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2000 State Estimates of Substance Use & Mental Health

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Appendix F: Other Sources of Data

A variety of other surveys and data systems collect data on substance use. It is useful to consider the results of these other studies when discussing the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) data. In doing this, it is important to understand the methodological differences between the different surveys and the impact that these differences could have on estimates of substance use prevalence. This appendix briefly describes several of these other data systems, including their results.

In-depth comparisons have been done of the methodologies of the three major federally sponsored national surveys of substance use by youths (i.e., the NHSDA, the Monitoring the Future [MTF] study, and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey [YRBS]). In 1997, a comparison between the NHSDA and the MTF was published (Gfroerer, Wright, & Kopstein, 1997). And in 1999–2000, a series of papers comparing different aspects of the three national surveys was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Under contract with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Westat of Rockville, Maryland, identified and funded several experts in survey methods to prepare these papers, which were published in a special issue of the Journal of Drug Issues (Hennessy & Ginsberg, 2001). The major findings of this study were as follows:

F.1 Other National Surveys of Illicit Drug Use

Monitoring the Future (MTF). The MTF is a national survey that tracks drug use trends and related attitudes among America's adolescents. This survey is conducted annually by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan through a grant awarded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). The MTF and the NHSDA are the Federal Government's largest and primary tools for tracking youth substance use. The MTF is composed of three substudies: (a) an annual survey of high school seniors initiated in 1975; (b) ongoing panel studies of representative samples from each graduating class that have been conducted by mail since 1976; and (c) annual surveys of 8th and 10th graders initiated in 1991. In 2000, for all three grades combined, there were 435 public and private schools and about 45,000 students in the sample. The students completed a self-administered questionnaire during a regular class period (Johnston, O'Malley, & Bachman, 2001).

Comparisons between the MTF estimates and estimates based on students sampled in the NHSDA have generally shown NHSDA substance use prevalence levels to be lower than MTF estimates, with relative differences being largest for 8th graders. The lower prevalences in the NHSDA may be due to more underreporting in the household setting as compared with the MTF school setting. The MTF does not survey dropouts, a group generally shown (using the NHSDA) to have higher rates of use (Gfroerer et al., 1997). However, the direction of trends has generally been similar between the two surveys. Both surveys showed significant increases in illicit drug use among adolescents between 1992 and 1996. Comparisons of NHSDA and MTF results for 1999 and 2000, based on NHSDA data collected during January through June to control for seasonality, generally show similar trends in the prevalence of use of illicit drugs (see Table s F.1 to F.4).

Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The YRBS is a component of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), which biennially measures the prevalence of six priority health risk behavior categories: (1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries, (2) tobacco use, (3) alcohol and other drug use, (4) sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), (5) unhealthy dietary behaviors, and (6) physical inactivity. The YRBSS includes national, State, territorial, and local school-based surveys of high school students. The 1999 national school-based survey used a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 through 12. The 1999 State and local surveys used a two-stage cluster sample design to produce representative samples of students in grades 9 through 12 in their jurisdictions (CDC, 2000). The 1999 national YRBS sample included 15,349 students in grades 9 through 12 in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. The students completed a self-administered questionnaire during a regular class period.

In general, this school-based survey has found higher rates of alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and cocaine use for youths than those found in the NHSDA. Data from the most recent YRBS indicated a general leveling of drug and alcohol use between 1997 and 1999. The 1999 data showed steady prevalence levels for both past month marijuana and alcohol use among 9th through 12th graders. The NHSDA data showed a similar trend for alcohol use, but a significant decrease in marijuana use among 12 to 17 year olds during this time period. Although the two surveys generally have shown similar trends, the prevalence estimates are much higher in the YRBS (i.e., 26.7 percent for the YRBS vs. 7.0 percent in the paper-and-pencil interviewing [PAPI] version of the 1999 NHSDA for past month marijuana use). This is likely due to the difference in the age groups that are sampled and the dissimilarity of the study designs (school-based vs. home-based).

