The adjustment factor a sub k depends on lambda and is defined as the ratio of two quantities. The quantity in the numerator is defined as the sum of two terms. The first term is calculated as the product of l sub k and the difference between u sub k and c sub k. The second term is calculated as the product of u sub k, the difference between c sub k and l sub k, and the value of the exponential function obtained at cap A sub k times the linear combination of covariates corresponding to person k using elements of lambda as the multipliers. The quantity in the denominator is defined as the sum of two terms. The first term is the difference between u sub k and c sub k. The second term is calculated as the product of the difference between c sub k and l sub k, and the value of the exponential function obtained at cap A sub k times the linear combination of covariates corresponding to person k using elements of lambda as the multipliers.