Highlights of Recent Reports on Substance Abuse and Mental Health
Released in 2007

bulletAll reports by year of release:  2009     2008      2007      2006      2005      2004     2003      2002     2001 (reports are listed from most recent to earliest release)

bulletAll reports released in 2007 (listed from most recent to earliest release):

  • The DASIS Report: Male Admissions with Co-occurring Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders, 2005  Male admissions to substance abuse treatment reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders were more likely than those without these co-occurring disorders to have started using alcohol and/or illicit drugs before age 13 (18% vs. 13%). The largest differences between first use before age 13 for the co-occurring vs. non co-occurring groups of male substance abuse treatment admissions were for alcohol (24% vs. 16%) and marijuana (32% vs. 23%).   Among male substance abuse treatment admissions reporting alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, or stimulants as the primary substance of abuse, those with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders were more likely than those without co-occurring disorders to report daily use of these substances.   Male substance abuse treatment admissions with co-occurring disorders were more likely than those without co-occurring disorders to report five or more prior substance abuse treatment episodes (17% vs. 10%).
  • The NSDUH Report: Depression and the Initiation of Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Young Adults  Combined data from SAMHSA's 2005 and 2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health found an annual average of 9.4% of young adults (about 3 million) had experienced at least one major depressive episode during the past year. Rates of major depressive episode varied by gender, racial group, and Hispanic status.  About 1.5 million young adults (25.1% of the young adults who had not used alcohol previously) used alcohol for the first time in the past year.   About 870,000 young adults (6.1% of the young adults who had not used an illicit drug previously) used at least one illicit drug in the past year.  Among young adults who had not used alcohol previously, 33.7% of those with a major depressive episode started using alcohol compared with 24.8% of the young adults who had not experienced a major depressive episode in the past year.  Among young adults who had not used any illicit drug previously, those who experienced a major depressive episode in the past year were twice as likely to have initiated use of an illicit drug than young adults who had not experienced a major depressive episode in the past year (12.0% vs. 5.8%).
  • The DASIS Report: Older Adults in Substance Abuse Treatment, 2005   Substance abuse treatment admissions aged 50 or older accounted for about 184,400 (10%) of the 1.8 million substance abuse treatment admissions reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) in 2005.     Alcohol was the most frequently reported primary substance of abuse for all substance abuse treatment admissions aged 50 or older. However, the highest proportions of substance abuse treatment admissions reporting alcohol as their primary substance were among those aged 65 to 69 (76%) and aged 70 or older (76%).   Substance abuse treatment admissions aged 50 to 64 had more extensive substance abuse treatment histories than admissions aged 65 or older.
  • The NSDUH Report: Serious Psychological Distress and Substance Use Disorder among Veterans    Combined data from SAMHSA's 2004 - 2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health indicate than an annual average of 7% of veterans aged 18 or older experienced past year serious psychological distress, 7.1% met the criteria for a past year substance use disorder, and 1.5% had co-occurring serious psychological distress and substance use disorder.  Veterans aged 18 to 25 were more likely than older veterans to have higher rates of serious psychological distress, substance use disorder, or co-occurring psychological distress and substance use disorder in the past year.  Veterans with family incomes of less than $20,000 per year were more likely than veterans with higher family incomes to have had serious psychological distress, substance use disorder, or co-occurring psychological distress and substance use disorder in the past year.
  • The DASIS Report: Marital Status and Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions, 2005   Based on SAMHSA's 2005 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), 52% of the substance abuse treatment admissions aged 25 to 44 had never married, 28% were formerly married, and 20% were currently married.  Based on the 2000 Census for persons aged 25 to 44 in the nation as a whole, 25% had never married, 14% were formerly married, and 61% were currently married.  Substance abuse treatment admissions who had never married (44%) were more likely than those were formerly (39%) or currently married (36%) to report daily use of their primary substance.  Substance abuse treatment admissions who had never married were more likely to have extensive treatment histories and less likely to be entering substance abuse treatment for the first time than other substance abuse treatment admissions aged 25 to 44 in 2005.
