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2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse

Appendix D: Key Definitions, 1999-2001 Survey Years

This appendix is essentially a glossary providing definitions of use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco; mental health; demographic and geographic characteristics; and other terms used in this report. It also describes changes in definitions across the survey years that may have an impact on interpretation of trends. Each entry begins with the current definition of the term, followed by previous definitions that differ from the current definition. Cross-references are included for related terms. Also included is other information regarding interpretation of the data, including such topics as decision rules with regard to rounding.

The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) was conducted in 1971, 1972, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1982, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001. The first survey (1971) is not directly comparable with the other surveys and is not generally included in trend analyses. Since 1972, however, there has been a great deal of consistency in the questions designed to develop estimates of the prevalence of drug use. Minor changes in question wording have been made throughout the survey series to ensure more complete and accurate responses, but these changes are not expected to affect comparability of survey responses. Questions also have been added to the NHSDA at different points in time to reflect changes in the drugs of abuse. For example, questions about the use of the form of cocaine known as "crack" were added in 1988. Questions about smokeless tobacco products and additional questions about cigarette use were added in 1985. Questions about Oxycontin and Rohypnol were added in 1999, and questions about the initiation and recency of use of Ecstasy (MDMA) were added in 2001.

The 1994 NHSDA fielded two questionnaires: NHSDA 1994-A (old), which replicated the data collection instruments and methodology used in 1985, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993; and NHSDA 1994-B (new), which was a revised questionnaire. The new revised questionnaire was designed to facilitate respondent cooperation, enhance the clarity of the questions, improve the accuracy of responses, and increase the reliability of measurements of drug use across survey years. The 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998 NHSDAs fielded questionnaires that replicated the data collection instruments and methodology used in 1994-B. Data collection prior to 1999 used a paper-and-pencil interviewing (PAPI) methodology that also was used in a supplemental sample in 1999. The NHSDA PAPI instrumentation consisted of a questionnaire booklet completed by the interviewer and a set of individual answer sheets completed by the respondent. Although data from the new questionnaires used in 1994-B, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 may be used for measuring trends from 1994 to 1999, these data cannot be compared with those presented in NHSDA Main Findings prior to 1994. Beginning in 1999, the NHSDA interview has been conducted by using a computer-assisted interviewing (CAI) methodology that employs a combination of computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) conducted by the interviewer and audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI). Because of major differences between the CAI and PAPI methods, it is not appropriate to compare the 1999-2001 CAI estimates of substance use prevalence with earlier NHSDA estimates to assess changes over time.

                                                                                                                                                             

Abuse

  A respondent was defined with abuse of a substance if he or she meets one or more of the four criteria for abuse included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) and does not meet the definition for dependence for that substance. An additional criterion for alcohol abuse is that the person must have used alcohol on 6 or more days in the past year; for abuse of marijuana, the person must have used marijuana on 6 or more days in the past year. These questions have been included in the NHSDA since 2000.

Adult Education

SEE:"Education."

Age

 Age of the respondent was defined as "age at time of interview."

Alcohol

 Measures of use of alcohol in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last drank an alcoholic beverage?"

  

Feeder question: "The next questions are about alcoholic beverages, such as, [beer, wine, liquor, brandy, and mixed drinks]... Have you ever, even once, had a drink of an alcoholic beverage?"

 

SEE:

"Current Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

American Indian or Alaska Native

 American Indian or Alaska Native only, not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (including North American, Central American, or South American Indian); does not include respondents reporting more than one race. (Respondents reporting that they were American Indians or Alaska Natives and of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were classified as Hispanic.)

 

SEE:

"Hispanic" and "Race/Ethnicity."

Any Illicit Drug

 This includes marijuana or hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including phencyclidine [PCP], lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD] and Ecstasy [MDMA]), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically.

 

SEE:

"Current Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Any Illicit Drug Other Than Marijuana

 This includes cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens (including phencyclidine [PCP], lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD], and Ecstasy [MDMA]), heroin, or any prescription-type psychotherapeutic used nonmedically, regardless of marijuana use.

 

SEE:

"Current Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Any Use of Tobacco

 This indicates use of any tobacco product: cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipe tobacco. Use of specialty cigarettes (i.e., bidis, clove cigarettes) is not included.

