2007 National Survey on Drug Use & Health:  National Results

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Chapter 2 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2007." It is a bar graph, where the numbers in millions of past month users are shown on the horizontal axis and seven drug categories (illicit drugs, marijuana, psychotherapeutics, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and heroin) are shown on the vertical axis. There is a footnote on the illicit drugs row that says, "Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically."

The number of persons who used illicit drugs in the past month was 19.9 million.

The number of persons who used marijuana in the past month was 14.4 million.

The number of persons who used psychotherapeutics in the past month was 6.9 million.

The number of persons who used cocaine in the past month was 2.1 million.

The number of persons who used hallucinogens in the past month was 1.0 million.

The number of persons who used inhalants in the past month was 0.6 million.

The number of persons who used heroin in the past month was 0.2 million.

Click here to return to Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.2. Figure 2.2 is titled "Past Month Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the five drug categories (illicit drugs, marijuana, psychotherapeutics, pain relievers, and cocaine), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of past month illicit drug use was 8.3 percent in 2002, 8.2 percent in 2003, 7.9 percent in 2004, 8.1 percent in 2005, 8.3 percent in 2006 and 8.0 percent in 2007.

The prevalence of past month marijuana use was 6.2 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 6.1 percent in 2004, 6.0 percent in both 2005 and 2006, and 5.8 percent in 2007.

The prevalence of past month psychotherapeutic use was 2.7 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 2.5 percent in 2004, 2.7 percent in 2005, 2.9 percent in 2006, and 2.8 percent in 2007.

The prevalence of past month pain reliever use was 1.9 percent in 2002, 2.0 percent in 2003, 1.8 percent in 2004, 1.9 percent in 2005, and 2.1 percent in both 2006 and 2007. The difference between the 2007 estimate and the 2004 estimate was statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month cocaine use was 0.9 percent in 2002, 1.0 percent in 2003, 0.8 percent in 2004, 1.0 percent in both 2005 and 2006, and 0.8 percent in 2007.

Click here to return to Figure 2.2.

Figure 2.3. Figure 2.3 is titled "Past Month Nonmedical Use of Types of Psychotherapeutic Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four drug categories (pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of past month use of pain relievers was 1.9 percent in 2002, 2.0 percent in 2003, 1.8 percent in 2004, 1.9 percent in 2005, and 2.1 percent in both 2006 and 2007. The difference between the 2007 estimate and the 2004 estimate was statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month use of tranquilizers was 0.8 percent in both 2002 and 2003 and 0.7 percent in 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007.

The prevalence of past month use of stimulants was 0.6 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 0.5 percent in 2004 and 2005, 0.6 percent in 2006, and 0.4 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month use of sedatives was 0.2 percent in 2002; 0.1 percent in 2003, 2004, and 2005; 0.2 percent in 2006; and 0.1 percent in 2007.

Click here to return to Figure 2.3.

Figure 2.4. Figure 2.4 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age: 2007." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are 14 categories of age.

Among 12 or 13 year olds, 3.3 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 14 or 15 year olds, 8.9 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 16 or 17 year olds, 16.0 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 18 to 20 year olds, 21.6 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 21 to 25 year olds, 18.5 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 26 to 29 year olds, 12.8 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 30 to 34 year olds, 9.4 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 35 to 39 year olds, 7.3 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 40 to 44 year olds, 7.0 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 45 to 49 year olds, 7.2 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 50 to 54 year olds, 5.7 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 55 to 59 year olds, 4.1 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among 60 to 64 year olds, 1.9 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among persons aged 65 or older, 0.7 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Click here to return to Figure 2.4.

Figure 2.5. Figure 2.5 is titled "Past Month Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the five drug categories (illicit drugs, marijuana, psychotherapeutics, inhalants, and hallucinogens), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 using illicit drugs in the past month was 11.6 percent in 2002, 11.2 percent in 2003, 10.6 percent in 2004, 9.9 percent in 2005, 9.8 percent in 2006, and 9.5 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 using marijuana in the past month was 8.2 percent in 2002, 7.9 percent in 2003, 7.6 percent in 2004, 6.8 percent in 2005, and 6.7 percent in both 2006 and 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 using psychotherapeutics in the past month was 4.0 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 3.6 percent in 2004, and 3.3 percent in 2005, 2006, and 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 using inhalants in the past month was 1.2 percent in 2002, 1.3 percent in 2003, 1.2 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 1.3 percent in 2006, and 1.2 percent in 2007.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 using hallucinogens in the past month was 1.0 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 0.8 percent in both 2004 and 2005, and 0.7 percent in both 2006 and 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 2.5.

Figure 2.6. Figure 2.6 is titled "Past Month Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Young Adults Aged 18 to 25: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the five drug categories (illicit drugs, marijuana, psychotherapeutics, cocaine, and hallucinogens), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The prevalence of past month illicit drug use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 20.2 percent in 2002, 20.3 percent in 2003, 19.4 percent in 2004, 20.1 percent in 2005, 19.8 percent in 2006, and 19.7 percent in 2007.

The prevalence of past month marijuana use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 17.3 percent in 2002, 17.0 percent in 2003, 16.1 percent in 2004, 16.6 percent in 2005, 16.3 percent in 2006, and 16.4 percent in 2007.

The prevalence of past month psychotherapeutic use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 5.5 percent in 2002, 6.1 percent in both 2003 and 2004, 6.3 percent in 2005, 6.5 percent in 2006, and 6.0 percent in 2007.

The prevalence of past month cocaine use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 2.0 percent in 2002, 2.2 percent in 2003, 2.1 percent in 2004, 2.6 percent in 2005, 2.2 percent in 2006, and 1.7 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

The prevalence of past month hallucinogen use among young adults aged 18 to 25 was 1.9 percent in 2002, 1.7 percent in 2003, 1.5 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 1.7 percent in 2006, and 1.5 percent in 2007. The difference between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 2.6.

Figure 2.7. Figure 2.7 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Adults Aged 50 to 59: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each age group (50 to 59, 50 to 54, and 55 to 59), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among adults aged 50 to 59, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 2.7 percent in 2002, 3.1 percent in 2003, 3.8 percent in 2004, 4.4 percent in 2005, 4.3 percent in 2006, and 5.0 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Among adults aged 50 to 54, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 3.4 percent in 2002, 3.9 percent in 2003, 4.8 percent in 2004, 5.2 percent in 2005, 6.0 percent in 2006, and 5.7 percent in 2007. The difference between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Among adults aged 55 to 59, the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month was 1.9 percent in 2002, 2.0 percent in 2003, 2.6 percent in 2004, 3.4 percent in 2005, 2.4 percent in 2006, and 4.1 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 2.7.

Figure 2.8. Figure 2.8 is titled "Past Month Marijuana Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Gender: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each gender, there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among males aged 12 to 17, the percentage using marijuana in the past month was 9.1 percent in 2002, 8.6 percent in 2003, 8.1 percent in 2004, 7.5 percent in 2005, 6.8 percent in 2006, and 7.5 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Among females aged 12 to 17, the percentage using marijuana in the past month was 7.2 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 7.1 percent in 2004, 6.2 percent in 2005, 6.4 percent in 2006, and 5.8 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 2.8.

Figure 2.9. Figure 2.9 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Race/Ethnicity: 2007." It is a bar graph, where race/ethnicity is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. The six categories of race/ethnicity are (1)  American Indian or Alaska Native, (2) two or more races, (3) black or African American, (4) white, (5) Hispanic or Latino, and (6) Asian. There is a note below the figure that says, "Note: Due to low precision, the estimate for Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders is not shown."

Among American Indians or Alaska Natives, 12.6 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among those who reported two or more races, 11.8 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among blacks or African Americans, 9.5 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among whites, 8.2 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among Hispanics or Latinos, 6.6 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Among Asians, 4.2 percent used illicit drugs in the past month.

Click here to return to Figure 2.9.

Figure 2.10. Figure 2.10 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Employment Status: 2007." There are two bar graphs, one for rates of use and one for the number of users. Employment status is shown on the horizontal axis in both graphs. The percentage using illicit drugs in the past month is shown on the vertical axis of the rates of use graph, and the number of users in millions is shown on the vertical axis of the number of users graph. The four employment statuses are full time, part time, unemployed, and other. There is a footnote on the "Other" bar that says, "The Other Employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force."