  • The OAS Report:  A Day in the Life of American Adolescents: Substance Use Facts  Facts about substance use among youth aged 12 to 17 are based on data from SAMHSA's 2006 National Survey on Drug Use & Health (NSDUH) and SAMHSA's 2005 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), and for clients under the age of 18 from SAMHSA's 2005 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS). Data are presented on first substance use, past year substance use, receipt of substance use treatment, and source of substance use treatment referrals "on an average day."  On an average day in 2006, youth used the following substances for the first time: 7,970 drank alcohol for the first time, 4,348 used an illicit drug for the first time, 4,082 smoked cigarettes for the first time, 3,577 used marijuana for the first time, and 2,517 used pain relievers nonmedically for the first time.  Youth who used alcohol in the past month drank an average of 4.7 drinks per day on the days they drank and those who smoked cigarettes in the past month smoked an average of 4.6 cigarettes per day on the days they smoked.  On a average day in 2005, the number of youth admissions to substance abuse treatment were referred by the following sources: 189 by the criminal justice system; 66 by self-referral or referral from other individuals; 43 by schools; 37 by community organizations; 22 by alcohol or drug treatment providers; and 18 by other health providers.  On an average day in 2005, active substance abuse treatment clients under the age of 18 received the following the types of substance abuse treatment: 76,240 were clients in outpatient treatment; 10,313 were clients in non-hospital residential treatment; and 1,058 were clients in hospital inpatient treatment.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Depression Among Adults Employed Full-time by Occupational Category    Combined data from SAMHSA's 2004 to 2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health were used to determine rates of past year depressive episodes among employed adults by age, gender, and occupational category. SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health found an annual average of 7% of full time workers aged 18 to 64 had experienced a major depressive episode in the past year.    Differences in depression rates were found by age, gender, and occupational category.    Among the 21 major occupational categories, the highest rates of past year major depressive episode among full time employed workers aged 18 to 64 were found in the personal care and service occupations (10.8%) and the food preparation and service related occupations (10.3%).    The occupational categories with the lowest rates of major depressive episode were engineering, architecture and surveying (4.3%); life, physical, and social science (4.4%), and installation, maintenance, and repair (4.4%).
  • The NSDUH Report: Substance Use Treatment among Women of Childrearing Age      Combined data from SAMHSA's National Surveys on Drug Use & Health conducted from 2004 to 2006 indicate that an annual average of 6.3 million women (9.4%) aged 18 to 49 needed treatment for a substance use problem.     Of the women aged 18 to 49 who met criteria for needing substance use treatment in the past year, 84.2% neither received it nor perceived the need for substance use treatment. Only 5.5% of women in this age group had a perceived unmet treatment need (i.e., did not receive substance use treatment even though they thought they needed it).    The reasons for not receiving substance use treatment among the women with an unmet treatment need were as follows: 36.1% were not ready to stop using alcohol or illicit drugs, 34.4% could not cover their treatment costs because of no or inadequate health insurance coverage, and 28.9% did not seek substance use treatment because of social stigma.
  • The NSDUH Report: Cigarette Use Among Blacks, 2005 and 2006   Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use & Health, 24.4% of Blacks aged 12 or older were current smokers, that is, smoked cigarettes in the past month.    Among Blacks who were current smokers, 80.4% smoked menthol cigarettes. Black females were more likely to smoke menthol cigarettes than males (84.3% vs. 77.1%). An annual average of 263,000 Blacks smoked cigarettes for the first time in the 12 months before the survey in 2005 or 2006. Among those who had not smoked cigarettes previously, Black youths aged 16-17 (7.7%) were most likely to begin smoking and Black adults aged 35 or older (0.1%) were least likely to start smoking cigarettes.
  • The DASIS Report:  Cocaine Route of Administration Trends, 1995-2005    Trends in admissions to substance abuse treatment for cocaine and cocaine route of administration were examined with annual data from SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS).   In 1995, 63% of primary smoked cocaine (crack) were younger than age 35. By 2005, only 32% of primary crack admissions were in this age group.    The proportion of both inhaled and smoked cocaine (crack) admissions who were employed full time decreased between 1995 and 2005.
  • The NSDUH Report:   Worker Substance Use by Industry Category    Based on combined data from SAMHSA's annual National Surveys on Drug Use and Health in 2004 and 2005, rates of alcohol and illicit drug use were assessed by industry category among adult workers aged 18 to 64 currently employed full time.   An annual average of 8.2% full time workers aged 18 to 64 used illicit drugs in the past month and 8.8% used alcohol heavily in the past month. The highest rates of past month illicit drug use were found in the accommodations and food services industry (16.9%) and the construction industry (13.7%). The highest rates of past month heavy alcohol use were found in the construction industry (15.9%), arts, entertainment, and recreation industry (13.6%), and the mining industry (13.7%).