Asian

 Asian only, not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin; does not include respondents reporting more than one race. (Respondents reporting that they were Asian and of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were classified as Hispanic.) Specific Asian groups that were asked about were Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and "Other."

 

SEE:

"Hispanic" and "Race/Ethnicity."

Binge Use of Alcohol

 "Binge use of alcohol" was defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., within a few hours) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.

Black

 Black/African American only, not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin; does not include respondents reporting more than one race. (Respondents reporting that they were black or African American and of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were classified as Hispanic.)

 

SEE:

"Hispanic" and "Race/Ethnicity."

Cigarettes

 Measures of use of cigarettes in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the questions about cigarette use in the past 30 days and the recency of use (if not in the past 30 days): "Now think about the past 30 days - that is, from [DATEFILL] up to and including today. During the past 30 days, have you smoked part or all of a cigarette?" and "How long has it been since you last smoked part or all of a cigarette?"

  Feeder question: "These questions are about tobacco products. This includes cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipe tobacco. The first questions are about cigarettes only. Have you ever smoked part or all of a cigarette?

 

SEE:

"Cigars," "Current Use," "Pipes," "Prevalence," "Recency of Use," and "Smokeless Tobacco."

Cigars

 Measures of use of cigars (including cigarillos and little cigars) in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the questions about cigar use in the past 30 days and the recency of use (if not in the past 30 days): "Now think about the past 30 days - that is, from [DATEFILL] up to and including today. During the past 30 days, have you smoked part or all of any type of cigar?" and "How long has it been since you last smoked part or all of any type of cigar?"

  Feeder question: "These next questions are about smoking cigars. By cigars we mean any kind, including big cigars, cigarillos, and even little cigars that look like cigarettes. Have you ever smoked part or all of any type of cigar?"

 

SEE:

"Cigars," "Current Use," "Pipes," "Prevalence," "Recency of Use," and "Smokeless Tobacco."

Cocaine Measures of use of cocaine in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any form of cocaine?"

  Feeder question: "The questions are about cocaine, including all the different forms of cocaine such as powder, crack, free base, and coca paste. Have you ever, even once, used any form of cocaine?"

 

SEE:

"Crack," "Current Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

College Enrollment Status

 Respondents aged 18 to 22 were classified as full-time undergraduate students or as some other status (including part-time students, students in other grades, or nonstudents). Respondents were classified as full-time students if they reported that they were attending (or will be attending) their first through fourth year of college or university and that they were a full-time student. Respondents whose current enrollment status was unknown were excluded from the analysis.

County Type

 Counties were grouped based on the "Rural-Urban Continuum Codes" developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (1998). Each county is in either a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) or outside of an MSA. Counties in new England were defined using New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMA). Large metropolitan areas have a population of 1 million or more. Small metropolitan areas have a population fewer than 1 million. Nonmetropolitan areas are outside of MSAs and include urbanized counties with a population of 20,000 or more in urbanized areas, less urbanized counties with a population of at least 2,500 but fewer than 20,000 in urbanized areas, and completely rural counties with a population of fewer than 2,500 in urbanized areas.

Crack

 Measures of use of crack cocaine in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used crack?"

  Feeder question: "These questions are about cocaine, including all the different forms of cocaine such as powder, crack, free base, and coca paste. Have you ever, even once, used any form cocaine?"

  "The next questions are about crack in rock or chunk form, and not the other forms of cocaine. Have you ever, even once, used crack?"

 

SEE:

"Cocaine," "Current Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Criminal Behavior

 Adult respondents were asked a series of three questions: "During the past 12 months, how many times have you" . . . "stolen or tried to steal anything worth more than $50?" "sold illegal drugs?" and "attacked someone with the intent to seriously hurt them?" Adolescents aged 12 to 17 were asked the same three questions, as well as questions about three additional behaviors: . . ."gotten into a serious fight at school or work?" "took part in a fight where a group of your friends fought against another group?" and "carried a handgun?" For both adults and adolescents, responses to each question were dichotomized into a yes/no variable. Summary measures also were created to indicate an affirmative response to any of the above questions.

 

SEE:

"Gang Fighting" and "Stealing."

Current Use

 Any reported use of a specific drug in the past month.

 

SEE:

"Prevalence" and "Recency of Use."

