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9a 0.8 0.6
ALCOHOL 53.9 52.5b 53.0a 55.1 53.7 54.1 54.8
Binge Alcohol Use2 21.4 21.0a 21.1 21.0a 21.4 21.9 22.1
Heavy Alcohol Use2 5.9 5.9 6.1 5.6a 6.0 6.1 6.3
MALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 37.3a 36.0 35.7 36.0 36.9a 35.6 35.0
Cigarettes 28.3a 27.5 27.2 27.0 27.8 27.1 26.4
Smokeless Tobacco 6.3 6.0 5.3b 5.8 6.3 5.9 6.5
Cigars 8.5 7.9 8.4 8.6 8.1 7.8 8.0
Pipe Tobacco 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.6a 1.7b 1.5 1.1
ALCOHOL 61.9 61.5 61.3 62.7 61.2 60.8 62.5
Binge Alcohol Use2 30.7 30.1 30.4 29.6a 30.7 31.4 31.7
Heavy Alcohol Use2 10.0 9.5 9.8 9.3 10.0 10.1 10.1
FEMALE              
TOBACCO PRODUCTS1 23.2 23.1 22.0 22.6 22.5 22.0 22.2
Cigarettes 22.5 22.1 21.3 21.9 21.8 21.3 21.5
Smokeless Tobacco 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3
Cigars 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.4a 1.2 1.1
Pipe Tobacco 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2
ALCOHOL 46.6 44.3b 45.4a 48.0 46.7 47.9 47.7
Binge Alcohol Use2 13.0 12.6 12.6 13.2 12.8 13.2 13.2
Heavy Alcohol Use2 2.2a 2.6 2.7 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.7
90406 (8.27B)
Table G.19 – Alcohol Use in Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by Gender: Percentages, 2002-2008
Gender/Alcohol Use 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL              
Lifetime 56.2b 55.8b 54.9b 53.9b 53.9b 52.9 52.2
Past Year 47.0b 46.8b 46.6b 46.3b 46.1b 45.1 44.3
Past Month 28.8b 29.0b 28.7b 28.2b 28.3b 27.9a 26.4
Binge Alcohol Use1 19.3b 19.2b 19.6b 18.8b 19.0b 18.6a 17.4
Heavy Alcohol Use1 6.2a 6.1a 6.3a 6.0 6.2a 6.0 5.5
MALE              
Lifetime 56.5b 55.0b 54.9b 53.7a 54.0b 53.0 52.0
Past Year 46.6b 45.6b 46.3b 45.6b 46.0b 45.1a 43.5
Past Month 29.6b 29.9b 29.6b 28.9a 29.2b 28.4 27.1
Binge Alcohol Use1 21.8b 21.7b 22.1b 21.3b 21.3b 21.1b 19.2
Heavy Alcohol Use1 8.1b 7.9a 8.2b 7.6 7.9a 7.8 7.0
FEMALE              
Lifetime 56.0b 56.6b 54.8b 54.2a 53.7 52.8 52.4
Past Year 47.5b 48.0b 46.9a 46.9a 46.2 45.1 45.1
Past Month 28.0b 28.1b 27.8b 27.5a 27.4a 27.3a 25.8
Binge Alcohol Use1 16.7 16.5 17.0a 16.1 16.5 16.1 15.5
Heavy Alcohol Use1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.0
90327 (2.16B)
Table G.20 – Alcohol Use, Binge Alcohol Use, and Heavy Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Detailed Age Category: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Age Category Alcohol Use
(2007)
Alcohol Use
(2008)
Binge Alcohol Use
(2007)
Binge Alcohol Use
(2008)
Heavy Alcohol Use
(2007)
Heavy Alcohol Use
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 51.1 51.6 23.3 23.3 6.9 6.9
12 2.2 2.1 0.9 0.9 0.1 0.1
13 4.7 4.6 2.0 2.1 0.1 0.3
14 10.0 10.6 4.5 5.1 0.4 0.6
15 19.0b 15.5 10.9b 8.6 2.4 1.5
16 23.8 22.2 15.1 14.7 3.8 3.7
17 34.6b 30.3 23.9b 19.6 7.1a 5.2
18 41.8 41.5 28.9 28.2 9.6 9.1
19 53.7 50.5 38.8 35.5 14.1 13.1
20 57.8 55.5 40.3 38.4 15.8 15.4
21 71.8 70.6 50.1 49.0 17.9 17.3
22 66.5a 70.4 46.9 46.9 16.9 18.0
23 68.4 69.0 45.3 45.0 16.2 14.8
24 67.4 69.8 44.3 46.2 15.6 15.9
25 67.3 67.8 42.7 42.5 12.6 13.4
26-29 63.2a 67.4 37.9b 42.6 10.5a 13.2
30-34 62.1 59.9 32.6 30.8 9.0 8.1
35-39 59.1 59.4 28.4 27.4 8.5 7.4
40-44 60.9 60.3 27.9 26.1 7.3 6.7
45-49 58.3 59.6 23.9 23.9 7.8 7.4
50-54 57.0 54.9 21.5 20.3 6.3 6.4
55-59 52.0 54.6 15.9 17.6 4.5 5.2
60-64 47.6 50.3 12.1 14.6 2.9 3.6
65 or Older 38.1 39.7 7.6 8.2 1.4 2.2
90327 (2.79B)
Table G.21 – Alcohol Use, Binge Alcohol Use, and Heavy Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Alcohol Use
(2007)
Alcohol Use
(2008)
Binge
Alcohol Use
(2007)
Binge
Alcohol Use
(2008)
Heavy
Alcohol Use
(2007)
Heavy
Alcohol Use
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 27.9a 26.4 18.6a 17.4 6.0 5.5
GENDER            
Male 28.4 27.1 21.1b 19.2 7.8 7.0
Female 27.3a 25.8 16.1 15.5 4.2 4.0
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 28.6a 27.2 19.1a 17.9 6.4 5.9
White 32.0b 30.1 22.4a 20.8 8.0 7.2
Black or African American 18.3 19.0 8.4 9.3 1.5 1.9
American Indian or Alaska Native 28.3 26.4 * * * 4.0
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * 4.7 5.8
Asian 16.8 17.2 9.6 9.4 1.9 2.1
Two or More Races 26.2 22.9 16.4 15.0 5.0 4.2