  • The NSDUH Report:  Gender Differences in Alcohol Use and Alcohol Dependence or Abuse - 2004 and 2005   Based on combined data from SAMHSA's 2004-2005 National Surveys on Drug Use & Health, the rate of past year alcohol dependence or abuse among persons aged 12 or older varied by level of alcohol use: 44.7% of past month heavy drinkers, 18.5% binge drinkers, 3.8% past month non-binge drinkers, and 1.3% of those who did not drink alcohol in the past month met the criteria for alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year.   Males had higher rates than females for all measures of drinking in the past month: any alcohol use (57.5% vs. 45%), binge drinking (30.8% vs. 15.1%), and heavy alcohol use (10.5% vs. 3.3%).    Also, males were twice as likely as females to have met the criteria for alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year (10.5% vs. 5.1%).
  • The NSDUH Report:  Demographic and Geographic Variations in Injection Drug Use    Based on SAMHSA's 2002 to 2005 National Surveys on Drug Use & Health (NSDUH), an annual average of 424,000 persons (0.2%) aged 12 or older injected heroin, cocaine, methamphetamines, or other stimulants during the past year.  Persons living in the West were the most likely to inject methamphetamines and those in the Northeast the least likely to inject methamphetamines (0.12% vs. 0.02%).  Persons living in the Northeast were the most likely to inject heroin and those in the Midwest the least likely to inject heroin (0.13% vs. 0.05%).  Persons living in the South were the most likely to inject cocaine than those in any other region (0.10% vs. 0.06%).
  • Worker Substance Use and Workplace Policies and Programs  (OAS Analytic Series # A-29)  Combined data from SAMHSA's 2002, 2003, and 2004 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health for full time workers aged 18 to 64 found an average past month prevalence of illicit drug use of 8.2% and of heavy alcohol use of 8.8%.  The major industry groups with the highest rates of illicit drug use in the past month were accommodations and food services (16.9%) and construction (13.7%).  Those with the lowest rates of illicit drug use in the past month were public administration (4.1%), educational services (4.0%), and utilities (3.8%).  The major industry groups with the highest rates of heavy alcohol use in the past month were construction (13.6%); arts, entertainment, and recreation (13.6%); and mining (13.3%).  Those with the lowest rates of heavy alcohol use in the past month were health care and social assistance (4.3%) and educational services (4.0%).
  • The DASIS Report:  Treatment Admissions with Medicaid as the Primary Expected or Actual Payment Source, 2005  In SAMHSA's 2005 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) there were almost 614.300 substance abuse treatment facilities with known primary source of payment in the States with sufficient data for analysis. Nearly 81,100 of these substance abuse treatment admissions (13%) reported Medicaid as their primary expected or actual source of payment. Other payment sources included: other government sources (35%), self pay (23%), Blue Cross/Blue Shield (2%), other health insurance companies (4%), Medicare (1%), worker's compensation (<1%), or other unspecified sources (10%). About 12% were no charge substance abuse treatment admissions (free, charity, special research/teaching). Compared to substance abuse treatment admissions paid for by non Medicaid sources, higher proportions of Medicaid-paid admissions in 2005 were young, female, Black, or "not in the labor force." Medicaid-paid substance abuse treatment admissions were more likely to report marijuana as their primary substance of abuse (26% vs. 17%) and less likely to report alcohol as their primary substance of abuse (28% vs. 42%).
  • The NSDUH Report: Patterns of Hallucinogen Use and Initiation: 2004 and 2005  Combined data from SAMHSA's 2004 and 2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health indicate that an annual average of 943,000 persons aged 12 or older were recent initiates of hallucinogens (i.e., they had used hallucinogens for the first time in the 12 months before the survey).  Of these recent hallucinogen initiates, 52.3% had used psilocybin mushrooms and 42.9% used Ecstasy in the past year.
  • The DASIS Report:  Admissions with Five or More Prior Treatment Episodes: 2005    Most of the substance abuse treatment admissions in 2005 reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) were either first-time admissions (46%) or had between one and four previous treatment episodes (44%). The remaining 10% had five or more previous treatment episodes.   Substance abuse treatment admissions reporting 5 or more prior treatment episodes were more likely than first time admissions to report opiates as their primary substance of abuse (37% vs. 11%).  First time substance abuse treatment admissions were more likely to report marijuana (22% vs. 5%) or stimulants (12% vs. 4%) than admissions with 5 or more prior substance abuse treatment episodes.  Admissions with 5 or more prior treatment episodes were more likely than first time admissions to have been homeless (24% vs. 8%).