Dependence

 A respondent was defined with dependence on a substance if he or she meets three out of seven dependence criteria (for substances with a withdrawal criterion) or three out of six criteria (for substances without a withdrawal criterion) for that substance, based on criteria included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (APA, 1994). An additional criterion for alcohol dependence since 2000 is that a person must have used alcohol on 6 or more days in the past year. An additional criterion for marijuana dependence since 2000 is that a person must have used marijuana on 6 or more days to be defined as dependent on marijuana. The questions used in 1999 were revised in 2000 to measure each DSM-IV criterion for each substance.

Driving Under the Influence

 Respondents were asked whether in the past 12 months they had driven a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol and illegal drugs used together, alcohol only, or illegal drugs only.

Ecstasy

 Measures of use of Ecstasy or MDMA (methylenedioxy-n-methylamphetamine) in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used Ecstasy, also known as MDMA?"

 

SEE:

"Current Use," "Hallucinogens," "LSD," "PCP," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Education

 This is the measure of educational attainment among respondents who are 18 years old. It is based on respondents' reports of their highest level of education completed: less than high school; high school graduate; some college; and college graduate. Persons who completed postgraduate work are classified as college graduates.

Employment

 Respondents were asked to report whether they worked in the week prior to the interview, and if not, whether they had a job despite not working in the past week. Respondents who worked in the past week or who reported having a job despite not working were asked whether they usually work 35 or more hours per week. Respondents who did not work in the past week but had a job were asked to look at a card that described why they did not work in the past week despite having a job. Respondents who did not have a job in the past week were asked to look at a different card that described why they did not have a job in the past week.

Full-time

 "Full-time" in the tables includes respondents who usually work 35 or more hours per week and who worked in the past week or had a job despite not working in the past week.

Part-time

 "Part-time" in the tables includes respondents who usually do not work 35 or more hours per week and who worked in the past week or had a job despite not working in the past week.

Unemployed

 "Unemployed" in the tables refers to respondents who did not have a job, were on layoff, and were looking for work. For consistency with the Current Population Survey definition of unemployment, respondents who reported that they did not have a job but were looking for work needed to report making specific efforts to find work in the past 30 days.

Other

 "Other" includes all other responses, including being a student, someone who is keeping house or caring for children full time, retired, disabled, or other miscellaneous work statuses. Respondents who reported that they did not have a job, were on layoff, and were not looking for work were classified as not being in the labor force. Similarly, respondents who reported not having a job and looking for work also were classified as not being in the labor force if they did not report making specific efforts to find work in the past 30 days.

Ethnicity

SEE:

"Race/Ethnicity."

Ever Use

SEE:

"Lifetime Prevalence."

Exposure to Drug Education and Prevention

 Adolescents were asked: "Please indicate if you have had any of these alcohol or drug education classes or experiences in school during the past 12 months . . .

  

    Have you had a special class about drugs or alcohol?
    Have you had films, lectures, discussions, or printed information about drugs or alcohol in one of your regular classes, such as health, physical education, etc.?
    Have you had films, lectures, discussions, or printed information about drugs or alcohol outside of one of your regular classes, such as in special assemblies?"

(Youths who reported that they were home schooled in the past 12 months also were asked these questions. Youths who reported that they were home schooled were previously instructed to think about their home schooling as "school.")

Youths also were asked: "During the past 12 months, have you seen or heard any alcohol or drug prevention messages from sources outside school, such as in posters, pamphlets, and radio or TV ads?"

Family Income

 Family income was ascertained by asking respondents: "Of these income groups, which category best represents (your/SAMPLE MEMBER's) total combined family income during [the previous calendar year]?... (Income data are important in analyzing the health information we collect. For example, the information helps us to learn whether persons in one income group use certain types of medical care services or have conditions more or less often than those in another group.)"

 

NOTE:

For youths and those unable to respond to income questions, proxy responses were accepted.

Gang Fighting

 Respondents were asked how many times during the past 12 months they had taken part in a fight where a group of their friends fought against another group. Response alternatives were (1) 0 times, (2) 1 or 2 times, (3) 3 to 5 times, (4) 6 to 9 times, or (5) 10 or more times.

 

SEE:

"Criminal Behavior" and "Stealing."