Hispanic or Latino 24.7 23.1 16.7 15.1 4.1 4.1
GENDER/RACE/HISPANIC ORIGIN            
Male, White, Not Hispanic 32.7a 30.3 25.1b 22.6 10.2a 8.8
Female, White, Not Hispanic 31.2 29.9 19.5 18.9 5.6 5.5
Male, Black, Not Hispanic 17.2 18.9 9.7 10.7 2.4 2.7
Female, Black, Not Hispanic 19.4 19.2 7.0 7.8 0.6 1.2
Male, Hispanic 25.8 25.3 19.2 17.3 5.6 5.6
Female, Hispanic 23.5 20.7 14.1 12.6 2.6 2.5
90327 (2.12B)
Table G.22 – Cigarette Use in Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month, by Detailed Age Category: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Age Category Lifetime
(2007)
Lifetime
(2008)
Past Year
(2007)
Past Year
(2008)
Past Month
(2007)
Past Month
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 65.3 65.1 28.5 28.0 24.2 23.9
12 5.1 5.0 2.6 2.4 0.9 1.2
13 10.7 10.1 5.5 5.9 2.7 2.9
14 17.5 16.9 11.2 9.9 6.0 5.0
15 26.8 25.5 17.6 17.2 10.7 10.1
16 37.2 34.4 24.7 22.9 15.5 14.1
17 42.9 42.0 31.4 29.0 22.5a 19.4
18 51.5 53.2 38.7 41.6 29.7 30.2
19 60.5 60.9 45.5 46.0 33.2 34.3
20 64.0 62.0 44.9 45.0 35.7 36.9
21 64.6 65.2 45.1 46.6 37.1 38.5
22 67.7 66.5 49.4 47.0 40.3 37.7
23 71.0 68.4 48.4 45.0 39.8a 36.0
24 71.0 69.3 47.4 43.9 39.5a 36.0
25 71.4 71.5 42.8 45.4 35.7 37.6
26-29 70.1 72.1 41.4 44.1 35.7 37.1
30-34 68.3 68.5 36.0 35.4 31.5 30.4
35-39 70.0 68.3 32.9a 29.7 28.5 26.1
40-44 70.5 71.7 30.3 30.2 26.6 27.4
45-49 74.9 73.8 32.3 31.1 29.6 28.8
50-54 75.2 72.6 29.7 30.1 26.7 27.1
55-59 73.6 75.5 24.6 22.3 22.0 20.6
60-64 76.3 73.8 20.5 20.4 18.8 18.0
65 or Older 65.1 65.3 10.8 11.2 9.0 10.3
90327 (2.23B)
Table G.23 – Cigarette Use in Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Lifetime
(2007)
Lifetime
(2008)
Past Year
(2007)
Past Year
(2008)
Past Month
(2007)
Past Month
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 23.7 22.9 15.7 15.0 9.8a 9.1
GENDER            
Male 24.5a 22.6 16.0a 14.8 10.0a 9.0
Female 22.8 23.1 15.3 15.1 9.7 9.2
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 24.3a 23.1 16.2a 15.2 10.5b 9.4
White 26.7b 24.7 18.7b 17.0 12.2b 10.6
Black or African American 17.8 19.0 9.6 9.7 6.1 5.0
American Indian or Alaska Native 29.7 41.6 19.3 28.9 13.4 18.9
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 12.6 10.7 6.1 5.9 3.4 3.8
Two or More Races 24.2 25.4 14.5 18.1 8.9 13.1
Hispanic or Latino 20.8 22.0 13.1 14.0 6.7 7.9
GENDER/RACE/HISPANIC ORIGIN            
Male, White, Not Hispanic 27.1b 23.8 18.5b 16.2 11.7a 10.1
Female, White, Not Hispanic 26.3 25.7 18.8 17.8 12.7a 11.2
Male, Black, Not Hispanic 17.9 19.9 10.1 10.9 6.8 5.4
Female, Black, Not Hispanic 17.7 18.0 9.0 8.6 5.4 4.5
Male, Hispanic 22.7 22.9 14.3 15.2 7.8 9.1
Female, Hispanic 18.8 21.0 11.9 12.7 5.6 6.6
90327 (2.26B)
Table G.24 – Cigarette Use in Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Lifetime
(2007)
Lifetime
(2008)
Past Year
(2007)
Past Year
(2008)
Past Month
(2007)
Past Month
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 The Other Employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 70.0 69.7 29.9 29.5 25.9 25.6
GENDER            
Male 75.9 75.1 33.7 32.8 29.2 28.4
Female 64.5 64.7 26.4 26.4 22.8 23.0
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 72.2 71.6 30.3 30.0 26.4 26.3
White 76.2 75.8 31.0 30.5 26.9 26.6
Black or African American 58.7 58.4 29.5 30.7 25.8 27.8
American Indian or Alaska Native 78.6 77.6 44.7 52.1 37.6 47.7
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 41.4 37.3 18.7 15.9 15.3 12.7
Two or More Races 73.0 80.3 36.8 39.1 33.7 36.0
Hispanic or Latino 56.0 58.1 27.3 25.8 22.7 21.1
EDUCATION            
< High School 64.1 65.2 37.0 38.1 32.9 34.4
High School Graduate 71.2 70.8 35.7 34.6 31.9 30.6
Some College 73.1 72.0 31.3 30.8 26.8 26.6
College Graduate 69.2 69.0 17.9 17.7 14.0 14.0
CURRENT EMPLOYMENT            
Full-Time 72.4 72.4 31.9 31.5 27.6 27.2
Part-Time 68.1 67.9 29.7 28.5 24.5 23.8
Unemployed 70.9 70.7 49.5 47.3 44.6 43.0
Other1 66.2 65.3 24.2 23.5 21.1 20.8
90330 (8.28B)
Table G.25 – Perceived Risk and Availability of Substances among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2002-2008
Risk/Availability 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
2 Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded.