  • The NSDUH Report:  Illicit Drug Use by Race/Ethnicity in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Counties: 2004 and 2005  SAMHSA's National Survey of Drug Use and Health provides data on past month use of the following: any illicit drug, marijuana, and nonmedical use of prescription type drugs by race/ethnicity. This report also presents these by metropolitan status.   Among whites and Hispanics: past month use of any illicit drug, marijuana, or nonmedical prescription drugs was lowest in non metropolitan areas than in any other area.  Among blacks: past month use of any illicit drug or marijuana was lowest in non metropolitan areas than in any other area but nonmedical prescription drug use was highest in non metropolitan areas.  Among American Indians/Alaska Natives: past month use of any illicit drug or nonmedical prescription drug use was lowest in large metropolitan areas than in any other area but marijuana use was lowest in non metropolitan areas. 
  • Comparing Drug Testing and Self Report of Drug Use Among Youths and Young Adults in the General Population   This validity study was conducted in the continuing effort to improve SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use & Health. This 214 page validity report provides data comparing respondents' self reported drug use with drug tests for tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, opiates, and amphetamines. Drug testing included both urine and hair specimens. Other methodological issues examined included the technical aspects of collecting urine and hair samples, the willingness of respondents to provide specimens, and questionnaire strategies.
  • The DASIS Report:  Facilities Offering Special Treatment Programs or Groups   SAMHSA's National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) provides information as to whether substance abuse treatment facilities offered special services.  These special treatment services include specially designed treatment programs for adolescents, clients with co-occurring substance abuse and mental disorders, criminal justice clients, persons with HIV or AIDS, gays or lesbians, pregnant or postpartum women, adult women, adult men, seniors or older adults, and persons arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs (DUI) or driving while intoxicated (DWI).   A total of 13,371 substance abuse treatment facilities responded to the 2005 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services and 83% of them offered at least one special program or group addressing particular needs of specific client types.   The most commonly offered special program or group was for persons with co-occurring substance abuse and mental disorders (38%).
  • The NSDUH Report: State Estimates of Depression, 2004 & 2005   Combined data from SAMHSA's 2004 and 2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health were used to get State level estimates of major depressive episodes in the past year.   Combined 2004 and 2005 data indicate that 8.88% of youths aged 12 to 17 and 7.65% of adults aged 18 or older experienced at least one major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year.   Among youth, rates of depression in the past year were among the highest in Idaho (10.37%) and Nevada (10.28%) and among the lowest in Louisiana (7.19%) and South Dakota (7.40%).   Among adults, rates of depression in the past year were among the highest in Utah (10.14%) and Rhode Island (9.88%) and among the lowest in Hawaii (6.74%) and New Jersey (6.81%).
  • The DASIS Report: Adults Aged 65 or Older in Substance Abuse Treatment, 2005    Based on SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), the total substance abuse treatment population increased by 10% between 1995 and 2005.   At the same time, the number of substance abuse treatment admissions among persons aged 65 or older decreased by 7% from 12,100 to 11,300 admissions.   In each year from 1995 to 2005, alcohol was the most frequently reported primary substance of abuse for substance abuse treatment admissions aged 65 or older.  However, the proportion of substance abuse treatment admissions aged 65 or older reporting alcohol as their primary substance declined from 84.7% in 1995 to 75.9% in 2005. Between 1995 and 2005, primary opiate admissions increased from 6.6% to 10.6% among adults aged 65 or older.  The States with the highest rates of substance abuse treatment admissions aged 65 or older were Colorado (166 admissions per 100,000 population), New York (125 admissions per per 100,000 population), and South Dakota (111 admissions per 100,000 population).   States with the lowest rates were Kentucky (35 admissions per 100,000 population), Iowa (36 admissions per 100,000 population), and Washington (37 admissions per 100,000 population).
  • The DASIS Report: Adolescent Treatment Admissions by Gender, 2005   Based on SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), of the 142,600 adolescent admissions aged 12 to 17 in 2005, about 31% (44,600) were female.   Adolescent female substance abuse treatment admissions were less likely than adolescent male admissions to report marijuana as their primary substance of abuse (51% vs. 72%) and more likely to report alcohol (23% vs. 16%) or stimulants (12% vs. 4%) as their primary substance of abuse.    Adolescent female admissions to substance abuse treatment were more likely than adolescent male substance abuse treatment admissions to have a co-occurring psychiatric and substance abuse disorder (23% vs. 18%).