Geographic Division

 Data are presented for nine geographic divisions within the four geographic regions. Within the Northeast Region are the New England Division (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut) and the Middle Atlantic Division (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania). Within the Midwest Region are the East North Central Division (Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio) and the West North Central Division (North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri). Within the South Region are the South Atlantic Division (West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, District of Columbia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida), the East South Central Division (Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama), and the West South Central Division (Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana). Within the West Region are the Mountain Division (Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana) and the Pacific Division (California, Oregon, Washington, Hawaii, Alaska).

 

SEE:

"Region."

Hallucinogens

 Measures of use of hallucinogens in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any hallucinogen?"

  Feeder questions: "The next questions are about substances called hallucinogens. These drugs often cause people to see or experience things that are not real... Have you ever, even once, used LSD, also called acid? Have you ever, even once, used PCP, also called angel dust or phencyclidine? Have you ever, even once, used peyote? Have you ever, even once, used mescaline? Have you ever, even once, used psilocybin, found in mushrooms? Have you ever, even once, used Ecstasy, also known as MDMA? Have you ever, even once used any other hallucinogen besides the ones that have been listed?"

 

SEE:

"Current Use," "Ecstasy," "LSD," "PCP," "Prevalence" and "Recency of Use."

Health Insurance Status

 A series of questions were asked to identify whether respondents were currently covered by Medicare, Medicaid, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), military health care (such as TRICARE or CHAMPUS), private health insurance, or any kind of health insurance (if none of the above were reported). If respondents did not currently have health insurance coverage, questions were asked to determine the length of time they were without coverage, and the reasons for not being covered.

 

NOTE:

For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance questions, proxy responses were accepted.

Heavy Use of Alcohol

 "Heavy use of alcohol" was defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., within a few hours) on 5 or more days in the past 30 days.

 

SEE:

"Alcohol."

Heroin

 Measures of use of heroin in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used heroin?"

  

Feeder question: "These next questions are about heroin. Have you ever, even once, used heroin?"

 

SEE:

"Current Use, "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Hispanic

 "Hispanic" was defined as anyone of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Specific Hispanic subgroups that were asked about were Mexican/Mexican American/Mexicano/Chicano; Puerto Rican; Central or South American; Cuban/Cuban American; and "Other." Respondents reporting that they were of Hispanic Latino, or Spanish origin and in racial groups such as American Indian/Alaska Native, black, more than one race, or white were classified as Hispanic.

 

SEE:

"Asian," "American Indian or Alaska Native," "Black," "More Than One Race," "Race/Ethnicity," and "White."

Illicit Drugs

 Illicit drugs include marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens (including LSD, PCP, or Ecstasy), heroin, or nonmedical use of psychotherapeutics, which include stimulants, sedatives, tranquilizers, and pain relievers. Illicit drug use has referred to use of any of these drugs.

 

SEE:

"Current Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Income

SEE:

"Family Income."

Incidence

 Substance use incidence is the number of new users of a substance within a given year. Incidence estimates are based on questions about age of first use of substances, year and month of first use for recent initiates, the respondent's date of birth, and the interview date. Incidents of first use are classified by year of occurrence and age at the date of first use.

Inhalants

 Measures of use of inhalants in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any inhalant for kicks or to get high?"

  

Feeder questions: "These next questions are about liquids, sprays, and gases that people sniff or inhale to get high or to make them feel good... Have you ever, even once, inhaled [INHALANT NAME] for kicks or to get high?" Respondents were asked about the following inhalants: (a) amyl nitrite, "poppers," locker room odorizers, or "rush"; (b) correction fluid, degreaser, or cleaning fluid; (c) gasoline or lighter fluid; (d) glue, shoe polish, or toluene; (e) halothane, ether, or other anesthetics; (f) lacquer thinner or other paint solvents; (g) lighter gases, such as butane or propane; (h) nitrous oxide or whippets; (i) spray paints; (j) some other aerosol spray; and (k) any other inhalants besides the ones that have been listed.

 

SEE:

"Current Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Low Precision

 Prevalence estimates based on only a few respondents or with relatively large standard errors were not shown in the tables, but have been replaced with an asterisk (*) and noted as "low precision." These estimates have been omitted because one cannot place a high degree of confidence in their accuracy. In statistical terms, low precision estimates were those for which the natural log of the relative standard error (RSE) (i.e., the ratio of the standard error [SE] to the prevalence estimate) was .175 or greater.