3 Response categories for the Perceived Availability questions include "Probably impossible," "Very difficult," "Fairly difficult," "Fairly easy," and "Very easy." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Fairly easy" or "Very easy."
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK1              
Cigarettes              
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day 63.1b 64.2b 67.5b 68.3a 68.7 68.8 69.7
Marijuana              
Smoke Once a Month 32.4a 34.9 35.0 34.0 34.7 34.5 33.9
Smoke Once or Twice a Week 51.5a 54.4a 54.7b 55.0b 54.2 54.7b 53.1
Cocaine              
Use Once a Month 50.5 51.4b 49.6 48.8 49.0 49.6 49.7
Use Once or Twice a Week 79.8 80.7b 79.8 79.9 79.2 78.9 79.2
Heroin              
Try Once or Twice 58.5 58.8 57.0 56.5a 57.2 57.0 57.7
Use Once or Twice a Week 82.5a 82.6a 81.4 81.8 81.2 81.0 81.3
LSD              
Try Once or Twice 52.6b 53.4b 52.6b 51.7 51.6 51.2 50.5
Use Once or Twice a Week 76.2b 76.9b 76.4b 76.1b 74.7 74.2 73.9
Alcohol              
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day 62.2b 61.6b 61.8b 63.8b 64.6a 65.2 65.9
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice
  a Week
38.2b 38.5b 38.1b 38.4b 39.4 39.4 40.5
PERCEIVED AVAILABILITY2              
Fairly or Very Easy to Obtain3              
Marijuana 55.0b 53.6b 52.2b 51.0b 50.1 49.1 49.2
Cocaine 25.0b 25.0b 24.4b 24.9b 25.9b 24.5b 22.1
Crack 26.5b 26.2b 25.0b 25.3b 26.2b 25.3b 23.2
Heroin 15.8b 15.3b 14.0a 14.0a 14.4b 14.1a 13.0
LSD 19.4b 17.6b 16.9b 15.7b 14.0 14.4 13.8
Approached in the Past Month by Someone
  Selling Drugs
16.7b 16.1b 16.3b 15.5b 15.3b 14.5 13.7
90407 (8.29A)
Table G.26 – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Numbers in Thousands, 2002-2008
Substance 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
2 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1,2 2,656 2,627 2,784 2,908 2,789 2,670 2,885
Marijuana and Hashish 2,196 1,973a 2,142 2,114 2,063 2,090 2,208
Cocaine 1,032b 986b 998b 872a 977b 906a 722
Crack 337a 269 215 230 245 352 205
Heroin 117 92 118 108 91 106 114
Hallucinogens 1,152 886b 934a 953a 1,116 1,064 1,127
LSD 338 200b 235b 243b 264b 270b 394
PCP 123b 105b 106a 77 69 58 53
Ecstasy 1,206b 642b 607b 615b 860 781 894
Inhalants 849 871a 857a 877a 783 775 729
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 2,552 2,583 2,836a 2,526 2,576 2,532 2,512
Pain Relievers 2,320 2,456 2,422 2,193 2,150 2,147 2,176
OxyContin® -- -- 615a 526 533 554 478
Tranquilizers 1,184 1,071 1,180 1,286 1,112 1,232 1,127
Stimulants2 783b 715 793a 647 845b 642 599
Sedatives 209 194 240 247 267 198 181
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER
THAN MARIJUANA1,2
2,569 2,523 2,664 2,768 2,719 2,563 2,693
CIGARETTES 1,940b 1,983b 2,122a 2,282 2,449 2,231 2,418
Daily Cigarette Use4 1,016 1,064 1,101a 965 1,051 984 942
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 951b 928b 999b 1,134b 1,329 1,297 1,398
CIGARS 2,858 2,736 3,058 3,349b 3,061 3,076 2,884
ALCOHOL 3,942b 4,082a 4,396 4,274 4,381 4,559 4,466
90407 (8.32A)
Table G.27 – Substance Dependence or Abuse for Specific Substances in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Numbers in Thousands, 2002-2008
Past Year Dependence or Abuse 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
2 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1,2 7,116 6,835 7,298 6,833 7,020 6,851 6,990
Marijuana and Hashish 4,294 4,198 4,469 4,090 4,172 3,932 4,199
Cocaine 1,488 1,515 1,571 1,549 1,671 1,598 1,411
Heroin 214 189 270 227 323 213 282
Hallucinogens 426 321 449 371 380 368 358
Inhalants 180 169 233 221 176 164 175
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 2,018 1,923 2,048 1,959 2,035 2,160 2,176
Pain Relievers 1,509 1,424a 1,388a 1,546 1,635 1,707 1,716
Tranquilizers 509 435 573 419 402 443 451
Stimulants2 436 378 470 409 390 406 351
Sedatives 154 158 128 97 121 154 126
ALCOHOL 18,100 17,805 18,654 18,658 18,799 18,638 18,331
BOTH ILLICIT DRUGS AND
ALCOHOL1,2
3,210 3,054 3,445 3,273 3,205 3,175 3,090
ILLICIT DRUGS OR ALCOHOL1,2 22,006 21,586 22,506 22,218 22,613 22,313 22,231
90407 (8.32B)
Table G.28 – Substance Dependence or Abuse for Specific Substances in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Percentages, 2002-2008
Past Year Dependence or Abuse 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
2 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1,2 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.8
Marijuana and Hashish 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.7