  • The NSDUH Report:   Work Absences and Past Month Cigarette Use: 2004 and 2005    Based on combined data from SAMHSA's annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2004 and 2005, worker absenteeism by cigarette smoking status was assessed among adult workers aged 18 to 64 currently employed full time.   Current cigarette smoking (i.e., smoked cigarettes in the month prior to the survey) was reported by 42.8% of full-time employed adults aged 18-25, 33.1% of those aged 16-34, 28.8% of those aged 35-44, and 22.3% of those aged 45-64.   Among adults aged 18 to 64 who were currently employed full time, 20.1% missed at least one day of work in the past month due to illness or injury.   Among currently full time employed adults, current cigarette smokers were more likely to have missed work on 5 or more days in the past month due to illness or injury than those who did not smoke cigarettes in the prior month.
  • The DASIS Report:  Length of Stay for Outpatient Discharges Completing Treatment: 2004   SAMHSA's annual Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) provides data on the median length of stay for substance abuse treatment patients who completed outpatient treatment in the nation's specialty substance abuse treatment facilities.  "Outpatient" care included not only regular outpatient visits but also intensive outpatient treatment (defined as a minimum of 2 hours per day on 3 or more days per week), detoxification, and day treatment with partial hospitalization. Outpatient treatment episodes where methadone use was planned were not included in this analysis of median length of stay (LOS). Increased length of stay has been associated with improved treatment outcomes.   Length of stay among those who completed outpatient substance abuse treatment in 2004 varied by primary substance of abuse, race/ethnicity, completed education, and source of referral.  
  • The NSDUH Report: Depression and the Initiation of Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Youths Aged 12 to 17   Data from SAMHSA's 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health were used to examine the following in the past year: major depressive episode, initiation of alcohol or illicit drug use, and the association between such new alcohol and/or illicit drug use and major depressive episode. In 2005, 8.8% of youth (about 2.2 million youth) had experienced at least one major depressive episode during the past year.   Rates of major depressive episode varied by gender and age. About 2.7 million youth (15.4% of the youth who had not used alcohol previously) used alcohol for the first time in the past year.   About 1.5 million youth (7.6% of the youth who had not used an illicit drug previously) used at least one illicit drug in the past year. Among youth who had not used alcohol or an illicit drug previously, those with a major depressive episode were about twice as likely to start using alcohol or an illicit drug as youth who had not experienced a major depressive episode in the past year.   Among youth who had not used alcohol previously, 29.2% of those with a major depressive episode initiated alcohol use compared with 14.5% youth who had not experienced a major depressive episode in the past year. Among youth who had not used an illicit drug previously, 16.1% of those with a major depressive episode initiated illicit drug use compared with 6.9% youth who had not experienced a major depressive episode in the past year.
  • The DASIS Report:  Heroin - - Changes in How It Is Used, 1995-2005   Based on SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), annual admissions to substance abuse treatment for primary heroin abuse increased from 228,000 in 1995 to 254,000 in 2005. However, the proportion of primary heroin admissions remained steady at about 14% to 15% of all substance abuse treatment admissions. The proportion of primary heroin admissions who injected heroin declined from 69% in 1995 to 63% in 2005. The proportion who inhaled heroin increased from 27% among the primary heroin admissions in 1995 to 33% in 2005. The proportion of primary heroin injection admissions for which medication-assisted opioid therapy was planned declined from 55% in 1995 to 31% of the primary heroin injection admissions in 2005. However, for primary heroin inhalation admissions, the proportion of planned medication-assisted opioid therapy remained stable at about 30% of primary heroin inhalation admissions during the decade.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Youth Activities, Substance Use, and Family Income    Based on SAMHSA's 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 92.4% of youths aged 12 to 17 participated in one or more school-based, community-based, church or faith-based, or other such activities during the past year: 27.1% participated in one to three activities, 31.4% participated in four to six activities, and 33.9% participated in seven or more activities in the past year.   Youth in families of lower income were more likely not to participate in any school-based, community-based, church or faith-based or related activities; however, regardless of family income those youth who did participate had lower rates of cigarette, alcohol, or illicit drug use than those who did not participate in such activities.    The greater the number of activities, the lower the rates of past year use of cigarettes, alcohol, or illicit drugs among youth. For example, the rates of illicit drug use were 18.3% for youth who participated in no such activities, 11.9% for those with 1-3 activities, 9.4% for 4-6 activities, and 6.8% for 7 or more youth activities in the past year. 