LSD

 Measures of use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used LSD?"

 

SEE:

"Current Use," "Ecstasy," "Hallucinogens," "PCP," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Marijuana

 Measures of use of marijuana in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used marijuana or hashish?"

  

Feeder question: "The next questions are about marijuana and hashish. Marijuana is also called pot or grass. Marijuana is usually smoked-either in cigarettes called joints, or in a pipe. It is sometimes cooked in food. Hashish is a form of marijuana that is also called hash. It is usually smoked in a pipe. Another form of hashish is hash oil. Have you ever, even once, used marijuana or hash?"

 

SEE:

"Current Use," "Prevalence" and "Recency of Use."

Mental Health Treatment

 For adults, mental health treatment is defined as treatment or counseling for any problem with emotions, nerves, or mental health in the 12 months prior to interview in any inpatient or outpatient setting, or the use of prescription medication for treatment of a mental or emotional condition. For youths aged 12 to 17, mental health treatment is defined as receiving treatment or counseling for problems with behaviors or emotions from specific mental health or other health professionals in school, home, outpatient or inpatient settings within the 12 months prior to interview. Treatment for only a substance abuse problem is not included for adults or youths.

Methamphetamine

 Measures of use of methamphetamine (also known as crank, crystal, ice, or speed), Desoxyn, or Methedrine in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used Methamphetamine, Desoxyn, or Methedrine?"

 

SEE:

"Current Use," "Stimulants," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

More Than One Race

 Respondents were asked to report which racial group describes them and were allowed to report multiple groups. Persons reporting more than one race and that they were not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were included in this category. This category does not include respondents who reported more than one Asian subgroup but who reported "Asian" as their only race. Respondents reporting more than one race and reporting that they were of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were classified as Hispanic.

 

SEE:

"Hispanic" and "Race/Ethnicity."

Need for Illicit Drug Treatment

 Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an illicit drug problem in the past 12 months if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependent on any illicit drug; (2) abuse of any illicit drug; or (3) received treatment for an illicit drug problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers) in the past 12 months.

 

SEE:

"Abuse," "Dependence," Specialty Treatment Facility," "Substance Abuse Treatment," and "Treatment Gap."

Needle Use

 Needle use was derived from specific questions about use of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, other stimulants, or any other drug with a needle. Additional questions are asked about sharing needles, reusing needles, using bleach to clean needles before use, and where the needles were obtained.

Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic

 The section of the interview instrument deals with nonmedical use of four classes of psychotherapeutics: pain relievers, sedatives, stimulants, and tranquilizers.

  

Measures of use of nonmedical psychotherapeutic agents in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any prescription [pain reliever, sedative, stimulant, or tranquilizer] that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

  

Feeder question: "Now we have some questions about drugs that people are supposed to take only if they have a prescription from a doctor. We are only interested in your use of a drug if: the drug was not prescribed for you, or if you took the drug only for the experience or feeling it caused."

 

NOTE:

The pill card contains pictures and names of specific drugs within each psychotherapeutic category. For example, pictures and the names of Valium, Librium, and other tranquilizers are shown when the section on tranquilizers is introduced.

 

SEE:

"Pain Relievers," "Pill Cards," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Sedatives," "Stimulants," "Tranquilizers," "Current Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Northeast Region

 The States included are those in the New England Division- Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont-and the Middle Atlantic Division-New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania.

 

SEE:

"Region" and "Geographic Division."

Pain Relievers

 Measures of use of prescription pain relievers in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any prescription pain reliever that was not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

  

Feeder question: "The questions in this section are about the use of pain relievers. We are not interested in your use of "over- the-counter" pain relievers such as aspirin, Tylenol, or Advil that can be bought in drug stores or grocery stores without a doctor's prescription. Card A shows pictures of some different types of pain relievers and lists the names of some others. These pictures show only pills, but we are interested in your use of any form of prescription pain relievers that were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused."