Cocaine 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6
Heroin 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Hallucinogens 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1
Inhalants 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9
Pain Relievers 0.6 0.6 0.6a 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7
Tranquilizers 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Stimulants2 0.2 0.2 0.2a 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1
Sedatives 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
ALCOHOL 7.7 7.5 7.8 7.7 7.6 7.5 7.3
BOTH ILLICIT DRUGS AND
ALCOHOL1,2
1.4 1.3 1.4a 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2
ILLICIT DRUGS OR ALCOHOL1,2 9.4 9.1 9.4 9.1 9.2 9.0 8.9
90416 (5.4B)
Table G.29 – Substance Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Illicit Drugs1
(2007)
Illicit Drugs1
(2008)
Alcohol
(2007)
Alcohol
(2008)
Illicit Drugs
or Alcohol1
(2007)
Illicit Drugs
or Alcohol1
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 2.8 2.8 7.5 7.3 9.0 8.9
AGE            
12-17 4.3 4.6 5.4a 4.9 7.7 7.6
18-25 7.9 7.8 16.8 17.2 20.7 20.8
26 or Older 1.7 1.7 6.2 6.0 7.2 7.0
GENDER            
Male 3.8 3.4 10.6a 9.7 12.5a 11.5
Female 1.8b 2.2 4.6a 5.1 5.7b 6.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 2.8 2.8 7.6 7.2 9.1 8.8
White 2.7 2.7 8.0 7.5 9.4 9.0
Black or African American 3.7 3.6 6.3 6.6 8.5 8.8
American Indian or Alaska Native 4.0 4.7 10.9 8.4 13.4 11.1
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 3.6 1.9 7.3 * 9.9 *
Asian 1.1 0.9 4.3 3.5 4.7 4.2
Two or More Races 5.1 3.6 8.6 7.2 10.8 9.8
Hispanic or Latino 2.5 2.9 7.0 8.0 8.3 9.5
90403 (8.34A)
Table G.30 – Received Substance Use Treatment at Any Treatment Location or at a Specialty Facility in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Numbers in Thousands, 2002-2008
Location/Substance for Which Treatment
Was Received in Past Year
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Received Substance Use Treatment refers to treatment received in order to reduce or stop illicit drug or alcohol use, or for medical problems associated with illicit drug or alcohol use. Treatment at Any Treatment Location includes treatment received at any location, such as a hospital, rehabilitation facility (inpatient or outpatient), mental health center, emergency room, private doctor's office, self-help group, or prison/jail. Treatment at a Specialty Facility refers to treatment received at a hospital (inpatient), rehabilitation facility (inpatient or outpatient), or mental health center.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
2 Estimates include persons who received treatment specifically for illicit drugs or alcohol, as well as persons who received treatment but did not specify for what substance(s).
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ANY TREATMENT LOCATION              
Illicit Drugs1 2,013 1,802 2,192 2,172 2,457 2,163 2,082
Alcohol 2,405a 2,359a 2,658 2,843 2,764 2,733 2,894
Both Illicit Drugs and Alcohol1 1,319 1,255 1,467 1,522 1,566 1,406 1,317
Illicit Drugs or Alcohol1,2 3,483a 3,327b 3,791 3,930 4,031 3,913 4,045
SPECIALTY FACILITY              
Illicit Drugs1 1,412 1,103 1,427 1,280 1,576a 1,343 1,209
Alcohol 1,549 1,298 1,535 1,626 1,557 1,567 1,560
Both Illicit Drugs and Alcohol1 709 595 718 748 731 615 577
Illicit Drugs or Alcohol1,2 2,346 1,874a 2,327 2,308 2,537 2,412 2,287
90403 (8.34B)
Table G.31 – Received Substance Use Treatment at Any Treatment Location or at a Specialty Facility in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Percentages, 2002-2008
Location/Substance for Which Treatment
Was Received in Past Year
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Received Substance Use Treatment refers to treatment received in order to reduce or stop illicit drug or alcohol use, or for medical problems associated with illicit drug or alcohol use. Treatment at Any Treatment Location includes treatment received at any location, such as a hospital, rehabilitation facility (inpatient or outpatient), mental health center, emergency room, private doctor's office, self-help group, or prison/jail. Treatment at a Specialty Facility refers to treatment received at a hospital (inpatient), rehabilitation facility (inpatient or outpatient), or mental health center.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
2 Estimates include persons who received treatment specifically for illicit drugs or alcohol, as well as persons who received treatment but did not specify for what substance(s).