  • The DASIS Report:  Hispanic Female Admissions in Substance Abuse Treatment, 2005    Female Hispanic admissions comprise about 10% (61,000 admissions) of the female substance abuse treatment admissions reported to SAMHSA's 2005 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Among female Hispanic admissions in TEDS, 41% were of Mexican origin, 24% were Puerto Rican, 4% were Cuban, and 31% were of other Hispanic origin. Hispanic female admissions were less likely than nonHispanic female substance abuse treatment admissions to report alcohol as their primary drug of abuse (23% vs. 32%). Hispanic female admissions were more likely than nonHispanic female admissions to substance abuse treatment to report stimulants as their primary drug of abuse (21% vs. 12%). The primary drug of abuse differed among the Hispanic origin groups of female admissions: Puerto Ricans (43%) and Cubans (29%) were more likely to report opiates, Mexicans (35%) were more likely to report stimulants, and other Hispanic origins (23%) were more likely to report alcohol as their primary drug of abuse. The average age at admission also varied among the Hispanic groups of female admissions in SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS).
  • The NSDUH Report:  Patterns and Trends in Nonmedical Prescription Pain Reliever Use: 2002 to 2005     SAMHSA's 2002-2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health indicate that the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers (analgesics) among persons aged 12 or older did not differ significantly among the years between 2002 and 2005.    The number of persons who used prescription pain relievers nonmedically for the first time in the past year of the survey also did not differ significantly - - with 2.3 million persons initiating use in 2002, 2.4 million in 2003, 2.4 million in 2004 and 2.2 million in 2005.   Combined data from 2002 to 2005 were used to examine the patterns of nonmedical prescription pain reliever use in general and the nonmedical use specifically of oxycodone and hydrocodone products. Oxycodone products include Percocet®, Percodan®, Tylox®, OxyContin®, and other pain relievers containing oxycodone that respondents specified that they used nonmedically. Hydrocodone products include Vicodin®, Lortab®, Lorcet®/LorcetPlus®, generic hydrocodone, and other pain relievers containing hydrocodone that respondents specified.,   An annual average of 4.8% of persons aged 12 or older (11.4 million persons) used a prescription pain reliever nonmedically in the 12 months prior to the survey.   Of the persons aged 12 or older who first used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year, 57.7% used hydrocodone products and 21.7% used oxycodone products.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Substance Use     In 2005, about 2 million persons aged 12 or older (0.8%) reported that they had a sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the past year.    Young adults aged 18 to 25 (2.1%) were more likely than any other age group to have had a sexually transmitted disease in the past year.    Among the young adults, females were 4 times more likely to have had a STD in the past year than males (3.4% vs. 0.8%).    Having a sexually transmitted disease among young adults was associated with their alcohol and illicit drug use in the past month:     3.9% of the young adults who used both alcohol and illicit drugs, 3.1% who were heavy drinkers (drank 5 or more drinks on the same occasion on 5 or more days in the past month), 2.1% who used only alcohol but no illicit drugs, 2.1% who used only illicit drugs but no alcohol, and 1.3% of those who did not use alcohol or illicit drugs had an STD in the past year.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Religious Involvement and Substance Use Among Adults     In 2005, about 168 million adults aged 18 or older (78.1%) reported that religious beliefs are a very important part of their lives, 75.1% reported that religious beliefs influence how they make decisions in their lives and 30.8% attended religious services 25 times or more in the past year.     Adults who attended religious services 25 times or more in the past year were less likely to have used cigarettes, alcohol, or illicit drugs in the past month than those who attended religious services fewer than 25 times.  About 6.1% of the adults who reported that religious beliefs are a very important part of their lives used illicit drugs in the past month compared with 14.3% of adults who reported that religious beliefs are not an very important part of their lives.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Patterns and Trends in Inhalant Use by Adolescent Males and Females, 2002-2005     Combined data from SAMHSA's 2002 to 2005 National Surveys on Drug Use & Health found an annual average of 1.1 million (4.5%) youths aged 12 to 17 used an inhalant in the 12 months prior to being surveyed.     About 2.6% of all youth who had not used inhalants before were new users (that is, had used an inhalant for the first time in the past year).     The annual average of new users was 600,000 youth (289,000 males and 311,000 females).    The types of inhalants most frequently mentioned as having been used in the past year by new users were: glue, shoe polish, or toluene (30.5%), gasoline or lighter fluid (25.3%), nitrous oxide or "whippets" (23.9%), and spray paints (23.5%).    Among new inhalants users, females were more likely than males to have used: glue, shoe polish, or toluene (34.9% vs. 25.8%); spray paints (26.1% vs. 20.8%); aerosol sprays other than spray paints (23.0% vs. 16.4%); correction fluid, degreaser, or cleaning fluid (23.4% vs. 13.6%); and amyl nitrite, "poppers," locker room odorizers, or "rush" (18.2% vs. 11.6%).    New male inhalant users were more likely than females to have used nitrous oxide or "whippets" (29.0% vs. 19.3%).    Between 2002 and 2005, use of nitrous oxide or whippets declined among new inhalant users (from 31.6% to 21.3% in 2005).     In contrast, use of aerosol sprays other than spray paints doubled from 12.6% of new inhalant using youth in 2002 to 25.4% of new inhalant using youth in 2005.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Use of Marijuana and Blunts among Adolescents, 2005     Based on SAMHSA's 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 6.8% (1.7 million) youth aged 12 to 17 used marijuana in the past month and 3.5% (891,000) smoked "blunts" (cigars with marijuana in them) in the past month. In 2005, about half (52%) of past month marijuana users aged 12 to 17 also used blunts in the past month with males more likely than females to have smoked blunts (55.6% vs. 47.5%). Among past month marijuana using youths, rates of smoking blunts in the past month were highest in the Northeast (62.5%) and the South (54.4%) than in the Midwest (48.3%) and West (43.1%).