Among those employed full time, 10.2 million (8.4 percent) used illicit drugs in past month.

Among those employed part time, 3.0 million (10.1 percent) used illicit drugs in past month.

Among those unemployed, 1.3 million (18.3 percent) used illicit drugs in past month.

Among those with other employment status, 3.0 million (4.7 percent) used illicit drugs in past month.

Click here to return to Figure 2.10.

Figure 2.11. Figure 2.11 is titled "Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by County Type: 2007." It is a bar graph, where county type are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using illicit drugs in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. The five county types are large metropolitan, small metropolitan, nonmetropolitan urbanized, nonmetropolitan less urbanized, and nonmetropolitan completely rural.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older in the large metropolitan county type using illicit drugs in the past month was 8.3 percent.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older in the small metropolitan county type using illicit drugs in the past month was 8.2 percent.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older in the nonmetropolitan urbanized county type using illicit drugs in the past month was 7.5 percent.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older in the nonmetropolitan less urbanized county type using illicit drugs in the past month was 6.7 percent.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older in the nonmetropolitan completely rural county type using illicit drugs in the past month was 4.1 percent.

Click here to return to Figure 2.11.

Chapter 3 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 3.1. Figure 3.1 is titled "Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age: 2007." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using alcohol in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are 14 age categories, and for each age category, the bar is divided into three sections corresponding to three types of alcohol use: (1) current alcohol use, which does not include binge use or heavy use; (2) binge alcohol use, which does not include heavy use; and (3) heavy alcohol use. Individual estimates may not sum to the total due to rounding.

Among 12 or 13 year olds, 3.5 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 2.0 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 1.4 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 0.1 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 14 or 15 year olds, 14.7 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 6.9 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 6.3 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 1.4 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 16 or 17 year olds, 29.0 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 9.6 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 14.0 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 5.4 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 18 to 20 year olds, 50.7 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 15.0 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 22.7 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 13.0 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 21 to 25 year olds, 68.3 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 22.4 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 30.0 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 15.9 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 26 to 29 year olds, 63.2 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 25.2 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 27.4 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 10.5 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 30 to 34 year olds, 62.1 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 29.5 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 23.6 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 9.0 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 35 to 39 year olds, 59.1 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 30.6 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 20.0 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 8.5 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 40 to 44 year olds, 60.9 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 33.0 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 20.6 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 7.3 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 45 to 49 year olds, 58.3 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 34.4 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 16.1 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 7.8 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 50 to 54 year olds, 57.0 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 35.5 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 15.2 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 6.3 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 55 to 59 year olds, 52.0 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 36.1 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 11.4 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 4.5 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among 60 to 64 year olds, 47.6 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 35.4 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 9.2 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 2.9 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among persons aged 65 or older, 38.1 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 30.4 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 6.2 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 1.4 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Click here to return to Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.2. Figure 3.2 is titled "Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Race/Ethnicity: 2007." It is a bar graph, where race/ethnicity is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using alcohol in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. The six categories of race/ethnicity are (1) white, (2) black or African American, (3) American Indian or Alaska Native, (4) Asian, (5) two or more races, and (6) Hispanic or Latino. For each race/ethnicity category, the bar is divided into three sections corresponding to three types of alcohol use: (1) current alcohol use, which does not include binge use or heavy use; (2) binge alcohol use, which does not include heavy use; and (3) heavy alcohol use. There is a note below the figure that says, "Due to low precision, estimates for Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders are not shown."

Among whites, 56.1 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 31.5 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 16.8 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 7.8 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among blacks or African Americans, 39.3 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 20.2 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 15.0 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 4.1 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among American Indians or Alaska Natives, 44.7 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 16.5 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 16.6 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 11.6 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among Asians, 35.2 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 22.6 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 10.0 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 2.6 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among persons of two or more races, 47.5 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 24.3 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 15.9 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 7.3 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Among Hispanics or Latinos, 42.1 percent were past month alcohol users; this can be broken down further as follows: 18.7 percent were current alcohol users (non-binge or heavy use), 17.9 percent were binge alcohol users (non-heavy use), and 5.5 percent were heavy alcohol users.

Click here to return to Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.3. Figure 3.3 is titled "Heavy Alcohol Use among Adults Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each college enrollment status (enrolled full time in college and not enrolled full time in college), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among adults aged 18 to 22 enrolled in college full time, 18.8 percent were past month heavy alcohol users in 2002, 17.6 percent in 2003, 18.6 percent in 2004, 19.5 percent in 2005, 19.0 percent in 2006, and 17.2 percent in 2007. The difference between the 2007 estimate and the 2005 estimate was statistically significant.

Among adults aged 18 to 22 not enrolled full time in college, 13.4 percent were past month heavy alcohol users in 2002 and 2003, 13.5 percent in 2004, 13.0 percent in 2005, 13.3 percent in 2006, and 12.9 percent in 2007.

Click here to return to Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.4. Figure 3.4 is titled "Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2007." It is a bar graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of persons aged 12 or older driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year was 14.2 percent in 2002, 13.6 percent in 2003, 13.5 percent in 2004, 13.0 percent in 2005, 12.4 percent in 2006, and 12.7 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.5. Figure 3.5 is titled "Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 16 or Older, by Age: 2007." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. There are 12 age categories.

The percentage of persons driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year was 7.8 percent among 16 or 17 year olds, 18.3 percent among 18 to 20 year olds, 25.8 percent among 21 to 25 year olds, 20.1 percent among 26 to 29 year olds, 18.0 percent among 30 to 34 year olds, 16.1 percent among 35 to 39 year olds, 15.7 percent among 40 to 44 year olds, 14.2 percent among 45 to 49 year olds, 13.4 percent among 50 to 54 year olds, 10.2 percent among 55 to 59 year olds, 6.3 percent among 60 to 64 year olds, and 2.4 percent among persons aged 65 or older.

Click here to return to Figure 3.5.

Figure 3.6. Figure 3.6 is titled "Current Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by Age: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each age group, there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among persons aged 12 or 13, the percentage using alcohol in the past month was 4.3 percent in 2002, 4.5 percent in 2003, 4.3 percent in 2004, 4.2 percent in 2005, 3.9 percent in 2006, and 3.5 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 14 or 15, the percentage using alcohol in the past month was 16.6 percent in 2002, 17.0 percent in 2003, 16.4 percent in 2004, 15.1 percent in 2005, 15.6 percent in 2006, and 14.7 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 16 or 17, the percentage using alcohol in the past month was 32.6 percent in 2002, 31.8 percent in 2003, 32.5 percent in 2004, 30.1 percent in 2005, 29.7 percent in 2006, and 29.0 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 18 to 20, the percentage using alcohol in the past month was 51.0 percent in 2002, 51.5 percent in 2003, 51.1 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 51.6 percent in 2006, and 50.7 percent in 2007.

Click here to return to Figure 3.6.

Figure 3.7. Figure 3.7 is titled "Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by Gender: 2007." It is a bar graph, where the levels of alcohol use (current, binge, and heavy) are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There is a bar for each gender at each alcohol use level.

The percentage of males aged 12 to 20 using alcohol in the past month was 28.4 percent. The percentage of females aged 12 to 20 using alcohol in the past month was 27.3 percent.

The percentage of males aged 12 to 20 reporting binge alcohol use in the past month was 21.1 percent. The percentage of females aged 12 to 20 reporting binge alcohol use in the past month as 16.1 percent.

The percentage of males aged 12 to 20 reporting heavy alcohol use in the past month was 7.8 percent. The percentage of females aged 12 to 20 reporting heavy alcohol use in the past month was 4.2 percent.

Click here to return to Figure 3.7.