  

The following prescription pain relievers were listed on Pill Card A (Pain Relievers): (1) Darvocet®, Darvon®, or Tylenol® with Codeine; (2) Percocet®, Percodan®, or Tylox®; (3) Vicodin®, Lortab®, or Lorcet®/Lorcet Plus®; (4) Codeine; (5) Demerol®; (6) Dilaudid®; (7) Fioricet®; (8) Fiorinal®; (9) Hydrocodone; (10) Methadone; (11) Morphine; (12) Oxycontin®; (13) Phenaphen® with Codeine; (14) Propoxyphene; (15) SK-65®; (16) Stadol® (no picture); (17) Talacen®; (18) Talwin®; (19) Talwin NX®; (20) Tramadol (no picture); and (21) Ultram®.

 

SEE:

"Current Use," "Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Recency of Use," "Sedatives," "Stimulants," and "Tranquilizers."

PCP

 Measures of use of phencyclidine (PCP) in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used PCP?"

 

SEE:

"Current Use," "Ecstasy," "Hallucinogens," "LSD," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Perceived Risk/ Harmfulness

 Respondents were asked to assess the extent to which people risk harming themselves physically and in other ways when they use various illicit drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes, with various levels of frequency.

Percentages

 The percentages in the tables are based on weighted data, and they are presented to one digit beyond the decimal point. In this report, all the 2001 tables contain percentages based on weighted data.

 

SEE:

"Rounding."

Pill Cards

 The pill cards contain pictures and names of specific drugs within each psychotherapeutic category. For example, pictures and the names of Valium, Librium, and other tranquilizers are shown when the questionnaire section on tranquilizers is introduced. Pill cards have been modified over the years to reflect changes in available psychotherapeutic drugs.

 

SEE:

"Nonmedical Use Any Psychotherapeutic," "Pain Relievers," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Sedatives," "Stimulants," "Tranquilizers," "Current Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Prevalence

 General term used to describe the estimates for lifetime, past year, and past month use.

 

SEE:

"Current Use" and "Recency of Use."

Psychotherapeutic Drugs

 Psychotherapeutic drugs are generally prescription medications that also can be used illicitly to "get high" or for other effects. These include pain relievers, sedatives, stimulants, and tranquilizers.

 

SEE:

"Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic," "Pain Relievers," "Sedatives," "Stimulants," "Tranquilizers," "Pill Cards," "Current Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Race/Ethnicity

 Race/ethnicity is used to refer to the respondent's self-classification as to racial and ethnic origin and identification. Categories included Hispanic, non-Hispanic groups where respondents indicated only one race (white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Asian), and non-Hispanic groups where respondents reported more than one race.

 

SEE:

"American Indian or Alaska Native," "Asian," "Black," "Hispanic," "More Than One Race," and "White."

Recency of Use

 The recency question for each drug was the source for the lifetime, past year, and past month prevalence rates.

  

The question was essentially the same for all classes of drugs. The question was: "How long has it been since you last used [drug name]?" For the four classes of psychotherapeutics, the phrase "that was not prescribed for you or only for the experience or feeling it caused" was added after the name of the drug.

  

For tobacco products (cigarettes, snuff, chewing tobacco, or cigars), the response alternatives were (1) within the past 30 days; (2) more than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months; (3) more than 12 months ago but within the past 3 years; (4) more than 3 years ago. For the remaining drugs, the response alternatives were (1) within the past 30 days; (2) more than 30 days ago but within the past 12 months; and (3) more than 12 months ago.

 

SEE:

"Prevalence" and "Current Use."

Region

 There were four regions to consider: Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. These regions are based on classifications developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.

 

SEE:

"Northeast Region," "Midwest Region," "South Region," and "West Region."

Rounding

 The decision rules for the rounding of percentages were as follows. If the second number to the right of the decimal point was greater than or equal to 5, the first number to the right of the decimal point was rounded up to the next higher number. If the second number to the right of the decimal point was less than 5, the first number to the right of the decimal point remained the same. Thus, a prevalence rate of 16.55 percent would be rounded to 16.6 percent, while a rate of 16.44 percent would be rounded to 16.4 percent. Although the percentages in the 2001 tables generally total 100 percent, the use of rounding sometimes produces a total of slightly less than or more than 100 percent.

 

SEE:

"Percentages."