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ANY TREATMENT LOCATION              
Illicit Drugs1 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0a 0.9 0.8
Alcohol 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2
Both Illicit Drugs and Alcohol1 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5
Illicit Drugs or Alcohol1,2 1.5 1.4a 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
SPECIALTY FACILITY              
Illicit Drugs1 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6a 0.5 0.5
Alcohol 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6
Both Illicit Drugs and Alcohol1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2
Illicit Drugs or Alcohol1,2 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9
90403 (8.35A)
Table G.32 – Needed and Received Treatment for a Substance Use Problem in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Numbers in Thousands, 2002-2008
Substance/Substance Treatment Status 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were classified as needing treatment for a substance use problem if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependent on the substance; (2) abuse of the substance; or (3) received treatment for substance use at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient], or mental health center).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
NEEDED TREATMENT FOR ILLICIT DRUGS1 7,748 7,333 8,053 7,550 7,756 7,528 7,559
Received Treatment at a Specialty Facility 1,412 1,103 1,427 1,280 1,576a 1,343 1,209
Did Not Receive Treatment at a Specialty Facility 6,335 6,230 6,626 6,269 6,180 6,185 6,351
NEEDED TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL 18,638 18,215 19,360 19,378 19,520 19,301 18,951
Received Treatment at a Specialty Facility 1,549 1,298 1,535 1,626 1,557 1,567 1,560
Did Not Receive Treatment at a Specialty Facility 17,089 16,917 17,824 17,752 17,963 17,734 17,391
NEEDED TREATMENT FOR ILLICIT DRUGS OR
ALCOHOL1
22,811 22,165 23,476 23,172 23,591 23,202 23,051
Received Treatment at a Specialty Facility 2,346 1,874a 2,327 2,308 2,537 2,412 2,287
Did Not Receive Treatment at a Specialty Facility 20,465 20,290 21,149 20,864 21,054 20,790 20,764
90403 (8.35B)
Table G.33 – Needed and Received Treatment for a Substance Use Problem in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: Percentages, 2002-2008
Substance/Substance Treatment Status 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were classified as needing treatment for a substance use problem if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependent on the substance; (2) abuse of the substance; or (3) received treatment for substance use at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient], or mental health center).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
NEEDED TREATMENT FOR ILLICIT DRUGS1 3.3a 3.1 3.3a 3.1 3.2 3.0 3.0
Received Treatment at a Specialty Facility 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6a 0.5 0.5
Did Not Receive Treatment at a Specialty Facility 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5
NEEDED TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL 7.9 7.7 8.0 8.0 7.9 7.8 7.6
Received Treatment at a Specialty Facility 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6
Did Not Receive Treatment at a Specialty Facility 7.3 7.1 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.0
NEEDED TREATMENT FOR ILLICIT DRUGS OR
ALCOHOL1
9.7 9.3 9.8a 9.5 9.6 9.4 9.2
Received Treatment at a Specialty Facility 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9
Did Not Receive Treatment at a Specialty Facility 8.7 8.5 8.8a 8.6 8.6 8.4 8.3
90403 (5.51B)
Table G.34 – Needed and Received Treatment at a Specialty Facility for an Illicit Drug or Alcohol Problem in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Needed
Treatment
(2007)
Needed
Treatment
(2008)
Needed and
Received
Treatment
(2007)
Needed and
Received
Treatment
(2008)
Needed but
Did Not
Receive
Treatment
(2007)
Needed but
Did Not
Receive
Treatment
(2008)
Percentage
Who Received
Treatment
among Persons
Who Needed
Treatment
(2007)
Percentage
Who Received
Treatment
among Persons
Who Needed
Treatment
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol problem if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependent on illicit drugs or alcohol; (2) abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol; or (3) received treatment for illicit drug or alcohol use at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient], or mental health center). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 9.4 9.2 1.0 0.9 8.4 8.3 10.4 9.9
AGE                
12-17 7.9 7.8 0.6 0.6 7.3 7.2 7.6 7.4
18-25 21.1 21.2 1.5 1.5 19.7 19.7 7.0 7.1
26 or Older 7.5 7.4 0.9 0.9 6.6 6.5 12.4 11.6
GENDER                
Male 13.0a 11.9 1.4 1.2 11.5a 10.7 10.9 10.3
Female 6.0b 6.7 0.6 0.6 5.4b 6.1 9.3 9.3
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 9.5 9.2 1.0 1.0 8.4 8.2 11.0 10.7
White 9.7 9.4 1.0 1.0 8.8 8.4 9.9 10.3
Black or African American 9.3 9.5 1.7 1.2 7.6 8.2 18.2 13.2
American Indian or Alaska Native 14.5 12.1 3.4 1.9 11.1 10.2 * 15.4
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 9.9 * 0.1 0.1 9.9 * * *
Asian 4.9 4.2 0.2 0.4 4.7 3.8 * *
Two or More Races 11.7 10.4 1.8 1.3 9.8 9.1 * 12.9
Hispanic or Latino 8.6 9.7 0.5 0.5 8.0 9.2 6.0 5.4
90403 (5.53A)
Table G.35 – Perceived Need for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Treatment and Whether Made an Effort to Get Treatment in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older Classified as Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for an Illicit Drug or Alcohol Problem, by Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Needed but