Chapter 4 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 4.1. Figure 4.1 is titled "Past Month Tobacco Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using tobacco in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are five categories of tobacco use: tobacco products, cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco. For each type of tobacco use, there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 30.4 percent used tobacco products in the past month in 2002, 29.8 percent in 2003, 29.2 percent in 2004, 29.4 percent in 2005, 29.6 percent in 2006, and 28.6 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 26.0 percent used cigarettes in the past month in 2002, 25.4 percent in 2003, 24.9 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 25.0 percent in 2006, and 24.2 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 5.4 percent used cigars in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 5.7 percent in 2004, 5.6 percent in both 2005 and 2006, and 5.4 percent in 2007.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 3.3 percent used smokeless tobacco in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 3.0 percent in 2004, 3.2 percent in 2005, 3.3 percent in 2006, and 3.2 percent in 2007.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 0.8 percent used pipe tobacco in the past month in 2002, 0.7 percent in 2003, 0.8 percent in 2004, 0.9 percent in both 2005 and 2006, and 0.8 percent in 2007.

Click here to return to Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.2. Figure 4.2 is titled "Past Month Tobacco Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are five categories of tobacco use: tobacco products, cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco. For each type of tobacco use, there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 15.2 percent used tobacco products in the past month in 2002, 14.4 percent in both 2003 and 2004, 13.1 percent in 2005, 12.9 percent in 2006, and 12.4 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant..

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 13.0 percent used cigarettes in the past month in 2002, 12.2 percent in 2003, 11.9 percent in 2004, 10.8 percent in 2005, 10.4 percent in 2006, and 9.8 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 estimates were statistically significant..

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 4.5 percent used cigars in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 4.8 percent in 2004, 4.2 percent in 2005, 4.1 percent in 2006, and 4.2 percent in 2007. The difference between the 2007 estimate and 2004 estimate was statistically significant..

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 2.0 percent used smokeless tobacco in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 2.3 percent in 2004, 2.1 percent in 2005, and 2.4 percent in both 2006 and 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2005 estimates were statistically significant..

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 0.6 percent used pipe tobacco in the past month in both 2002 and 2003, 0.7 percent in 2004, 0.6 percent in 2005, and 0.7 percent in both 2006 and 2007.

Click here to return to Figure 4.2.

Figure 4.3. Figure 4.3 is titled "Past Month Cigarette Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age: 2007." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are 14 age categories.

The percentage of past month cigarette smoking was 1.8 percent among 12 or 13 year olds, 8.4 percent among 14 or 15 year olds, 18.9 percent among 16 or 17 year olds, 32.7 percent among 18 to 20 year olds, 38.5 percent among 21 to 25 year olds, 35.7 percent among 26 to 29 year olds, 31.5 percent among 30 to 34 year olds, 28.5 percent among 35 to 39 year olds, 26.6 percent among 40 to 44 year olds, 29.6 percent among 45 to 49 year olds, 26.7 percent among 50 to 54 year olds, 22.0 percent among 55 to 59 year olds, 18.8 percent among 60 to 64 year olds, and 9.0 percent among persons aged 65 or older.

Click here to return to Figure 4.3.

Figure 4.4. Figure 4.4 is titled "Past Month Cigarette Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Gender: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each gender, there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among male youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 12.3 percent in 2002, 11.9 percent in 2003, 11.3 percent in 2004, 10.7 percent in 2005, and 10.0 percent in both 2006 and 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Among female youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 13.6 percent in 2002, 12.5 percent in both 2003 and 2004, 10.8 percent in 2005, 10.7 percent in 2006, and 9.7 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 4.4.

Figure 4.5. Figure 4.5 is titled "Past Month Cigarette Use among Women Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy Status: Combined Years 2002 and 2003 to Combined Years 2006 and 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There is a line representing women who are pregnant and a line representing women who are not pregnant. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2006 and 2007 combined data and each of the previous combined years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among pregnant women aged 15 to 44, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 18.0 percent in 2002 and 2003 combined, 18.0 percent in 2003 and 2004 combined, 16.6 percent in 2004 and 2005 combined, 16.5 percent in 2005 and 2006 combined, and 16.4 percent in 2006 and 2007 combined.

Among women aged 15 to 44 who were not pregnant, the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month was 30.7 percent in 2002 and 2003 combined, 30.0 percent in 2003 and 2004 combined, 29.6 percent in 2004 and 2005 combined, 29.5 percent in 2005 and 2006 combined, and 28.4 percent in 2006 and 2007 combined. Among the estimates for women who were not pregnant, the differences between the 2006 and 2007 combined estimate and the 2002 and 2003 combined, 2003 and 2004 combined, 2004 and 2005 combined, and 2005 and 2006 combined estimates were all statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.6. Figure 4.6 is titled "Past Month Tobacco Use among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Education: 2007." It is a bar graph, where the type of tobacco product is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using tobacco in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There are three categories of tobacco use: cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. For each type of tobacco use, there are bars representing education levels. There are four education levels: (1) less than high school, (2) high school graduate, (3) some college, and (4) college graduate.

Among adults aged 18 or older, 32.9 percent who had used cigarettes in the past month had not completed high school, 31.9 percent were high school graduates, 26.8 percent completed some college, and 14.0 percent were college graduates.

Among adults aged 18 or older, 6.5 percent who used cigars in the past month had not completed high school, 5.8 percent were high school graduates, 5.7 percent completed some college, and 4.4 percent were college graduates.

Among adults aged 18 or older, 3.5 percent who had used smokeless tobacco in the past month had not completed high school, 4.4 percent were high school graduates, 3.3 percent completed some college, and 2.1 percent were college graduates.

Click here to return to Figure 4.6.

Chapter 5 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 5.1. Figure 5.1 is titled "Specific Drug Used When Initiating Illicit Drug Use among Past Year Initiates of Illicit Drugs Aged 12 or Older: 2007." It is a pie chart, with the following written below the chart: "2.7 million Initiates of Illicit Drugs." There is also a note at the bottom of the figure that says, "The percentages add to greater than 100 percent because of a small number of respondents initiating multiple drugs on the same day."

The percentage of those who used marijuana when initiating illicit drug use was 56.2 percent.

The percentage of those who used pain relievers when initiating illicit drug use was 19.0 percent.

The percentage of those who used inhalants when initiating illicit drug use was 10.7 percent.

The percentage of those who used tranquilizers when initiating illicit drug use was 6.5 percent.

The percentage of those who used stimulants when initiating illicit drug use was 4.1 percent.

The percentage of those who used hallucinogens when initiating illicit drug use was 2.0 percent.

The percentage of those who used sedatives when initiating illicit drug use was 1.1 percent.

The percentage of those who used cocaine when initiating illicit drug use was 0.6 percent.

Click here to return to Figure 5.1.

Figure 5.2. Figure 5.2 is titled "Past Year Initiates for Specific Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2007." It is a bar graph, where the specific illicit drugs (pain relievers, marijuana, tranquilizers, cocaine, Ecstasy, inhalants, stimulants, LSD, sedatives, heroin, and PCP) are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers in thousands of past year initiates are shown on the vertical axis.

The number of past year initiates among persons aged 12 or older in 2007 was 2,147,000 for pain relievers, 2,090,000 for marijuana, 1,232,000 for tranquilizers, 906,000 for cocaine, 781,000 for Ecstasy, 775,000 for inhalants, 642,000 for stimulants, 270,000 for LSD, 198,000 for sedatives, 106,000 for heroin, and 58,000 for PCP.

Click here to return to Figure 5.2.

Figure 5.3. Figure 5.3 is titled "Mean Age at First Use for Specific Illicit Drugs among Past Year Initiates Aged 12 to 49: 2007." It is a bar graph, where the specific illicit drugs (PCP, inhalants, marijuana, LSD, cocaine, Ecstasy, pain relievers, heroin, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers) are shown on the horizontal axis and the mean age in years is shown on the vertical axis.

Among persons aged 12 to 49, the mean age in years of past year initiates of PCP was 16.4, of inhalants it was 17.1, of marijuana it was 17.6, of LSD it was 18.3, of cocaine it was 20.2, of Ecstasy it was 20.2, of pain relievers it was 21.2, of heroin it was 21.8, of stimulants it was 21.9, of sedatives it was 24.2, and of tranquilizers it was 24.5.

Click here to return to Figure 5.3.