National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). In 1994–1996, Add Health was conducted to measure the effects of family, peer group, school, neighborhood, religious institution, and community influences on such health risks as tobacco, drug, and alcohol use. The survey also asked about substance abuse (alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs). The survey consisted of three phases. In Wave 1, roughly 90,000 students from grades 7 through 12 at 145 schools around the United States answered brief questionnaires in 1994–1995. Next, interviews were conducted with about 20,000 students and their parents in the students' homes. In Wave 2, the students were interviewed a second time in their homes in 1996, 1 year later. Wave 3 consists of reinterviews of respondents from Wave 1 that were scheduled to begin in July 2001. Survey results from Waves 1 and 2 indicated that nearly one third of teenagers had smoked marijuana; moreover, 6.9 percent of 7th and 8th graders used marijuana at least once in the past month as did 15.7 percent of 9th through 12th graders (Resnick et al., 1997).

Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS). In November 2000, the Partnership for a Drug-Free America (PDFA) released results from the 2000 PATS, an ongoing national research study that tracks drug use and drug-related attitudes among children, teenagers, and their parents. In the 2000 PATS, 7,290 teenagers in grades 7 through 12 completed self-administered questionnaires. The study showed that there has been a statistically significant decline in overall drug use for adolescents in these grades. The most significant declines were in marijuana use among teenagers. Lifetime use declined from 44 percent in 1997 to 40 percent in 2000; there was also a significant decline in past month use, from 24 percent in 1997 to 21 percent in 2000 (PDFA, 2001). In comparison, the 2000 NHSDA reported that 7.2 percent of youths aged 12 to 17 used marijuana in the past month. This is a slight, but not statistically significant, decline from 1999. From 1997 to 1999, however, the NHSDA PAPI showed a significant decline in past month marijuana use among 12 to 17 year olds (from 9.4 to 7.0 percent). The major difference in these prevalence estimates is likely to be due to the different study designs. The youth portion of PATS is a school-based survey, which may elicit more reporting of sensitive behaviors than the home-based NHSDA.

PATS also found a positive trend in teenager attitudes about marijuana. In 2000, 43 percent of teenagers believed that marijuana will make them lonely (up from 38 percent in 1998). In addition, 54 percent of teenagers in 2000 believed that marijuana will make them act stupid or foolishly (up from 51 percent in 1998). The results of the study also indicated that fewer teenagers see marijuana all around them (47 percent, down from 59 percent in 1997), and fewer believed that most people will use the drug (36 percent, down from 41 percent in 1997). Although not nearly as prevalent as marijuana use, the 2000 PATS survey found a significant increase in the lifetime use of Ecstasy (i.e., 3–4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA). Lifetime use increased from 7 to 10 percent in the past year and had doubled since 1995.

National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY). The NSPY was sponsored by NIDA to evaluate the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). The survey was specifically designed to evaluate Phase III of the campaign, which began in September 1999 and will run at least until 2003. The NSPY is divided into two phases. In the first phase, a sample of youths aged 9 to 18 and their parents were recruited to participate in the in-home survey. In the second phase, the respondents from Phase I participate in two additional interviews at intervals of 6 to 24 months. The recruitment phase is broken into three waves, each consisting of national cross-sectional surveys. In April 2001, ONDCP released the data from the first two waves, which were collected between November 1999 and December 2000 (ONDCP, 2001).

The first two waves of data showed a consistent pattern of association between exposure to the media campaign and positive outcomes for parents, but the data were inconclusive for youths. More conclusive data are expected at the conclusion of Wave 4. The NSPY also produces estimates of marijuana use among youths. Waves 1 and 2 of the NSPY estimate that 19.2 percent of youths aged 12 through 17 used marijuana in their lifetime. The estimates for past year and past month use were 14 and 6 percent, respectively. The corresponding 2000 NHSDA estimates for lifetime, past year, and past month use among youths aged 12 to 17 were 18.3, 13.4, and 7.2, respectively. Although the NSPY questions are shorter and less direct than NHSDA questions, the two surveys produced very similar estimates in 2000.

F.2 Alcohol and Cigarette Use Surveys

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is a continuing nationwide sample survey that collects data using personal household interviews. The survey is sponsored by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and provides national estimates of selected health measures. The 2000 survey estimated that 23.0 percent of the population aged 18 or older were current cigarette smokers (down slightly from 23.5 percent in 1999); among males, 25.6 percent reported current cigarette smoking compared with 20.6 percent of females aged 18 or older (NCHS, 2001).