  • The NSDUH Report: Health Insurance and Substance Use Treatment Need    Health insurance and the need for and receipt of substance abuse treatment among adults aged 18 or older was examined based on combined 2004 and 2005 SAMHSA National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Types of health insurance included Medicare, Medicaid/CHIP, military health care, and private insurance.   An annual average of 85.4% adults had some type of health insurance in the past year and 70.5% had private health insurance.  Adults needing substance abuse treatment in the past year were less likely to have some type of health insurance coverage in the past year than adults not needing treatment (74.4% vs. 86.6%).   About half (51.2%) of the adults needing treatment whose last treatment in the past year was at a specialty substance abuse treatment reported that some type of health insurance (private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, military health care, or other insurance) paid for the services.
  • The NSDUH Report: Co-Occurring Major Depressive Episode and Alcohol Use Disorder among Adults   Combined data from SAMHSA's 2004 and 2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health were used to examine co-occurring alcohol use and depression as well as treatment for these disorders in adults aged 18 or older.   The following prevalence were found:   An estimated 7.6% of adults aged 18 or older (approximately 16.4 million adults) had experienced at least one major depressive episode during the past year.   An estimated 8% (17.3 million adults) met criteria for alcohol use disorder in the past year. An estimated 1.2% (2.7 million adults) had co-occurring major depressive episode and alcohol use disorder in the past year.   Among adults with past year co-occurring major depressive episode and alcohol use disorder, 48.6% received treatment only for major depressive episode, 1.9% received treatment at a specialty facility only for alcohol use disorder, and 8.8% received treatment for both problems.   About 40% received no treatment. The rate of past year alcohol use disorder was over twice as high among adults who had experienced a major depressive episode (16.2%) compared with adults who had not experienced a major depressive episode in the past year (7.3%).
  • The NSDUH Report: Cigarette Use among Pregnant Women and Recent Mothers  Combined data from SAMHSA's 2002 to 2005 National Surveys of Drug Use and Health were examined to compare rates of past month cigarette use among women aged 15 to 44 by pregnancy status and demographic characteristics.   Regardless of pregnancy status, white women were more likely to smoke cigarettes in the past month of the survey than Black or Hispanic women.   Pregnant women (17.3%) and recent mothers (23.8%) were less likely to be current cigarette smokers (smoked in past month) than women who were not recent mothers (30.6%).   Pregnant women who were current cigarette smokers were more likely to report smoking cigarettes during their first trimester (22.9%) than second trimester (14.3%) or third trimester of pregnancy (15.3%).   Younger pregnant women were more likely than their oldest counterparts to smoke cigarettes during their pregnancy: 24.3% of pregnant women aged 15-17 and 27.1% of pregnant women aged 18-25 compared with 10.6% of pregnant women aged 26-44 smoked cigarettes during their pregnancy in the past month of the survey.
  • The DASIS Report: Primary Alcohol Admissions Aged 21 or Older: Alcohol Only vs. Alcohol plus a Secondary Drug, 2005   Of the total adult (aged 21 or older) admissions to substance abuse treatment reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), 374,000 reported alcohol as their only substance of abuse and 289,000 reported alcohol plus a secondary drug.   Alcohol-only adult admissions were more likely than adult admissions reporting alcohol plus a secondary drug to have been referred to substance abuse treatment by the criminal justice system (41% vs. 33%). Adult admissions admitted for alcohol plus a secondary drug were more likely than alcohol-only admissions to have a co-occurring psychological problem (25% vs. 16%).