Figure 5.4. Figure 5.4 is titled "Past Year Marijuana Initiates among Persons Aged 12 or Older and Mean Age at First Use of Marijuana among Past Year Marijuana Initiates Aged 12 to 49: 2002 through 2007." There are two bar graphs, one for past year initiates and one for mean age at first use. The past year initiates bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the numbers in millions of past year initiates on the vertical axis. The mean-age-at-first-use bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the mean age in years shown on the vertical axis. There is a footnote on the mean-age-at-first-use bar graph that says, "Mean-age-at-first-use estimates are for recent initiates aged 12 to 49." Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

There were 2.2 million persons aged 12 or older who had used marijuana for the first time within the past 12 months in 2002, 2.0 million persons in 2003, and 2.1 million persons each year in 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007.

In 2002, the mean age at first marijuana use among recent initiates aged 12 to 49 was 17.0 years; it was 16.8 years in 2003, 17.1 years in 2004, 17.4 years in both 2005 and 2006, and 17.6 years in 2007. The difference between the 2007 estimate and 2003 estimate was statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 5.4.

Figure 5.5. Figure 5.5 is titled "Past Year Ecstasy Initiates among Persons Aged 12 or Older and Mean Age at First Use of Ecstasy among Past Year Ecstasy Initiates Aged 12 to 49: 2002 through 2007." There are two bar graphs, one for past year initiates and one for mean age at first use. The past year initiates bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the numbers in thousands of past year initiates on the vertical axis. The mean-age-at-first-use bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the mean age in years shown on the vertical axis. There is a footnote on the mean-age-at-first-use bar graph that says, "Mean-age-at-first-use estimates are for recent initiates aged 12 to 49." Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

There were 1,206,000 persons aged 12 or older who had used Ecstasy for the first time within the past 12 months in 2002, 642,000 persons in 2003, 607,000 persons in 2004, 615,000 persons in 2005, 860,000 persons in 2006, and 781,000 persons in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

In 2002, the mean age at first Ecstasy use among recent initiates aged 12 to 49 was 21.2 years; it was 19.7 years in 2003, 19.5 years in 2004, 20.7 years in 2005, 20.6 years in 2006, and 20.2 years in 2007.

Click here to return to Figure 5.5.

Figure 5.6. Figure 5.6 is titled "Past Year Methamphetamine Initiates among Persons Aged 12 or Older and Mean Age at First Use of Methamphetamine among Past Year Methamphetamine Initiates Aged 12 to 49: 2002 through 2007." There are two bar graphs, one for past year initiates and one for mean age at first use. The past year initiates bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the numbers in thousands of past year initiates shown on the vertical axis. The mean-age-at-first-use bar graph has the survey years on the horizontal axis and the mean age in years shown on the vertical axis. There is a footnote on the mean-age-at-first-use bar graph that says, "Mean-age-at-first-use estimates are for recent initiates aged 12 to 49." Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

There were 299,000 persons aged 12 or older who had used methamphetamine for the first time within the past 12 months in 2002, 260,000 persons in 2003, 318,000 persons in 2004, 192,000 persons in 2005, 259,000 persons in 2006, and 157,000 in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

In 2002, the mean age at first methamphetamine use among recent initiates aged 12 to 49 was 18.9 years; it was 20.4 years in 2003, 20.6 years in 2004, 18.6 years in 2005, 22.2 years in 2006, and 19.1 years in 2007.

Click here to return to Figure 5.6.

Figure 5.7. Figure 5.7 is titled "Past Year Cigarette Initiates among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age at First Use: 2002 through 2007." It is a bar graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers in millions of persons who initiated cigarette use in the past year are shown on the vertical axis. Each bar is divided into two sections representing the age at first use: initiated use prior to age 18 and initiated use at age 18 or older. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed for the number of cigarette initiates in the past year between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Of the 1.9 million persons in 2002 who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months, 1.3 million initiated prior to age 18, and 0.6 million initiated at age 18 or older. The difference between the 2007 estimate for the number of persons who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months and the 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Of the 2.0 million persons in 2003 who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months, 1.4 million initiated prior to age 18, and 0.6 million initiated at age 18 or older. The difference between the 2007 estimate for the number of persons who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months and the 2003 estimate was statistically significant.

Of the 2.1 million persons in 2004 who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months, 1.4 million initiated prior to age 18, and 0.7 million initiated at age 18 or older.

Of the 2.3 million persons in 2005 who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months, 1.4 million initiated prior to age 18, and 0.8 million initiated at age 18 or older.

Of the 2.4 million persons in 2006 who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months, 1.5 million initiated prior to age 18, and 0.9 million initiated at age 18 or older. The difference between the 2007 estimate for the number of persons who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months and the 2006 estimate was statistically significant.

Of the 2.2 million persons in 2007 who smoked cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months, 1.3 million initiated prior to age 18, and 0.9 million initiated at age 18 or older.

Click here to return to Figure 5.7.

Figure 5.8. Figure 5.8 is titled "Past Year Cigarette Initiation among Youths Aged 12 to 17 Who Had Never Smoked, by Gender: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage smoking cigarettes in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each gender, there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed for the number of cigarette initiates in the past year between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among males aged 12 to 17 who had never smoked previously, 6.1 percent reported cigarette use initiation in 2002, 5.8 percent reported it in both 2003 and 2004, 6.0 percent reported it in 2005, 6.3 percent reported it in 2006, and 5.7 percent reported it in 2007.

Among females aged 12 to 17 who had never smoked previously, 7.4 percent reported cigarette use initiation in 2002, 7.5 percent reported it in 2003, 7.8 percent reported it in 2004, 7.1 percent reported it in 2005, 6.9 percent reported it in 2006, and 6.0 percent reported it in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate for females who initiated cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 5.8.

Chapter 6 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 6.1. Figure 6.1 is titled "Past Month Binge Drinking and Marijuana Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Perceptions of Risk: 2007." It is a bar graph, where alcohol and marijuana use behaviors are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the two behavior categories, there is a bar representing perceived great risk and a bar representing perceived moderate, slight, or no risk.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived great risk in having 5 or more drinks of alcohol once or twice a week, 5.0 percent reported binge drinking in the past month.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived moderate, slight, or no risk in having 5 or more drinks of alcohol once or twice a week, 12.9 percent reported binge drinking in the past month.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived great risk in smoking marijuana once a month, 1.4 percent used marijuana in the past month.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived moderate, slight, or no risk in smoking marijuana once a month, 9.5 percent used marijuana in the past month.

Click here to return to Figure 6.1.

Figure 6.2. Figure 6.2 is titled "Perceived Great Risk of Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage perceiving great risk is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the two behavior categories, there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that smoking 1 or more packs of cigarettes per day is a great risk was 63.1 percent in 2002, 64.2 percent in 2003, 67.5 percent in 2004, 68.3 percent in 2005, 68.7 percent in 2006, and 68.8 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that having 4 or 5 drinks of alcohol nearly every day is a great risk was 62.2 percent in 2002, 61.6 percent in 2003, 61.8 percent in 2004, 63.8 percent in 2005, 64.6 percent in 2006, and 65.2 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.2.

Figure 6.3. Figure 6.3 is titled "Perceived Great Risk of Marijuana Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage perceiving great risk is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the two marijuana use behavior categories, there is a line showing estimates for 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that smoking marijuana once or twice a week is a great risk was 51.5 percent in 2002, 54.4 percent in 2003, 54.7 percent in 2004, 55.0 percent in 2005, 54.2 percent in 2006, and 54.7 percent in 2007. The difference between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that smoking marijuana once a month is a great risk was 32.4 percent in 2002, 34.9 percent in 2003, 35.0 percent in 2004, 34.0 percent in 2005, 34.7 percent in 2006, and 34.5 percent in 2007. The difference between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 estimate was statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.4. Figure 6.4 is titled "Perceived Great Risk of Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage perceiving great risk is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four behavior categories (use heroin once or twice a week, use LSD once or twice a week, try heroin once or twice, and try LSD once or twice), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that using heroin once or twice a week is a great risk was 82.5 percent in 2002, 82.6 percent in 2003, 81.4 percent in 2004, 81.8 percent in 2005, 81.2 percent in 2006, and 81.0 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that using LSD once or twice a week is a great risk was 76.2 percent in 2002, 76.9 percent in 2003, 76.4 percent in 2004, 76.1 percent in 2005, 74.7 percent in 2006, and 74.2 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that trying heroin once or twice is a great risk was 58.5 percent in 2002, 58.8 percent in 2003, 57.0 percent in 2004, 56.5 percent in 2005, 57.2 percent in 2006, and 57.0 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who perceived that trying LSD once or twice is a great risk was 52.6 percent in 2002, 53.4 percent in 2003, 52.6 percent in 2004, 51.7 percent in 2005, 51.6 percent in 2006, and 51.2 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, and 2004 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.4.