The 2000 NHSDA estimated that 26.8 percent of adults aged 18 or older were current smokers. Among males, 28.7 percent reported current cigarette smoking compared with 24.1 percent of females. These represent slight, but not statistically significant, declines from 1999. The modest difference in these prevalence estimates may be due to the way "current smoking" is defined in the two surveys. In the NHIS, current smokers are defined as those who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and answer that they currently smoke, including those who smoke only on some days. In the NHSDA, current cigarette smoking is defined as any use in the past month.

Monitoring the Future (MTF). This school-based survey showed increases in smoking rates among students from 1991 to 1997. Cigarette smoking peaked in 1996 among 8th and 10th graders nationwide and in 1997 among 12th graders. Since those peak years, cigarette use has gradually declined. Current (past month) smoking rates found for 8th graders were 14.3 percent in 1991, 21.0 percent in 1996, 19.4 percent in 1997, 19.1 percent in 1998, 17.5 percent in 1999, and 14.6 percent in 2000. Among 10th graders, current smoking rates were 20.8 percent in 1991, 30.4 percent in 1996, 29.8 percent in 1997, 27.6 percent in 1998, 25.7 percent in 1999, and 23.9 percent in 2000. For 12th graders, smoking rates rose steadily from 28.3 percent in 1991 to 36.5 percent in 1997, but then declined significantly to 31.4 percent in 2000 (Johnston et al., 2001). The NHSDA also showed a statistically significant decline among 8th and 12th graders from 1999 to 2000. See Table F.5 for a comparison of the MTF and NHSDA cigarette use estimates.

The MTF data have indicated alcohol use among youths to be fairly stable over the past several years. Alcohol consumption in the month prior to the survey was reported by 22.4 percent of 8th graders, 41 percent of 10th graders, and 50 percent of 7th graders in the 2000 survey. Table F.6 shows how these numbers compare with NHSDA estimates. Although the NHSDA estimates are lower, they show the same stability in teenager alcohol use as the MTF. Binge drinking, defined in the MTF as consuming five or more drinks in a row sometime in the prior 2 weeks, also remained steady over the past 3 years. In the 2000 MTF, binge drinking rates stood at 14.1, 26.2, and 30.0 percent among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders, respectively.

Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The YRBS found increases in longer trends for current cigarette use among students in grades 9 to 12. Current smoking rose from 27.5 percent in 1991 to 34.8 percent in 1999 (CDC, 2000). Overall prevalences of lifetime, past month, and frequent cigarette use (defined as smoking on 20 or more days of the 30 days preceding the survey) in the 1999 survey were 70.4, 34.8, and 16.8 percent, respectively. Although the NHSDA has not shown these increases in smoking among youths aged 12 to 17, the NHSDA estimates for years prior to 1994 were apparently substantial underestimates because the data were collected without private self-administered answer sheets. When the NHSDA converted to the use of these answer sheets in 1994, the smoking rate for adolescents approximately doubled. This raises questions about the accuracy of the NHSDA measurement of the trend prior to 1994, even after adjustments are made to account for the effect of the new questionnaire. Between 1994 and 1999, however, the NHSDA showed significant declines in past month cigarette use among 12 to 17 year olds. Although the rate fluctuated slightly in the years between, it decreased from 18.9 percent in 1994 to 15.9 percent in 1999 (PAPI data).

Alcohol use among 9th through 12th graders in the YRBS remained fairly stable over the past few surveys. Past month alcohol use was 50 percent in the 1999 survey, which was consistent with the estimate of 50.8 percent in the 1991 YRBS (CDC, 2001b). The NHSDA also showed steady rates of past month alcohol use for youths aged 12 to 17 during this time––21.6 percent in 1994 and 19.0 percent in 1999 (not a statistically significant change). Episodic heavy drinking (defined in the YRBS as taking five or more drinks on one or more occasions in the 30 days prior to the survey) also held steady with prevalence rates of 31.3 percent in 1991 and 31.5 percent in the 1999 YRBS. Although the corresponding 1999 NHSDA PAPI rate for 12 to 17 year olds was much lower (7.8 percent), the NHSDA also showed a level trend from 1994 to 1999.

Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS). Data from the 2000 PATS showed a continuing decline in cigarette use among teenagers. For 7th through 12th graders, the prevalence of past month cigarette use was 42 percent in 1998, 37 percent in 1999, and 34 percent in 2000 (PDFA, 2001). The NHSDA also showed a significant decline in past month smoking among youths aged 12 to 17. The rates dropped from 14.9 percent in 1999 to 13.4 percent in 2000. Again, the lower prevalence estimates in the NHSDA were likely due to the home-based study design.

PATS data on alcohol use remained unchanged over the past few years. The 2000 PATS found that 58 percent of teenagers reported using alcohol in the past year. The rates were 58 percent in 1998 and 59 percent in 1999. However, the study did find significant declines in past month alcohol use and binge drinking. Some 39 percent of teenagers said they had used alcohol in the past month (down from 42 percent in 1998). The binge drinking estimate decreased slightly from 32 percent in 1999 to 31 percent in 2000. In comparison, the 2000 NHSDA rates for past month alcohol use and binge drinking for 12 to 17 year olds were 16.4 and 10.4 percent, respectively. These were not significantly different from the 1999 rates.

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This CDC system is a State-based telephone survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized adult population. Adults include all persons aged 18 or older. In 2000, BRFSS collected data from all 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. BRFSS collects information by State on access to health care, health status indicators, health risk behaviors (including cigarette and alcohol use), and the use of clinical preventive services. The median percentage of adults reporting current cigarette use in 2000 was 23.2 percent, a slight increase from 1999 (22.7 percent) (CDC, 2001a). The corresponding NHSDA rate (26.3 percent) was not statistically different from the 1999 rate (27.0 percent). In 1999, the median percentage of adults who reported current alcohol use in BRFSS remained stable at 54.2 percent. The 2000 NHSDA estimate of 50.2 percent was also not a significant change from 1999.

National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Results from the September 1994 to April 1995 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health, described above) indicate that nearly 3.2 percent of 7th and 8th graders smoked six or more cigarettes per day as did 12.8 percent of 9th through 12th graders (Resnick et al., 1997). In addition, 7.3 percent of 7th and 8th graders used alcohol on 2 or more days in the past month as did 23.1 percent of 9th through 12th graders.

College Alcohol Study (CAS). The Harvard School of Public Health's CAS is an ongoing survey supported by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. It surveys more than 15,000 students (18 to 24 years of age) at 140 four-year colleges in 40 States. The objective of the CAS is to look at high-risk behaviors and to identify student- and college-level factors associated with these behaviors among college students. These behaviors include heavy episodic or binge drinking, smoking, illicit drug use, gun possession, violence, and other behavioral, social, and health-related problem facing America's college students today. The principal investigator is Henry Wechsler.

In 1993, the Harvard School of Public Health conducted the first CAS mail survey of students from a nationally representative sample of colleges. The study was repeated in 1997 and 1999. The survey found that the overall rate of binge drinking did not change from 1993 to 1999 (44.5 and 44.1 percent, respectively). CAS defined binge drinking as the consumption of five or more drinks in a row for men and four drinks in a row for women. The study found a sizable increase in both the number of students who binge drank frequently (22.7 percent in 1999 vs. 19.8 percent in 1993) and those who did not drink at all (19.2 percent in 1999 vs. 15.4 percent in 1993) (Wechsler, Lee, Kuo, & Lee, 2000). The 1999 NHSDA binge drinking rate among full-time undergraduates aged 18 to 22 was 43.1 percent. It is useful to note that the NHSDA defines binge drinking as five or more drinks in a row on a least one occasion in the past month for both men and women. Despite using different definitions of binge drinking, the CAS estimate and the NHSDA estimate are very similar.

F.3 Surveys of Populations Not Covered by the NHSDA

National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY, described above). The NSPY is distinct in that it measures drug use and attitudes among youths as young as 9 years old. Waves 1 and 2 of the NSPY showed that youths aged 9 to 11 were strongly opposed to marijuana use. The survey estimated that only 0.7 percent of youths aged 9 through 11 had used marijuana in their lifetime. The estimates for past year and past month use were 0.4 percent and 0.2 percent, respectively (ONDCP, 2001).