Sedatives

 Measures of use of sedatives in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any prescription sedative that was not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

  

Feeder question: "The questions in this section are about the use of sedatives and barbiturates. These drugs are also called downers or sleeping pills. People take these drugs to help them relax or to help them sleep. We are not interested in the use of over-the-counter sedatives such as Sominex, Unisom, Nytol, or Benadryl that can be bought in drug stores or grocery stores without a doctor's prescription. Card D shows pictures of different kinds of prescription sedatives and lists the names of some others. These pictures show only pills, but we are interested in your use of any form of prescription sedatives that were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused."

  

The following prescription sedatives were listed on Pill Card D (Sedatives): (1) Methaqualone (includes Sopor®, Quaalude®) (no picture); (2) Nembutal®, Pentobarbital (no picture), Seconal®, Secobarbital (no picture), or Butalbital (no picture); (3) Restoril® or Temazepam; (4) Amytal®; (5) Butisol®; (6) Chloral Hydrate (no picture); (7) Dalmane®; (8) Halcion®; (9) Phenobarbital; (10) Placidyl®; and (11) Tuinal®.

 

SEE:

"Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic," "Pain Relievers," "Pill Cards," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Stimulants," "Tranquilizers," "Current Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

Serious Mental Illness

 Serious mental illness (SMI) is defined as having at some time during the past 12 months a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder that met the criteria for a DSM-IV (APA, 1994) disorder and that resulted in functional impairment that substantially interfered with or limited one or more major life activities. The questions that measured SMI in the 2001 NHSDA consisted of a short scale of six questions that asked respondents how often they experienced symptoms of psychological distress during the 1 month in the past 12 months when they were at their worst emotionally (see Section B.5 in Appendix B).

Significance

 In tables in which trends are shown, the levels of significance for the changes between the two most recent survey years are noted as follows: .05 and .01. A significance level of .05 is used in comparing two rates in the text for demographic subgroups of the most recent survey sample.

Smokeless Tobacco Use

 Measures of use of smokeless tobacco in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the questions about snuff and chewing tobacco use in the past 30 days and the recency of use (if not in the past 30 days): "Now think about the past 30 days-that is, from [DATEFILL] up to and including today. During the past 30 days, have you used snuff, even once?" "How long has it been since you last used snuff?" "Now think about the past 30 days-that is, from [DATEFILL] up to and including today. During the past 30 days, have you used chewing tobacco, even once?" and "How long has it been since you last used chewing tobacco?"

  

Feeder questions: "These next questions are about your use of snuff, sometimes called dip... Have you ever used snuff, even once?" and "These next questions are only about chewing tobacco... Have you ever used chewing tobacco, even once?"

 

SEE:

"Cigarettes," "Cigars," "Current Use," "Prevalence," and "Recency of Use."

South Region

 The States included are those in the South Atlantic Division- Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; the East South Central Division-Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; and the West South Central Division-Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma.

 

SEE:

"Region" and "Geographic Division"

Specialty Cigarettes

 The section of the interview instrument deals with use of the following types of specialty cigarettes: (a) bidis (or "beedies"), which are small brown cigarettes from India consisting of tobacco wrapped in a leaf and tied with a thread; and (b) clove cigarettes, which are cigarettes containing tobacco and clove flavoring.

Specialty Treatment Facility

 Defined as drug or alcohol rehabilitation facilities (inpatient or outpatient), hospitals (inpatient only), and mental health centers.

 

SEE:

"Need for Illicit Drug Treatment," "Substance Abuse Treatment," and "Treatment Gap."

Stealing

 Respondents were asked how many times during the past 12 months they had stolen or tried to steal anything worth more than $50. Response alternatives were (1) 0 times, (2) 1 or 2 times, (3) 3 to 5 times, (4) 6 to 9 times, or (5) 10 or more times.

 

SEE:

"Criminal Behavior" and "Gang Fighting."

Stimulants

 Measures of use of stimulants in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any prescription stimulant that was not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

  

Feeder question: "These next questions are about the use of drugs such as amphetamines that are known as stimulants, uppers, or speed. People sometimes take these drugs to lose weight, to stay awake, or for attention deficit disorders. We are not interested in the use of over-the-counter stimulants such as Dexatrim or No-Doz that can be bought in drug stores or grocery stores without a doctor's prescription. Card C shows pictures of some different kinds of prescription stimulants and lists the names of some others. These pictures show only pills, but we are interested in your use of any form of prescription stimulants that were not prescribed for you or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused."