Figure 6.5. Figure 6.5 is titled "Perceived Availability of Selected Illicit Drugs among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage indicating it was fairly or very easy to obtain specific illicit drugs is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the four types of illicit drugs (marijuana, cocaine, LSD, and heroin), there is a line showing use over 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that marijuana is fairly or very easy to obtain was 55.0 percent in 2002, 53.6 percent in 2003, 52.2 percent in 2004, 51.0 percent in 2005, 50.1 percent in 2006, and 49.1 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that cocaine is fairly or very easy to obtain was 25.0 percent in both 2002 and 2003, 24.4 percent in 2004, 24.9 percent in 2005, 25.9 percent in 2006, and 24.5 percent in 2007. The difference between the 2007 estimate and 2006 estimate was statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that LSD is fairly or very easy to obtain was 19.4 percent in 2002, 17.6 percent in 2003, 16.9 percent in 2004, 15.7 percent in 2005, 14.0 percent in 2006, and 14.4 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 indicating that heroin is fairly or very easy to obtain was 15.8 percent in 2002, 15.3 percent in 2003, 14.0 percent in both 2004 and 2005, 14.4 percent in 2006, and 14.1 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002 and 2003 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.5.

Figure 6.6. Figure 6.6 is titled "Approached in the Past Month by Someone Selling Drugs among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2007." It is a bar graph, where survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage who had been approached is shown on the vertical axis. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were preformed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage approached in the past month by someone selling drugs was 16.7 percent in 2002, 16.1 percent in 2003, 16.3 percent in 2004, 15.5 percent in 2005, 15.3 percent in 2006, and 14.5 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and the 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.6.

Figure 6.7. Figure 6.7 is titled "Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Messages and Programs among Youths Aged 12 to 17: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage who had seen or heard substance use prevention messages and programs is shown on the vertical axis. There are two categories: (1) seen or heard drug or alcohol prevention messages from sources outside of school, and (2) seen or heard drug or alcohol prevention messages at school. For each of these categories, there is a line showing use over 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. There is a footnote on the at-school label that says, "Estimates are from youths aged 12 to 17 who were enrolled in school in the past year." Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage who had seen or heard drug or alcohol prevention messages from sources outside of school in the past year was 83.2 percent in 2002, 83.6 percent in 2003, 83.0 percent in 2004, 81.1 percent in 2005, 79.4 percent in 2006, and 77.9 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage who had seen or heard drug or alcohol prevention messages at school in the past year was 78.8 percent in 2002, 78.1 percent in 2003, 78.2 percent in 2004, 77.9 percent in 2005, 76.9 percent in 2006, and 75.8 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 6.7.

Chapter 7 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 7.1. Figure 7.1 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2002 through 2007." It is a bar graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the numbers of persons with dependence or abuse are shown in millions on the vertical axis. Each bar is divided into three sections representing (1) both alcohol and illicit drug, (2) illicit drug only, and (3) alcohol only. Individual estimates may not sum to the total due to rounding. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed for the numbers of persons with dependence on or abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

Of the 22.0 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2002, 3.2 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.9 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 14.9 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 21.6 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2003, 3.1 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.8 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 14.8 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 22.5 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2004, 3.4 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.9 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.2 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 22.2 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2005, 3.3 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.6 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.4 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 22.6 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2006, 3.2 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.8 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.6 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Of the 22.3 million persons with substance dependence or abuse in 2007, 3.2 million were dependent on or abused both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.7 million were dependent on or abused illicit drugs only, and 15.5 million were dependent on or abused alcohol only.

Click here to return to Figure 7.1.

Figure 7.2. Figure 7.2 is titled "Dependence on or Abuse of Specific Illicit Drugs in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2007." It is a bar graph, where the numbers in thousands of users with dependence or abuse are shown on the horizontal axis and nine specific illicit drugs (marijuana, pain relievers, cocaine, tranquilizers, stimulants, hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, and sedatives) are shown on the vertical axis.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of marijuana in the past year was 3,932,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of pain relievers in the past year was 1,707,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of cocaine in the past year was 1,598,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of tranquilizers in the past year was 443,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of stimulants in the past year was 406,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of hallucinogens in the past year was 368,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of heroin in the past year was 213,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of inhalants in the past year was 164,000.

The number of persons who had dependence on or abuse of sedatives in the past year was 154,000.

Click here to return to Figure 7.2.

Figure 7.3. Figure 7.3 is titled "Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Adults Aged 21 or Older, by Age at First Use of Alcohol: 2007." It is a bar graph, where the age at first use of alcohol is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage dependent or abusing in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. Each bar is divided into two sections: (1) alcohol dependence and (2) alcohol abuse. There are four groups of age at first use shown: 14 or younger, 15 to 17, 18 to 20, and 21 or older. Individual estimates may not sum to the total due to rounding.

Among adults aged 21 or older who first used alcohol at age 14 or younger, 14.7 percent were dependent on or abusing alcohol in the past year; this can be further broken down as follows: 7.7 percent had alcohol dependence, and 7.0 percent had alcohol abuse.

Among adults aged 21 or older who first used alcohol at age 15 to 17, 10.2 percent were dependent on or abusing alcohol in the past year; this can be further broken down as follows: 4.5 percent had alcohol dependence, and 5.7 percent had alcohol abuse.

Among adults aged 21 or older who first used alcohol at age 18 to 20, 4.9 percent were dependent on or abusing alcohol in the past year; this can be further broken down as follows: 2.0 percent had alcohol dependence, and 2.8 percent had alcohol abuse.

Among adults aged 21 or older who first used alcohol at age 21 or older, 2.2 percent were dependent on or abusing alcohol in the past year; this can be further broken down as follows: 0.9 percent had alcohol dependence, and 1.3 percent had alcohol abuse.

Click here to return to Figure 7.3.

Figure 7.4. Figure 7.4 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age and Gender: 2007." It is a bar graph, where age categories are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage dependent or abusing in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. There are three age categories: aged 12 or older, aged 12 to 17, and aged 18 or older. For each age category, there is a bar representing males and a bar representing females.

Among persons aged 12 or older, 12.5 percent of males and 5.7 percent of females had past year substance dependence or abuse.

Among youths aged 12 to 17, 7.7 percent of males and 7.7 percent of females had past year substance dependence or abuse.

Among adults aged 18 or older, 13.0 percent of males and 5.5 percent of females had past year substance dependence or abuse.

Click here to return to Figure 7.4.

Figure 7.5. Figure 7.5 is titled "Locations Where Past Year Substance Use Treatment Was Received among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2007." It is a bar graph, where the numbers in thousands of persons receiving treatment are shown on the horizontal axis and the types of substance use treatment locations are shown on the vertical axis. There are eight types of substance use treatment locations: (1) self-help group, (2) outpatient rehabilitation, (3) inpatient rehabilitation, (4) outpatient mental health center, (5) hospital inpatient, (6) private doctor's office, (7) emergency room, and (8) prison or jail.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at a self-help group was 2,173,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at an outpatient rehabilitation facility was 1,705,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at an inpatient rehabilitation facility was 1,044,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at an outpatient mental health center was 889,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at a hospital as an inpatient was 779,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at a private doctor's office was 593,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at an emergency room was 523,000.

The number of persons who received substance use treatment at a prison or jail was 302,000.

Click here to return to Figure 7.5.