Did Not
Receive
Treatment1
(2007)
Needed but
Did Not
Receive
Treatment1
(2008)
Felt Need
for
Treatment2
(2007)
Felt Need
for
Treatment2
(2008)
Felt Need
and Made
Effort to Get
Treatment2
(2007)
Felt Need
and Made
Effort to Get
Treatment2
(2008)
Felt Need
and Made
No Effort
to Get
Treatment2
(2007)
Felt Need
and Made
No Effort
to Get
Treatment2
(2008)
Did Not
Feel Need
for
Treatment2
(2007)
Did Not
Feel Need
for
Treatment2
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for illicit drugs or alcohol, but have not received treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient], or mental health center). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
2 Felt Need for Treatment includes persons who did not receive but felt they needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol problem, as well as persons who received treatment at a location other than a specialty facility but felt they needed additional treatment.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 20,790 20,764 1,335 1,000 380a 233 955 766 19,455 19,764
AGE                    
12-17 1,832 1,795 55 39 15 8 40 31 1,776 1,756
18-25 6,435 6,489 255a 184 82a 42 173 142 6,180 6,304
26 or Older 12,523 12,481 1,025 776 283 183 742 593 11,498 11,704
GENDER                    
Male 13,871 12,953 898 591 262a 137 636 455 12,973 12,361
Female 6,919b 7,811 437 408 118 97 319 312 6,482b 7,403
90403 (5.53B)
Table G.36 – Perceived Need for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Treatment and Whether Made an Effort to Get Treatment in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older Classified as Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for an Illicit Drug or Alcohol Problem, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Needed but
Did Not
Receive
Treatment1
(2007)
Needed but
Did Not
Receive
Treatment1
(2008)
Felt Need
for
Treatment2
(2007)
Felt Need
for
Treatment2
(2008)
Felt Need
and Made
Effort to Get
Treatment2
(2007)
Felt Need
and Made
Effort to Get
Treatment2
(2008)
Felt Need
and Made
No Effort
to Get
Treatment2
(2007)
Felt Need
and Made
No Effort
to Get
Treatment2
(2008)
Did Not
Feel Need
for
Treatment2
(2007)
Did Not
Feel Need
for
Treatment2
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for illicit drugs or alcohol, but have not received treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient], or mental health center). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
2 Felt Need for Treatment includes persons who did not receive but felt they needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol problem, as well as persons who received treatment at a location other than a specialty facility but felt they needed additional treatment.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 100.0 100.0 6.4a 4.8 1.8a 1.1 4.6 3.7 93.6a 95.2
AGE                    
12-17 100.0 100.0 3.0 2.2 0.8 0.5 2.2 1.7 97.0 97.8
18-25 100.0 100.0 4.0a 2.8 1.3a 0.7 2.7 2.2 96.0a 97.2
26 or Older 100.0 100.0 8.2 6.2 2.3 1.5 5.9 4.8 91.8 93.8
GENDER                    
Male 100.0 100.0 6.5 4.6 1.9 1.1 4.6 3.5 93.5 95.4
Female 100.0 100.0 6.3 5.2 1.7 1.2 4.6 4.0 93.7 94.8
90429 (6.6B)
Table G.37 – Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Age Group and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total Aged 18-25 Aged 26-49 Aged 50+
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Serious Mental Illness (SMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder that met criteria in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and resulted in functional impairment that substantially interfered with or limited one or more major life activities. NSDUH respondents' SMI status is determined based on their responses to questions on distress (K6 scale) and impairment (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule [WHODAS] for half the sample, and Sheehan Disability Scale [SDS] for the other half). Regression models, based on clinical interviews conducted on a subset (n = 1,502) of NSDUH respondents, specify the distress and impairment levels predictive of having SMI. For details, see Section B.4.6 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
1 The Other Employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
TOTAL 4.4 7.4 5.2 2.3
GENDER        
Male 3.0 5.0 3.7 1.5
Female 5.6 9.8 6.8 3.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 4.4 7.5 5.5 2.3
White 4.7 7.9 6.0 2.5
Black or African American 3.5 6.0 4.4 0.8
American Indian or Alaska Native 4.2 4.5 6.5 *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * *
Asian 2.9 5.6 2.2 *
Two or More Races 5.6 12.3 8.2 1.6
Hispanic or Latino 4.0 7.0 3.8 2.3
EDUCATION        
< High School 4.9 9.0 6.1 2.5
High School Graduate 4.4 6.8 5.7 2.3
Some College 5.5 7.9 6.5 2.9
College Graduate 3.0 5.8 3.5 1.9
CURRENT EMPLOYMENT        
Full-Time 3.5 6.9 3.9 1.4
Part-Time 4.8 7.2 6.3 1.5
Unemployed 8.0 9.8 6.7 8.4
Other1 5.3 7.7 11.2 3.1
90429 (6.14B)
Table G.38 – Received Mental Health Treatment/Counseling in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Past Year Serious Mental Illness and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 Serious Mental Illness No Serious Mental Illness
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Mental Health Treatment/Counseling is defined as having received inpatient care or outpatient care or having used prescription medication for problems with emotions, nerves, or mental health. Respondents were not to include treatment for drug or alcohol use. Respondents with unknown treatment/counseling information were excluded. Estimates were based only on responses to items in the Adult Mental Health Service Utilization module.