  

The following prescription stimulants were listed on Pill Card C (Stimulants): (1) Methamphetamine (crank, crystal, ice, or speed) (no picture), Desoxyn®, or Methedrine (no picture); (2) Amphetamines (no picture), Benzedrine®, Biphetamine®, Fastin®, or Phentermine; (3) Ritalin® or Methylphenidate; (4) Cylert®; (5) Dexedrine®; (6) Dextroamphetamine (no picture); (7) Didrex®; (8) Eskatrol®; (9) Ionamin®; (10); Mazanor®; (11) Obedrin-LA® (no picture); (12) Plegine®; (13) Preludin®; (14) Sanorex®; and (15) Tenuate®.

 

SEE:

"Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," "Recency of Use," "Pain Relievers," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Sedatives," "Tranquilizers," and "Current Use."

Substance Abuse Treatment

 Respondents were asked if they had received treatment for alcohol use, illicit drug use, or both alcohol and illicit drug use in the past 12 months in any of the following locations: a hospital overnight as an inpatient, a residential drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility where you stayed overnight, a drug or alcohol rehabilitation facility as an outpatient, an emergency room, a private doctor's office, prison or jail, a self-help group, or some other place.

Tobacco

SEE:"Cigarettes," "Cigars," and "Smokeless Tobacco Use."

Total Family Income

SEE:"Family Income."

Tranquilizers

 Measures of use of tranquilizers in the respondent's lifetime, the past year, and the past month were developed from responses to the question about recency of use: "How long has it been since you last used any prescription tranquilizer that was not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling it caused?"

  

Feeder question: "These next questions ask about the use of tranquilizers. Tranquilizers are usually prescribed to relax people, to calm people down, to relieve anxiety, or to relax muscle spasms. Some people call tranquilizers nerve pills. Card B shows pictures of some different kinds of prescription tranquilizers. These pictures show only pills, but we are interested in your use of any form of prescription tranquilizers that were not prescribed for you, or that you took only for the experience or feeling they caused."

  

The following prescription tranquilizers were listed on Pill Card B (Tranquilizers): (1) Klonopin® or Clonazepam; (2) Xanax®, Alprazolam, Ativan®, or Lorazepam; (3) Valium® or Diazepam; (4) Atarax®; (5) BuSpar®; (6) Equanil®; (7) Flexeril®; (8) Librium®; (9) Limbitrol®; (10) Meprobamate; (11) Miltown®; (12) Rohypnol®; (13) Serax®; (14) Soma®; (15) Tranxene®; and (16) Vistaril®.

 

SEE: 

"Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic," "Pill Cards," "Prevalence," "Psychotherapeutic Drugs," "Pain Relievers," "Sedatives, "Stimulants," "Recency of Use," and "Current Use."

Treatment Gap

 The treatment gap is the difference between the number of people needing illicit drug treatment in the past 12 months and the number of people receiving treatment for an illicit drug problem at a specialty treatment facility in the past 12 months.

 

SEE: 

"Need for Illicit Drug Treatment," "Specialty Treatment Facility," and "Substance Abuse Treatment."

Unmet Need

 Unmet treatment or counseling need is defined as a perceived need for mental health treatment that was not received in the past year.

 

SEE:

"Mental Health Treatment"

Welfare Assistance

 Household participation in one or more government assistance programs during the prior calendar year was defined as one or more family members receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI), food stamps, cash, or noncash assistance. SSI provides payments to low-income, aged, blind, and disabled persons. Food stamps are government-issued coupons used to purchase food. Cash assistance refers to cash payments through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), welfare, or other public assistance. Noncash assistance refers to services such as help getting a job, placement in an education or job training program, or help with transportation, child care, or housing.

 

NOTE:

For youths and those respondents who were unable to respond to the insurance or income questions, proxy responses were accepted.

West

 The States included are those in the Mountain Division- Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and the Pacific Division-Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

 

SEE:

"Region" and "Geographic Division"

White

 White, not of Hispanic, Spanish, or Latino origin; does not include respondents reporting more than one race. (Respondents reporting that they were white and of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin were classified as Hispanic.)

 

SEE:

"Hispanic" and "Race/Ethnicity."


Table Of Contents

This page was last updated on June 16, 2008.