Washington, DC, Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DC*MADS). This study was designed to (a) estimate the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of drug abuse among all types of people residing in one metropolitan area of the country during one period of time, with special focus on populations who were underrepresented or unrepresented in household surveys, and (b) to develop a methodological model for similar types of research in other metropolitan areas of the country. Sponsored by NIDA and fielded in 1991 and 1992, the project focused on hard-to-reach populations, such as homeless people, adult and juvenile offenders, new mothers, and drug abuse treatment clients, or different aspects of the drug problem (e.g., adverse consequences of drug abuse). DC*MADS provided a replicable methodological approach for developing representative estimates of the prevalence of drug abuse among all population subgroups, regardless of their residential setting, in a metropolitan area. The key domains in DC*MADS were homeless people, institutionalized persons, and the household population. A major finding of DC*MADS was that, when data are aggregated for populations from each of the three domains, the overall prevalence estimates for use of drugs differ only marginally from those that would be obtained from the household population alone (i.e., from the NHSDA), largely because the other populations are very small compared with the household population. However, a somewhat different picture emerged when the numbers of drug users were examined. Adding in the nonhousehold populations resulted in an increase of approximately 14,000 illicit drug users compared with the corresponding estimates for the household population. About 25 percent of past year crack users, 20 percent of past year heroin users, and one third of past year needle users were found in the nonhousehold population (Bray & Marsden, 1999).

Department of Defense (DoD) Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel. This survey series has been under way since 1980. The 1998 DoD survey included 17,264 active-duty Armed Forces personnel worldwide who anonymously completed self-administered questionnaires (Bray et al., 1999). For the total DoD, during the 30 days prior to the date that a survey was completed, heavy alcohol use declined from 20.8 percent in 1980 to 15.4 percent in 1998; cigarette smoking decreased from 51.0 percent in 1980 to 29.9 percent in 1998; and use of any illicit drugs declined from 27.6 percent in 1980 to 2.7 percent in 1998. For the latest survey, military personnel exhibited significantly higher rates of heavy alcohol use than their civilian counterparts (14.2 vs. 9.9 percent) when demographic differences between the military and civilian populations were taken into account (civilian data were drawn from the 1997 NHSDA and adjusted to reflect demographic characteristics of the military). Differences in military and civilian heavy alcohol use rates were largest for men aged 18 to 25. Among this age group, the military rate was nearly twice as high as the adjusted civilian rate (26.9 vs. 14.9 percent). In contrast, military personnel showed lower rates of cigarette use (29.1 vs. 32.8 percent) compared with civilians, a finding that seemed largely due to an increase in smoking among civilians rather than a significant decrease among military personnel since the prior survey in 1995. Similarly, rates of illicit drug use in the military were significantly lower than those observed for the comparable civilian population when demographic differences between the military and civilian populations were taken into account (2.6 vs. 10.7 percent). Differences in illicit drug use between the military and civilian populations were more pronounced for males than females. For males aged 18 to 55, 2.8 percent of those in the military used drugs in the 30 days prior to survey compared with 11.4 percent of the civilian population (adjusted). For females aged 18 to 55, 1.9 percent of those in the military used drugs in the 30 days prior to survey compared with 6.2 percent of the civilian population (adjusted). Nearly all military personnel reported having been tested for drugs since joining the military.

Surveys of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities. These 1997 surveys sampled inmates from a universe of 1,409 State prisons and 127 Federal prisons for the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS, 1999). Systematic random sampling was used to select the inmates for computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI). The final numbers interviewed were 14,285 State prisoners and 4,041 Federal prisoners. Among other items, these surveys collected information on the use of drugs in the month before the offense for convicted inmates. Women in State prisons (62 percent) were more likely than men (56 percent) to have used drugs in the month before the offense. Women were also more likely to have committed their offense while under the influence of drugs (40 vs. 32 percent of male prisoners). Among Federal prisoners, men (45 percent) were more likely than women (37 percent) to have used drugs in the past month. Male and female Federal prisoners were equally likely to report the influence of drugs during their offense (23 percent of male and 19 percent of female prisoners). The survey results indicate substantially higher rates of drug use among State and Federal prisoners (BJS, 1999) as compared with the household population.