NOTE: Serious Mental Illness (SMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder that met criteria in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and resulted in functional impairment that substantially interfered with or limited one or more major life activities. NSDUH respondents' SMI status is determined based on their responses to questions on distress (K6 scale) and impairment (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule [WHODAS] for half the sample, and Sheehan Disability Scale [SDS] for the other half). Regression models, based on clinical interviews conducted on a subset (n = 1,502) of NSDUH respondents, specify the distress and impairment levels predictive of having SMI. For details, see Section B.4.6 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
1 Estimates in the Total column represent persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown past year SMI information.
2 The Other Employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
TOTAL 13.4 58.7 11.3
AGE      
18-25 10.8 40.4 8.5
26-49 14.0 62.2 11.3
50 or Older 13.6 70.9 12.3
GENDER      
Male 9.3 52.9 7.9
Female 17.2 61.6 14.5
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE      
Not Hispanic or Latino 14.4 61.4 12.2
White 16.0 64.6 13.6
Black or African American 8.7 44.8 7.4
American Indian or Alaska Native 13.2 * 10.5
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * 2.7
Asian 4.5 * 3.6
Two or More Races 18.8 * 16.5
Hispanic or Latino 6.8 39.4 5.4
EDUCATION      
< High School 11.3 45.2 9.5
High School Graduate 12.3 57.9 10.2
Some College 14.2 58.9 11.6
College Graduate 15.0 72.1 13.3
CURRENT EMPLOYMENT      
Full-Time 10.8 51.1 9.3
Part-Time 15.4 59.0 13.3
Unemployed 14.1 51.0 10.9
Other2 17.3 70.0 14.4
90407 (6.20B)
Table G.39 – Specific Types of Mental Health Treatment/Counseling Received in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Received
Mental
Health
Treatment/
Counseling1
(2007)
Received
Mental
Health
Treatment/
Counseling1
(2008)
Inpatient
(2007)
Inpatient
(2008)
Outpatient
(2007)
Outpatient
(2008)
Prescription
Medication
(2007)
Prescription
Medication
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents could report receiving multiple types of mental health treatment/counseling; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Mental Health Treatment/Counseling is defined as having received inpatient care or outpatient care or having used prescription medication for problems with emotions, nerves, or mental health. Respondents were not to include treatment for drug or alcohol use. Respondents with unknown treatment/counseling information were excluded. Estimates were based only on responses to items in the Adult Mental Health Service Utilization module.
2 The Other Employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 13.2 13.4 1.0 0.9 6.9 6.8 11.1 11.3
AGE                
18-25 10.3 10.8 1.1 1.1 5.6 5.8 7.9 8.0
26-49 14.3 14.0 1.1a 0.8 8.0 7.9 11.7 11.6
50 or Older 13.2 13.6 0.7 0.9 6.2 6.0 11.6 12.2
GENDER                
Male 9.2 9.3 1.0 0.7 4.7 5.0 7.5 7.5
Female 17.0 17.2 0.9 1.0 9.0 8.5 14.5 14.8
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 14.2 14.4 1.0 0.9 7.4 7.3 12.0 12.3
White 16.0 16.0 0.9 0.8 8.2 7.9 13.8 13.9
Black or African American 6.8a 8.7 1.2 1.6 4.1 5.5 5.1 6.2
American Indian or Alaska Native 11.6 13.2 1.6 0.6 3.9 7.8 10.1 9.5
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * 1.1 * 1.4 1.1
Asian 3.9 4.5 0.6 0.3 2.4 2.3 2.4 3.4
Two or More Races 15.6 18.8 1.9 0.4 9.5 7.2 12.1 17.1
Hispanic or Latino 7.3 6.8 1.0 1.0 3.9 3.8 5.6 5.2
EDUCATION                
< High School 12.3 11.3 2.2 2.0 5.8 4.7 9.9 9.2
High School Graduate 12.5 12.3 1.0 0.8 5.8 5.5 10.9 10.7
Some College 13.6 14.2 0.8 0.7 7.0 7.3 11.8 12.4
College Graduate 14.4 15.0 0.4 0.5 8.8 9.0 11.5 12.3
CURRENT EMPLOYMENT                
Full-Time 10.8 10.8 0.4 0.4 5.6 5.6 8.8 9.0
Part-Time 14.8 15.4 1.0 1.0 8.0 8.3 12.4 12.6
Unemployed 14.3 14.1 1.5 1.2 8.3 8.1 12.3 11.8
Other2 17.0 17.3 1.9 1.7 8.7 8.2 14.8 15.1
90427 (6.40B)
Table G.40 – Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode (MDE) or MDE with Severe Impairment in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, and Receipt of Treatment for Depression in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older with MDE or MDE with Severe Impairment in the Past Year, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2008
Demographic Characteristic Had MDE Had MDE with Severe
Impairment1
Received Treatment for
Depression in the Past Year
among Persons with MDE2
Received Treatment for
Depression in the Past Year
among Persons with MDE
with Severe Impairment1,2
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Major Depressive Episode (MDE) is defined as in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
NOTE: Estimates in this table are based on a subsample of respondents aged 18 or older. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Impairment is based on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) role domains, which measure the impact of a disorder on a person's life. Impairment is defined as the highest severity level of role impairment across four domains: (1) home management, (2) work, (3) close relationships with others, and (4) social life. Ratings = 7 on a 0 to 10 scale were considered Severe Impairment.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown Past Year MDE data were excluded.