Figure 7.6. Figure 7.6 is titled "Substances for Which Most Recent Treatment Was Received in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2007." It is a bar graph, where the numbers in thousands of persons receiving their most recent treatment are shown on the horizontal axis and the substances for which the most recent treatment was received are shown on the vertical axis. There are seven substances: (1) alcohol, (2) marijuana, (3) cocaine, (4) pain relievers, (5) heroin, (6) stimulants, and (7) hallucinogens.

The number of persons who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for alcohol was 2,462,000.

The number of persons who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for marijuana was 936,000.

The number of persons who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for cocaine was 809,000.

The number of persons who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for pain relievers was 558,000.

The number of persons who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for heroin was 335,000.

The number of persons who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for stimulants was 311,000.

The number of persons who reported that the most recent treatment they received in the past year was for hallucinogens was 303,000.

Click here to return to Figure 7.6.

Figure 7.7. Figure 7.7 is titled "Past Year Perceived Need for and Effort Made to Receive Specialty Treatment among Persons Aged 12 or Older Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use: 2007." It is a pie chart, with the following written below the chart: "20.8 million Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use." The pie chart shows the percentages of persons who did not feel the need for treatment, as well as the percentages of those who made an effort and did not make an effort to get treatment among those who did feel the need for treatment.

Of the 20.8 million persons needing but not receiving treatment for illicit drug or alcohol use in the past year, 93.6 percent did not feel they needed treatment, 4.6 percent felt they needed treatment and did not make an effort to get treatment, and 1.8 percent felt they needed treatment and made an effort to get treatment.

Click here to return to Figure 7.7.

Figure 7.8. Figure 7.8 is titled "Reasons for Not Receiving Substance Use Treatment among Persons Aged 12 or Older Who Needed and Made an Effort to Get Treatment But Did Not Receive Treatment and Felt They Needed Treatment: 2004 through 2007 Combined." It is a bar graph, where the percentage reporting a particular reason is shown on the horizontal axis and the reasons for not receiving treatment are shown on the vertical axis. Eight reasons are shown: (1) no health coverage and could not afford cost, (2) not ready to stop using, (3) able to handle problem without treatment, (4) no transportation/inconvenient, (5) might cause neighbors/community to have negative opinion, (6) no program having type of treatment, (7) might have a negative effect on job, and (8) did not know where to go for treatment.

Among persons aged 12 or older who needed and made an effort to get treatment but did not receive treatment and felt they needed treatment, 35.9 percent indicated they did not have health coverage and could not afford the cost, 26.6 percent indicated they were not ready to stop using, 12.5 percent indicated they thought they were able to handle the problem without treatment, 10.5 percent indicated they had no transportation or it was inconvenient, 8.9 percent indicated it might cause neighbors/community to have negative opinion of them, 8.1 percent indicated there was no program offering the type of treatment they wanted, 7.0 percent indicated it might have a negative effect on job, and 6.9 percent indicated they did not know where to go for treatment.

Click here to return to Figure 7.8.

Chapter 8 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 8.1. Figure 8.1 is titled "Serious Psychological Distress in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Age: 2006 and 2007." It is a bar graph, where age in years is shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with serious psychological distress (SPD) in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each age category, there are bars representing 2006 and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between the 2006 and 2007 estimates; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older with past year SPD was 11.3 percent in 2006 and 10.9 percent in 2007.

The percentage of adults aged 18 to 25 with past year SPD was 17.7 percent in 2006 and 17.9 percent in 2007.

The percentage of adults aged 26 to 49 with past year SPD was 13.0 percent in 2006 and 12.2 percent in 2007.

The percentage of adults aged 50 or older with past year SPD was 6.9 percent in 2006 and 7.0 percent in 2007.

Click here to return to Figure 8.1.

Figure 8.2. Figure 8.2 is titled "Number of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older with Past Year Serious Psychological Distress Who Received Mental Health Services in the Past Year: 2007." It is a pie chart, with the following note below the chart: "10.8 million Adults with SPD Who Received Mental Health Services." The pie chart shows the percentages of the number of the three types of mental health care received in the past year. There is a note below the chart that says, "The three types of mental health care are receiving inpatient care, outpatient care, or prescription medication."

Of the 10.8 million adults with SPD who received mental health services in the past year, 47.2 percent received one type of mental health care, 45.9 percent received two types of mental health care, and 6.9 percent received all three types of mental health care.

Click here to return to Figure 8.2.

Figure 8.3. Figure 8.3 is titled "Past Year Mental Health Care among Adults Aged 18 or Older with Both Serious Psychological Distress and a Substance Use Disorder: 2007." It is a pie chart, with the following note below the chart: "5.4 million Adults with Co-Occurring SPD and Substance Use Disorder." The pie chart shows the percentages of the types of treatment received in the past year.

Of the 5.4 million adults aged 18 or older with both SPD and a substance use disorder, 33.3 percent received mental health care only in the past year, 2.8 percent received treatment for substance use problems only in the past year, 10.4 percent received both mental health care and treatment for substance use problems in the past year, and 53.5 percent received no treatment in the past year.

Click here to return to Figure 8.3.

Figure 8.4. Figure 8.4 is titled "Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Severe Impairment, Age and Gender: 2007." It is a bar graph, where age in years and gender are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each age in years and gender category as well as an overall category, there are bars representing MDE without severe impairment and MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 7.5 percent of adults aged 18 or older with MDE in the past year, 2.9 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 4.6 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 6.0 percent of males aged 18 to 25 with MDE in the past year, 2.1 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 3.9 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 5.9 percent of males aged 26 to 49 with MDE in the past year, 2.2 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 3.7 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 4.2 percent of males aged 50 or older with MDE in the past year, 1.4 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 2.7 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 11.9 percent of females aged 18 to 25 with MDE in the past year, 4.3 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 7.6 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 11.0 percent of females aged 26 to 49 with MDE in the past year, 3.9 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 7.0 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 7.2 percent of females aged 50 or older with MDE in the past year, 3.0 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 4.0 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Click here to return to Figure 8.4.

Figure 8.5. Figure 8.5 is titled "Substance Dependence or Abuse among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year: 2007." It is a bar graph, where substance dependence or abuse types are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage dependent on or abusing the substance is shown on the vertical axis. For each substance use type, there is a bar representing those who had major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year and a bar representing those who did not have MDE in the past year.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older with dependence on or abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol in the past year was 21.5 percent among persons who had MDE in the past year and 8.2 percent among persons who did not have MDE in the past year.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older with dependence on or abuse of illicit drugs in the past month was 8.8 percent among persons who had MDE in the past year and 2.1 percent among persons who did not have MDE in the past year.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older with dependence on or abuse of alcohol in the past month was 17.0 percent among persons who had MDE in the past year and 7.0 percent among persons who did not have MDE in the past year.

Click here to return to Figure 8.5.

Figure 8.6. Figure 8.6 is titled "Past Year Mental Health Service Use among Adults Aged 18 or Older, by Type of Care: 2002 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using mental health services in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each of the mental health service use categories (any type of care, prescription medication, outpatient, and inpatient), there is a line showing use over the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. Tests of statistical significance at the .05 level were performed between 2007 and each of the previous years listed; significant results are indicated where appropriate.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older using any type of mental health services in the past year was 13.0 percent in 2002, 13.2 percent in 2003, 12.8 percent in 2004, 13.0 percent in 2005, 12.9 percent in 2006, and 13.2 percent in 2007.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older taking prescription medication as treatment for mental health problems in the past year was 10.5 percent in 2002, 10.9 percent in 2003, 10.5 percent in 2004, 10.7 percent in 2005, 10.9 percent in 2006, and 11.1 percent in 2007.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older receiving outpatient services for mental health problems in the past year was 7.4 percent in 2002, 7.1 percent in both 2003 and 2004, 6.8 percent in 2005, 6.7 percent in 2006, and 6.9 percent in 2007.

The percentage of adults aged 18 or older receiving inpatient care for mental health problems in the past year was 0.7 percent in 2002, 0.8 percent in 2003, 0.9 percent in 2004, 1.0 percent in 2005, 0.7 percent in 2006, and 1.0 percent in 2007. The differences between the 2007 estimate and 2002 and 2006 estimates were statistically significant.

Click here to return to Figure 8.6.

