The annual number of new cocaine users remained stable from 1990 to 1994, but at a lower level than during the early 1980's. In 1994 there were an estimated 530,000 new users, while during 1980-1984 there had been about 1.3 million cocaine initiates per year. The rate of initiation by different age groups, however, has been changing. With the age group 18-25 showing a decrease in the rate of first use from 1980 to 1994, the rate of first use for that group is now similar to that for the 12-17 age group (about 10 per 1000 person years). For crack cocaine, the estimated annual number of new users has remained stable in recent years.