1 Respondents with unknown Severe Impairment data were excluded.
2 Treatment is defined as seeing or talking to a medical doctor or other professional or using prescription medication for depression in the past year. Respondents with unknown treatment data were excluded.
3 The Other Employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008 (subsample).
TOTAL 6.4 4.2 71.0 75.0
GENDER        
Male 4.6 3.2 65.0 69.0
Female 8.1 5.2 74.2 78.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Not Hispanic or Latino 6.6 4.5 72.5 76.6
White 7.0 4.8 74.2 77.5
Black or African American 4.9 3.3 55.2 *
American Indian or Alaska Native 4.9 2.6 * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * *
Asian 3.6 2.6 * *
Two or More Races 12.7 7.7 * *
Hispanic or Latino 5.2 2.7 * *
EDUCATION        
< High School 5.5 3.6 69.8 *
High School Graduate 6.8 5.0 71.0 75.8
Some College 7.4 4.7 68.3 70.0
College Graduate 5.5 3.3 75.1 81.4
CURRENT EMPLOYMENT        
Full-Time 5.2 3.2 62.4 66.3
Part-Time 7.9 4.8 73.9 78.6
Unemployed 11.5 6.6 * *
Other3 7.3 5.7 81.8 82.5
MARITAL STATUS        
Married 4.5 3.0 77.8 81.5
Widowed 3.9 2.1 * *
Divorced or Separated 11.4 8.2 82.0 84.9
Never Married 8.6 5.5 54.1 59.6
90406 (8.37B)
Table G.41 – Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2004-2008
Demographic Characteristic 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Major Depressive Episode (MDE) is defined as in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms. Respondents with unknown past year MDE data were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 9.0a 8.8 7.9 8.2 8.3
AGE          
12-13 5.4 5.2 4.9 4.3 4.8
14-15 9.2 9.5 7.9 8.4 8.4
16-17 12.3 11.5 10.7 11.5 11.1
GENDER          
Male 5.0a 4.5 4.2 4.6 4.3
Female 13.1 13.3 11.8 11.9 12.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE          
Not Hispanic or Latino 8.9 8.7 7.9 8.4 8.4
White 9.2 9.1 8.1 8.7 8.7
Black or African American 7.7 7.6 6.4 7.8 7.0
American Indian or Alaska Native 7.8 6.1 9.3 4.6 10.1
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * *
Asian 8.3 6.0 7.6 6.8 7.6
Two or More Races 11.7 10.5 13.0 10.0 12.0
Hispanic or Latino 9.1 9.1 8.0 7.1 7.5
90406 (8.38B)
Table G.42 – Source of Mental Health Service in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Percentages, 2002-2008
Source of Mental Health Service1 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Receipt of mental health services for persons aged 12 to 17 is defined as having received treatment/counseling for emotional or behavioral problems not caused by drug or alcohol use.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown receipt of mental health service information in the past year were excluded.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents could indicate multiple service sources; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
2 Respondents who did not report their school enrollment status, who reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months, or who reported being home-schooled were not asked about receipt of mental health treatment/counseling from this source.
3 Specialty Mental Health and Education or Medical includes receipt of any specialty mental health services and receipt of services from either Education or Medical sources.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
SPECIALTY MENTAL HEALTH 12.0 12.5 13.5 13.5 13.1 12.5 12.7
Outpatient 10.8 11.3 12.1 12.1 11.7 11.1 11.4
Private Therapist, Psychologist, Psychiatrist,
  Social Worker, or Counselor
9.2 9.5 10.1 10.2 9.6 9.4 9.7
Mental Health Clinic or Center 2.5 2.6 2.9b 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.3
Partial Day Hospital or Day Treatment
  Program
1.8 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9a 1.7 1.5
In-Home Therapist, Counselor, or Family
  Preservation Worker
2.8 2.6 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.9
Inpatient or Residential (Overnight or Longer Stay) 2.4 2.5 2.8a 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.4
Hospital 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9
Residential Treatment Center 0.9 0.9 1.2b 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8
Foster Care or Therapeutic Foster Care Home 0.6 0.7a 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5
EDUCATION2 10.6b 12.1 12.7a 12.1 11.9 11.5 11.8
School Counselor, School Psychologist or
  Regular Meetings with a Teacher
8.6b 9.9 10.5 10.0 9.8 9.7 10.1
Special Education Services While in a Regular
  Classroom or Placement in a Special
  Classroom, Special Program or Special School
3.4 3.9b 4.1b 3.9b 3.9b 3.3 3.0
MEDICAL              
Pediatrician or Other Family Doctor 2.7 2.9 3.4a 3.2 2.8 2.8 2.9
SPECIALTY MENTAL HEALTH AND
EDUCATION OR MEDICAL3
4.8 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.3 5.1 5.3

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