Figure 8.7. Figure 8.7 is titled "Reasons for Not Receiving Mental Health Services in the Past Year among Adults Aged 18 or Older with an Unmet Need for Mental Health Care Who Did Not Receive Mental Health Services: 2007." It is a bar graph, where the percentage among adults who did not receive mental health care is shown on the horizontal axis and the reasons for not receiving treatment are shown on the vertical axis. Ten reasons are shown: (1) could not afford cost, (2) could handle problem without treatment at the time, (3) did not know where to go for services, (4) did not have time, (5) health insurance did not cover enough treatment, (6) concerned about confidentiality, (7) did not feel need for treatment, (8) treatment would not help, (9) might cause neighbors/community to have negative opinion, and (10) might have negative effect on job.

Among adults aged 18 or older with an unmet need for mental health care who did not receive mental health services in the past year, the following percentages did not receive mental health services for the following reasons: 43.2 percent because they could not afford the cost, 29.3 percent because they thought they could handle the problem without treatment at the time, 18.1 percent because they did not know where to go for services, 16.7 percent because they did not have time, 11.3 percent because health insurance did not cover enough treatment, 11.1 percent because they were concerned about confidentiality, 9.6 percent because they did not feel need for treatment, 9.3 percent because they thought treatment would not help, 8.7 percent because they thought it might cause neighbors/community to have negative opinion, and 8.6 percent because they thought it might have a negative effect on their job.

Click here to return to Figure 8.7.

Figure 8.8. Figure 8.8 is titled "Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Severe Impairment, Age, and Gender: 2007." It is a bar graph, where the age in years and gender are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage with major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each age in years and gender category, there are bars representing MDE without severe impairment and MDE with severe impairment. A note below the figure that says, "Respondents with an unknown level of impairment were included in the estimates for Major Depressive Episode without Severe Impairment.".

Among the 1.9 percent of male youths aged 12 with MDE in the past year, 0.8 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 1.1 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 2.7 percent of male youths aged 13 with MDE in the past year, 1.1 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 1.6 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 3.0 percent of male youths aged 14 with MDE in the past year, 1.0 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 2.0 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 6.2 percent of male youths aged 15 with MDE in the past year, 1.7 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 4.5 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 6.7 percent of male youths aged 16 with MDE in the past year, 2.4 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 4.3 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 6.6 percent of male youths aged 17 with MDE in the past year, 2.3 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 4.3 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 3.7 percent of female youths aged 12 with MDE in the past year, 1.2 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 2.5 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 8.7 percent of female youths aged 13 with MDE in the past year, 3.8 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 4.9 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 11.0 percent of female youths aged 14 with MDE in the past year, 3.2 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 7.8 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 13.8 percent of female youths aged 15 with MDE in the past year, 4.1 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 9.7 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 17.3 percent of female youths aged 16 with MDE in the past year, 5.4 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 11.9 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Among the 15.9 percent of female youths aged 17 with MDE in the past year, 4.3 percent had MDE with no severe impairment and 11.6 percent had MDE with severe impairment.

Click here to return to Figure 8.8.

Figure 8.9. Figure 8.9 is titled "Substance Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year: 2007." It is a bar graph, where three substance use types (past year illicit drug use, daily cigarette use in the past month, and past month heavy alcohol use) are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using the substance is shown on the vertical axis. For each substance use type, there is a bar representing those who had major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year and a bar representing those who did not have MDE in the past year.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who used illicit drugs in the past year was 35.5 percent among youths who had MDE in the past year and 17.2 percent among youths who did not have MDE in the past year.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 who smoked cigarettes daily in the past month was 4.8 percent among youths who had MDE in the past year and 2.3 percent among youths who did not have MDE in the past year.

The percentage of youths aged 12 to 17 reporting heavy alcohol use in the past month was 3.8 percent among youths who had MDE in the past year and 2.2 percent among youths who did not have MDE in the past year.

Click here to return to Figure 8.9.

Figure 8.10. Figure 8.10 is titled "Past Year Mental Health Service Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17, by Gender: 2007." It is a bar graph, where mental health service categories are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using mental health services in the past year is shown on the vertical axis. For each mental health service category (specialty mental health, education, medical, and specialty mental health and education or medical), there is a bar for males and one for females.

Among male youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using specialty mental health services in the past year was 10.7 percent. Among female youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using specialty mental health services in the past year was 14.3 percent.

Among male youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using education mental health services in the past year was 9.9 percent. Among female youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using education mental health services in the past year was 13.2 percent.

Among male youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using medical mental health services in the past year was 2.3 percent. Among female youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using medical mental health services in the past year was 3.2 percent.

Among male youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using specialty mental health and education or medical services in the past year was 4.1 percent. Among female youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage using specialty mental health services and education or medical services in the past year was 6.2 percent.

Click here to return to Figure 8.10.

Figure 8.11. Figure 8.11 is titled "Number of Outpatient Visits in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17 Who Received Outpatient Specialty Mental Health Services: 2007." It is a pie chart, with the following written below the chart: "2.8 million Youths Who Received Outpatient Specialty Mental Health Services." The pie chart shows the percentages of the number of outpatient visits among youths aged 12 to 17 who received outpatient specialty mental health services in the past year.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who received outpatient specialty mental health services in the past year, 19.7 percent had 1 visit.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who received outpatient specialty mental health services in the past year, 17.4 percent had 2 visits.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who received outpatient specialty mental health services in the past year, 27.1 percent had 3 to 6 visits.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who received outpatient specialty mental health services in the past year, 22.9 percent had 7 to 24 visits.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who received outpatient specialty mental health services in the past year, 12.9 percent had 25 or more visits.

Click here to return to Figure 8.11.

Figure 8.12. Figure 8.12 is titled "Number of Nights Stayed in an Inpatient Specialty Mental Health Facility in the Past Year among Youths Aged 12 to 17 Who Received Inpatient Specialty Mental Health Services: 2007." It is a pie chart, with the following written below the chart: "628,000 Youths Who Received Inpatient Specialty Mental Health Services". The pie chart shows the percentages of the number of nights stayed in the past year in an inpatient specialty mental health facility among youths aged 12 to 17 who received inpatient specialty mental health services.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who received inpatient specialty mental health services in the past year, 40.4 percent stayed 1 night.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who received outpatient specialty mental health services in the past year, 12.0 percent stayed 2 nights.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who received outpatient specialty mental health services in the past year, 18.4 percent stayed 3 to 6 nights.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who received outpatient specialty mental health services in the past year, 14.4 percent stayed 7 to 24 nights.

Among youths aged 12 to 17 who received outpatient specialty mental health services in the past year, 14.8 percent stayed 25 or more nights.

Click here to return to Figure 8.12.

Chapter 9 Alternate Text for Figures

Figure 9.1. Figure 9.1 is titled "Past Month Marijuana Use among Youths in NSDUH, MTF, and YRBS: 1971 through 2007." It is a line graph, where the survey years are shown on the horizontal axis and the percentage using in the past month is shown on the vertical axis. There is a note under the figure that says, "MTF = Monitoring the Future; NSDUH = National Survey on Drug Use and Health; YRBS = Youth Risk Behavior Survey." For each data source, there is a line representing the percentage using during the past month for the years shown.

According to the NSDUH data for ages 12 to 17, the percentage of youths reporting past month marijuana use was 5.1 percent in 1971, 6.0 percent in 1972, 10.2 percent in 1974, 10.5 percent in 1976, 14.1 percent in 1977, 14.2 percent in 1979, 9.9 percent in 1982, 10.2 percent in 1985, 5.4 percent in 1988, 4.4 percent in 1990, 3.6 percent in 1991, 3.4 percent in 1992, 4.0 percent in 1993, 6.0 percent in 1994, 8.2 percent in 1995, 7.1 percent in 1996, 9.4 percent in 1997, 8.3 percent in 1998, 8.2 percent in 2002, 7.9 percent in 2003, 7.6 percent in 2004, 6.8 percent in 2005, and 6.7 percent in both 2006 and 2007.