  • The NSDUH Report:  Methamphetamine Use   Methamphetamine data are collected as part of SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health module on nonmedical use of prescription-type stimulants.   The number of persons who used methamphetamine for the first time in the prior 12 months did not differ significantly between 2002 (299,000 persons) and 2004 (318,000 persons) but did decrease significantly between 2004 and 2005. In 2004, an estimated 318,000 persons aged 12 or older first tried methamphetamine in the year prior to the survey compared with 192,000 persons in 2005.  Combined data from the annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2002 to 2005 were used to examine demographic differences in methamphetamine use. Persons in large metropolitan areas (0.5%) were less likely to have used methamphetamine in the past year than those in small metropolitan areas (0.7%) and in non-metropolitan areas (0.8%).  Higher rates of past year methamphetamine use were found in the West (1.2%) than in the Midwest (0.5%), South (0.5%) and Northeast (0.1%) for the total population aged 12 or older.
  • The NSDUH Report:  Substance Use and Substance Use Disorders among American Indians and Alaska Natives  Data from SAMHSA's 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health were combined to calculate annual averages in order to make reliable estimates comparing substance use and substance use disorders by American Indians and Alaska Natives with substance use and substance disorders by the overall group of persons from other racial backgrounds.  Rates of past year use disorders were higher among American Indians and Alaska Natives than members of other racial groups for alcohol, illicit drug use, marijuana, cocaine, and hallucinogen use disorders.  Although in the past year American Indians and Alaska Natives were less likely than persons of other racial backgrounds to have used alcohol (60.8% vs. 65.8%), they were more likely to have an alcohol use disorder (10.7% vs. 7.6%).  For illicit drug use, however, in the past year, American Indians and Alaska Natives were more likely than persons of other racial backgrounds both to have used an illicit drug (18.4% vs. 14.6%) and to have an illicit drug use disorder (5.0% vs. 2.9%).
  • The NSDUH Report:  Cigarette Brand Preferences in 2005   Respondents in SAMHSA's 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health who reported smoking part or all of a cigarette in the past month were asked to report which cigarette brand they smoked most often during that time. Brand preferences did not differ significantly between 2002 and 2005.    The five cigarette brands used most often by past month cigarette smokers were Marlboro, Newport, Camel, Basic, and Doral. At least one of the five most smoked cigarette brands was used by 86% of the smokers aged 12 to 17 and 89.2% of the smokers aged 18 to 25. Smokers aged 26 or older reported more diversity in cigarette brand selection than younger smokers; only 63.2% of this age group of smokers reported smoking one of the five  most smoked cigarette brands.   White smokers were most likely to smoke Marlboro (45%) or Camel (8.9%) and Hispanic smokers to smoke Marlboro (57.2%) or Newport (13.5%), while black smokers were most likely to smoke Newport (49.5%) or Kool (11.4%), both menthol cigarettes.  
  • The NSDUH Report:  Substance Use in the 15 Largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 2002-2005     According to the U.S. Population in 2005, the 15 largest metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) are:  Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas-Fort Worth, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami-Fort Lauderdale, New York, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Riverside, San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington, DC   Rates of past month (i.e., current) illicit drug use, binge alcohol use, and cigarette use for each of these MSAs were compared with the national average.  To obtain sufficient numbers to make reliable estimates, the comparisons are based on the combined data from SAMHSA's 2002 to 2005 annual National Surveys of Drug Use and Health. The national average annual rate of current illicit drug use was 8.1% of persons aged 12 or older. Among the 15 largest metropolitan statistical areas, San Francisco (12.9%) and Detroit (9.5%) had significantly higher rates than the national average and the metropolitan statistical areas of Houston (6.2%), Dallas (6.5%) and Washington D.C. (6.5%) had lower rates of past month illicit drug use than the national average. The rate of current binge drinking was 22.7% for the nation and ranged from 18.6% in Los Angeles to 25.6% in Houston and 25.7% in Chicago metropolitan statistical areas.  The rate of current smoking cigarettes was 25.3% for the nation and ranged from 17.9% in Los Angeles and San Francisco to 27.4% in the Detroit metropolitan statistical areas. 

This page was last updated on March 27, 2009.