F.4 References

Bray, R. M., & Marsden, M. E. (Eds.). (1999). Drug use in metropolitan America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bray, R. M., Sanchez, R. P., Ornstein, M. L., Lentine, D., Vincus, A. A., Baird, T. U., Walker, J. A., Wheeless, S. C., Guess, L. L., Kroutil, L. A., & Iannacchione, V. G. (1999, March). 1998 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel: Final report (Report No. RTI/7034/006–FR, prepared for the Assistant Secretary of Defense [Health Affairs], U.S. Department of Defense, Cooperative Agreement No. DAMD17–96–2–6021). Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute.

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1999, January). Substance abuse and treatment: State and federal prisoners, 1997 (NCJ 172871). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000, June 9). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 1999 [Also available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr//preview/mmwrhtml/ss4905a1.htm]. CDC Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 49(SS–5).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001a). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Home page. Retrieved October 22, 2001, from http://www2.cdc.gov/nccdphp/brfss [URL updated in October 2003 to http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/]

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001b). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Home page. Retrieved October 22, 2001, from http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/yrbs/

Gfroerer, J., Wright, D., & Kopstein, A. (1997). Prevalence of youth substance use: The impact of methodological differences between two national surveys. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 47, 19–30.

Hennessy, K., & Ginsberg, C. (Eds.). (2001). Substance use survey data collection methodologies [Special issue]. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(3), 595–727. [Also available at http://www2.criminology.fsu.edu/~jdi/31n3.htm]

Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (2001). The Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2000 (NIH Publication No. 01–4923, also available on-line at http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/overview2000.pdf). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

National Center for Health Statistics. (2001) National Heath Interview Survey: Home page. Retrieved October 22, 2001, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm

Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2001). National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign: Campaign publications. Retrieved October 22, 2001, from http://www.mediacampaign.org/publications/index.html

Partnership for a Drug-Free America. (2001). Home page. Retrieved October 22, 2001, from http://www.drugfree.org

Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., Tabor, J., Beuhring, T., Sieving, R. E., Shew, M., Ireland, M., Bearinger, L. H., & Udry, J. R. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 823–832.

Wechsler, H., Lee, J. E., Kuo, M., & Lee, H. (2000). College binge drinking in the 1990s: A continuing problem. Results of the Harvard School of Public Health 1999 College Alcohol Study. Journal of American College Health, 48(5), 199–210.

Table F.1 Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Marijuana among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in the NHSDA and MTF: 1999 and 2000
Time Period, by Current Grade Level Survey
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
(NHSDA) (January-June)
Monitoring the Future (MTF) Study
1999 2000 1999 2000
Lifetime Use
     8th grade 10.9 9.2 22.0 20.3
     10th grade 27.7 26.9 40.9 40.3
     12th grade 41.4 37.1 49.7 48.8
Past Year Use
     8th grade 8.1 6.8 16.5 15.6
     10th grade 21.6 20.0 32.1 32.2
     12th grade 29.7 26.8 37.8 36.5
Past Month Use
     8th grade 4.5 3.3 9.7 9.1
     10th grade 10.7 10.1 19.4 19.7
     12th grade 16.4 15.4 23.1 21.6

*Low precision; no estimate reported.
— Not available.

aDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
bDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
cDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .001 level.

Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999 and 2000; University of Michigan, Monitoring the Future Study, 1999 and 2000.

Table F.2 Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Cocaine among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in the NHSDA and MTF: 1999 and 2000
Time Period, by Current Grade Level Survey
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
(NHSDA) (January-June)
Monitoring the Future (MTF) Study
1999 2000 1999 2000
Lifetime Use
     8th grade 0.8 0.9 4.7 4.5
     10th grade 3.2 3.2 7.7 6.9
     12th grade 7.5 5.4 9.8 8.6
Past Year Use
     8th grade 0.3 0.7 2.7 2.6
     10th grade 1.9 2.8 4.9 4.4
     12th grade 4.6a 2.5 6.2a 5.0
Past Month Use
     8th grade 0.2 0.1 1.3 1.2
     10th grade 0.7 0.9 1.8 1.8
     12th grade 1.2a 0.3 2.6 2.1

*Low precision; no estimate reported.
— Not available.

aDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
bDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
cDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .001 level.

Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999 and 2000; University of Michigan, Monitoring the Future Study, 1999 and 2000.

Table F.3 Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Inhalants among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in the NHSDA and MTF: 1999 and 2000
Time Period, by Current Grade Level Survey
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
(NHSDA) (January-June)
Monitoring the Future (MTF) Study
1999 2000 1999 2000
Lifetime Use
     8th grade 10.8 9.7 19.7a 17.9
     10th grade 10.6 10.2 17.0 16.6
     12th grade 12.2 9.5 15.4 14.2
Past Year Use
     8th grade 4.5 3.8 10.3 9.4
     10th grade 4.5 3.5 7.2 7.3
     12th grade 4.8 3.7 5.6 5.9
Past Month Use
     8th grade 1.4 0.8 5.0 4.5
     10th grade 0.8 0.7 2.6 2.6
     12th grade 1.2 0.8 2.0 2.2

*Low precision; no estimate reported.
— Not available.

aDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
bDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
cDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .001 level.

Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999 and 2000; University of Michigan, Monitoring the Future Study, 1999 and 2000.

Table F.4 Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Hallucinogens among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in the NHSDA and MTF: 1999 and 2000
Time Period, by Current Grade Level Survey
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
(NHSDA) (January-June)
Monitoring the Future (MTF) Study
1999 2000 1999 2000
Lifetime Use
     8th grade 2.7 2.3 4.8 4.6
     10th grade 7.8 7.3 9.7 8.9
     12th grade 13.6 12.2 13.7 13.0
Past Year Use
     8th grade 1.7 1.6 2.9 2.8
     10th grade 5.4 4.9 6.9 6.1
     12th grade 8.7 6.8 9.4a 8.1
Past Month Use
     8th grade 0.4 0.2 1.3 1.2
     10th grade 1.4 1.6 2.9a 2.3
     12th grade 2.4 1.9 3.5b 2.6

*Low precision; no estimate reported.
— Not available.

aDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
bDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
cDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .001 level.

Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999 and 2000; University of Michigan, Monitoring the Future Study, 1999 and 2000.

Table F.5 Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Cigarettes among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in the NHSDA and MTF: 1999 and 2000
Time Period, by Current Grade Level Survey
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
(NHSDA) (January-June)
Monitoring the Future (MTF) Study
1999 2000 1999 2000
Lifetime Use
     8th grade 31.0c 25.0 44.1c 40.5
     10th grade 49.9 46.7 57.6a 55.1
     12th grade 61.8c 53.7 64.6 62.5
Past Year Use
     8th grade 19.0c 13.9
     10th grade 31.2 28.4
     12th grade 46.3c 34.8
Past Month Use
     8th grade 9.4a 6.9 17.5c 14.6
     10th grade 20.0 18.4 25.7 23.9
     12th grade 34.0c 26.8 34.6b 31.4

*Low precision; no estimate reported.
— Not available.

aDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
bDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
cDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .001 level.

Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999 and 2000; University of Michigan, Monitoring the Future Study, 1999 and 2000.

Table F.6 Percentages Reporting Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Use of Alcohol among 8th, 10th, and 12th Graders in the NHSDA and MTF: 1999 and 2000
Time Period, by Current Grade Level Survey
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
(NHSDA) (January-June)
Monitoring the Future (MTF) Study
1999 2000 1999 2000
Lifetime Use
     8th grade 34.6 31.8 52.1 51.7
     10th grade 58.8 56.9 70.6 71.4
     12th grade 72.3 71.4 80.0 80.3
Past Year Use
     8th grade 25.9 23.5 43.5 43.1
     10th grade 49.2 46.3 63.7 65.3
     12th grade 62.8 62.5 73.8 73.2
Past Month Use
     8th grade 9.1 9.1 24.0 22.4
     10th grade 23.4 23.1 40.0 41.0
     12th grade 38.6 37.1 51.0 50.0

*Low precision; no estimate reported.
— Not available.

aDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
bDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .01 level.
cDifference between estimate and 2000 estimate is statistically significant at the .001 level.

Sources: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1999 and 2000; University of Michigan, Monitoring the Future Study, 1999 and 2000.

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This page was last updated on December 30, 2008.