According to the MTF data for 8th and 10th grades combined, the percentage reporting past month marijuana use was 6.0 percent in 1991, 5.9 percent in 1992, 8.0 percent in 1993, 11.8 percent in 1994, 13.2 percent in 1995, 15.9 percent in 1996, 15.4 percent in 1997, 14.2 percent in 1998, 14.6 percent in 1999, 14.4 percent in 2000, 14.5 percent in 2001, 13.1 percent in 2002, 12.3 percent in 2003, 11.2 percent in 2004, 10.9 percent in 2005, 10.4 percent in 2006, and 10.0 percent in 2007.

According to the MTF data for 12th graders, the percentage reporting past month marijuana use was 27.1 percent in 1975, 32.2 percent in 1976, 35.4 percent in 1977, 37.1 percent in 1978, 36.5 percent in 1979, 33.7 percent in 1980, 31.6 percent in 1981, 28.5 percent in 1982, 27.0 percent in 1983, 25.2 percent in 1984, 25.7 percent 1985, 23.4 percent in 1986, 21.0 percent in 1987, 18.0 percent in 1988, 16.7 percent in 1989, 14.0 percent in 1990, 13.8 percent in 1991, 11.9 percent in 1992, 15.5 percent in 1993, 19.0 percent in 1994, 21.2 percent in 1995, 21.9 percent in 1996, 23.7 percent 1997, 22.8 percent in 1998, 23.1 percent in 1999, 21.6 percent in 2000, 22.4 percent in 2001, 21.5 percent in 2002, 21.2 percent in 2003, 19.9 percent in 2004, 19.8 percent in 2005, 18.3 percent in 2006, and 18.8 percent in 2007.

According to the YRBS 9th through 12th grade combined data, the percentage reporting past month marijuana use was 14.7 percent in 1991, 17.7 percent in 1993, 25.3 percent in 1995, 26.2 percent in 1997, 26.7 percent in 1999, 23.9 percent in 2001, 22.4 percent in 2003, 20.2 percent in 2005, and 19.7 percent in 2007.

Click here to return to Figure 9.1.

Appendix B Alternate Text for Figures

Figure B.1. Figure B.1 is titled "Required Effective Sample as a Function of the Proportion Estimated." It is a graph of a function within a coordinate plane; the horizontal axis shows the proportion estimated, and the vertical axis shows the required effective sample size. The following comment is shown: "Current Rule: NSDUH 2007." A horizontal line through the graph indicates that an effective sample size of 68 is required for the current rule. The graph decreases from an infinitely large required effective sample size when the estimated proportion is close to zero and approaches a local minimum of 50 when the estimated proportion is 0.20. The graph increases for estimated proportions greater than 0.20 until a required effective sample size of 68 is reached for an estimated proportion of 0.50. The graph decreases for estimated proportions greater than 0.50 and approaches a local minimum of 50 for the required effective sample size when the estimated proportion is 0.80. The graph increases for estimated proportions greater than 0.80 and reaches an infinitely large required effective sample size when the estimated proportion is close to 1.

Click here to return to Figure B.1.

Appendix A Alternate Text for Equations

The adjustment factor a sub k as a function of lambda is defined as the ratio of two quantities. The quantity in the numerator is defined as the sum of two terms. The first term is calculated as the product of l sub k and the difference between u sub k and c sub k. The second term is calculated as the product of u sub k, the difference between c sub k and l sub k, and the value of the exponential function evaluated at the following product: capital A sub k multiplied by the transpose of the vector x sub k, multiplied by lambda. The quantity in the denominator is defined as the sum of two terms. The first term is the difference between u sub k and c sub k. The second term is calculated as the product of the difference between c sub k and l sub k, and the value of the exponential function evaluated at the following product: capital A sub k multiplied by the transpose of the vector x sub k, multiplied by lambda.

Click here to return to Equation A.1

The lambda parameters are estimated by solving the following equation. The quantity of the summation over s of the product of (x sub k, d sub k, and a sub k as a function of lambda), minus the quantity capital T tilde sub x is equal to zero.

Click here to return to Equation A.2

Delta of the parameters w and d equals the summation over all k in s of the ratio of d sub k to capital A sub k multiplied by the sum of the following two quantities. The first quantity is calculated as the product of the difference between a sub k and l sub k, and the logarithm of the ratio of the difference between a sub k and l sub k to the difference between c sub k and l sub k. The second quantity is defined as the product of the difference between u sub k and a sub k, and the logarithm of the ratio of the difference between u sub k and a sub k to the difference between u sub k and c sub k.

Click here to return to Equation A.3

Appendix B Alternate Text for Equations

p hat sub d is equal to capital Y hat sub d divided by capital N hat sub d.

Click here to return to Equation B.1

Two computational forms of the suppression rule are presented. The first indicates that suppressions occurred when p hat was less than or equal to .5 and the following ratio was greater than .175: The numerator of the ratio is the standard error of p hat, divided by p hat; the denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B.2

The second computational form indicates that suppressions also occurred whenever p hat was greater than .5 and the following ratio was greater than .175: The numerator is the standard error of p hat, divided by the difference 1 minus p hat; the denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of the difference 1 minus p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B.3

Capital Z is equal to the ratio of two quantities. The numerator is p hat sub 1 minus p hat sub 2. The denominator is the square root of the following quantity: the variance of p hat sub1, plus the variance of p hat sub 2, minus twice the covariance of p hat sub 1 and p hat sub 2.

Click here to return to Equation B.4

The variance of p hat is equal to the product of 1 divided by n, capital D, p hat, and the difference 1 minus p hat.

Click here to return to Equation B.5

The variance of the quantity p hat sub 2 i minus p hat sub 1 i is equal to capital D sub i times the sum of two quantities. The first quantity is the product of 1 over n sub 1 i times p hat sub 1 i times the difference 1 minus p hat sub 1 i. The second quantity is the product of 1 over n sub 2 i times p hat sub 2 i times the difference 1 minus p hat sub 2 i. The variable i can take on the values 1 and 2.

Click here to return to Equation B.6

The variance of the quantity p bar sub 2 minus p bar sub 1 is equal to one quarter of the sum of two quantities. The first quantity is the variance of the difference of p hat sub two one minus p hat sub one one. The second quantity is the variance of the difference p hat sub two two minus p hat sub one two.

Click here to return to Equation B.7

Capital Z is equal to the ratio of two quantities. The numerator is p bar sub 2 minus p bar sub 1. The denominator is the square root of the variance of the quantity p bar sub 2 minus p bar sub 1.

Click here to return to Equation B.8

Capital I as a function of i is equal to 1 if the date of the interview minus the date of initiation (first use) is less than or equal to 365. Capital I is equal to 0 otherwise.

Click here to return to Equation B.9

Estimated Past Year Initiates Aged 11 in 2006 times the Estimated Lifetime Users Aged 12 to 17 in 2007 divided by the Estimated Lifetime Users Aged 12 to 17 in 2006.

Click here to return to Equation B.10

116,102 times 9,949,469 over 10,255,011 is equal to 112,643.

Click here to return to Equation B.11

A linear scale ranging from 0 to 10 is shown above, with the integers 1 through 9 displayed in between the endpoints. A 0 represents no interference; scores of 1, 2, and 3 represent mild interference, scores of 4, 5, and 6 represent moderate interference, and scores of 7, 8, and 9 represent severe interference. A score of 10 represents very severe interference.

Click here to return to Equation B.12

A linear scale ranging from 0 to 10 is shown above, with the integers 1 through 9 displayed in between the endpoints. A 0 represents no interference; scores of 1, 2, and 3 represent mild interference, scores of 4, 5, and 6 represent moderate interference, and scores of 7, 8, and 9 represent severe interference. A score of 10 represents very severe interference.

Click here to return to Equation B.13

The ratio of two quantities is greater than .175. The numerator of the ratio is the standard error of p hat divided by p hat. The denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of p hat when p hat is less than or equal to .5.

Click here to return to Equation B.14

The ratio of two quantities is greater than .175. The numerator of the ratio is the standard error of p hat divided by 1 minus p hat. The denominator is the negative of the natural logarithm of the quantity 1 minus p hat when p hat is greater than .5.

Click here to return to Equation B.15

Effective n is the ratio of n over the design effect.

Click here to return to Equation B.16

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This page was last updated on  December 30, 2008.