Highlights of Substance Abuse and Mental Health Reports
Released in 2004

bulletAll reports by year of release 

bulletAll reports released in 2004 (listed from most recent to earliest release):

  • Data from SAMHSA's 2002 and 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health were pooled to examine the prevalence of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol or other drugs while driving by young persons aged 16 to 20. DUI is also called driving while intoxicated (DWI). An annual average of 4.2 million persons aged 16 to 20 reported driving under the influence of alcohol or illegal drugs during the past year.  About 169,000 of these persons (4%) reported that they had been arrested and booked for DUI/ DWI involving alcohol or drugs in the past year. Among persons aged 16 to 20, 17% reported past year DUI/ DWI involving alcohol, 14% reported past year DUI/ DWI involving illicit drugs, and 8% reported past year DUI/ DWI involving a combination of alcohol and illicit drugs used together. Whites and American Indians/Alaska Natives were more likely to report DUI/DWI than other racial/ethnic groups. See The NSDUH Report:  Driving Under the Influence (DUI) Among Young Persons
  • Based on SAMHSA's 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the lower the family income, the more likely that the youths had used cigarettes or an illegal drug in their lifetime. Youths in families with annual incomes of less than $20,000 were equally likely to have ever used alcohol or inhalants as those in families with incomes of $75,000 or more. Youths age 12 to 17 in families with annual incomes of less than $20,000 were more likely to have smoked cigarettes in their lifetime than those in families with incomes of $75,000 or more (35.4% vs. 25.2%). An estimated 15% of youths in families with annual incomes of less than $20,000 had ever used prescription-type drugs nonmedically compared with 11% of those in families with incomes of $75,000 or more. See The NSDUH Report:  Youth Substance Use and Family Income
  • Between 1992 and 2002, inhalation increased as the route of administration from 20% to 33% of the primary heroin admissions reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS); while injection decreased from 77% to 62%. Admissions younger than 30 years of age decreased from 45% to 22% of primary heroin inhalation admissions, and increased from 21% to 31% of primary heroin injection admissions. The proportion of heroin inhalation admissions with no prior treatment episodes decreased from 40% to 26%; while the proportion with five or more prior treatment episodes increased from 7% to 14%. See The DASIS Report:  Heroin - - Changes in How It Is Used, 1992-2002
  • Of the 13,623 facilities responding to SAMHSA's 2003 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS), 87% were operated by private organizations. Among the private facilities, 26% were operated by for-profit organizations and 74% were operated by non-profit organizations. Private non-profit facilities had an higher average percentage of clients who were being treated for both drug and alcohol abuse (58%) than private for-profits (48%) and were more likely to offer residential treatment (36% vs. 15%). Private for-profit facilities had an higher average percentage of clients who were being treated for alcohol abuse alone (27) than private non-profits (19) and were more likely to offer outpatient treatment (90% vs. 74%). Private non-profit facilities were more likely than private for-profit facilities to accept Medicaid (62% vs. 37%) or State-financed health insurance (43% vs. 32%), or to have a sliding fee scale (70% vs. 49%). Private non-profit facilities were more likely than private for-profit facilities to provide special programs or therapy groups specially designed for pregnant/postpartum women (18% vs. 13%), for women only (44% vs. 33%), for men only (34% vs. 27%), or for adolescents (65% vs. 59%). See The DASIS Report: Private-For-Profit and Private-Non-Profit Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities: 2003
  • In 2002, heroin was reported as the primary substance of abuse for 15% of the 1.9 million admissions in SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Admissions trend data suggest that many users begin using heroin in the inhaled form and switch to injecting heroin later in their lifetime. Among primary heroin admissions, the routes of administration for heroin were injection (62%), inhalation (33%), smoking (2%), oral (2%), and other (1%). Heroin admissions did not differ in their preferred route of administration by gender but did differ significantly by racial group. Primary heroin inhalation admissions were more likely to be Black (45%); while primary heroin injection admissions were more likely to be White (58%). Primary heroin injection admissions were more likely than heroin inhalation admissions to be from the West (32% vs. 3%). See The DASIS Report: Characteristics of Primary Heroin Injection and Inhalation Admissions: 2002 
  • Based on SAMHSA's 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 3.1 million persons aged 12 or older used marijuana daily, that is, on 300 or more days in the past year. Between 2002 and 2003, the number of 12 to 17 year olds reporting daily use of marijuana decreased from 358,000 to 282,000; while there were no changes in the number of daily marijuana users among 18-25 year olds or adults age 26 or older. An estimated 39.2% of daily marijuana users were dependent on or abused marijuana compared with 13.5% of less-than-daily marijuana users. Daily marijuana users (63.3%) were more likely than less-than-daily marijuana users (38.8%) or non marijuana users (4.6%) to use another illicit drug. Daily marijuana users also were more likely to be current cigarette smokers and heavy drinkers. See The NSDUH Report:  Daily Marijuana Users
  • Prescription and over the counter (OTC) drugs were the primary substances of abuse for 4% of the 1.9 million treatment admissions reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) in 2002. Of the more than 78,000 treatment admissions for primary prescription or OTC drug abuse in 2002, 55% were for prescription narcotics compared with 43% of the nearly 29,000 treatment admissions for primary prescription and OTC drug abuse in 1992. Prescription stimulants as the primary substance increased slightly from 26% to 28% during that period. In contrast, the proportions of total admissions for primary prescription or OTC drug abuse for most other prescription type drugs declined between 1992 and 2002. Tranquilizers declined from 16% to 10%. Sedatives declined from 13% to 6% and OTC medications declined from 2% to 1%. An additional 100,000 admissions in 2002 listed prescription or OTC drugs as their secondary or tertiary substances of abuse upon treatment admission. Females comprised a larger proportion of prescription and OTC drug admissions (46%) than they comprised among treatment admissions for all substances (30%) in 2002. See The DASIS Report: Characteristics of Primary Prescription and Over-the-Counter Treatment Admissions, 2002
  • Among males aged 18 and older in 2002 and 2003, SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health found an estimated 8% (2 million) of veterans and 14.6% (11.1 million) nonveterans were dependent on or abusing alcohol or illicit drugs. An estimated 4.6% (1.2 million) of veterans and 7% (5.3 million) nonveterans had a serious mental illness. An estimated 340,000 male veterans had co-occurring serious mental illness (SMI) and a substance use disorder in 2002 and 2003. Although not statistically significant, within each age group of males the veterans had higher rates of these co-occurring disorders than nonveterans: aged 18 to 25 (6.4% veterans vs. 4.5% nonveterans); aged 26 to 54 (2.5% veterans vs. 2% nonveterans); and aged 55 or older (0.6% veterans vs. 0.3% nonveterans). See The NSDUH Report:  Male Veterans with Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness and a Substance Use Disorder
  • Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use & Health, in 2003, about 2.4 million girls, aged 12 to 17 reported taking part in one or more serious fights at school or work during the past year. Between 2002 and 2003, the proportion of girls increased who participated in serious fights at school or work (from 16.2% to 20%) and who participated in a group-against-group fight in the past year (from 13.5% to 16.8%). Past year substance use was the most prevalent delinquent behavior among girls aged 12 to 17, with 36.5% (4.5 million) reporting past year alcohol use and 21.9% (2.7 million) reporting past year illicit drug use. See The NSDUH Report:  Female Youths and Delinquent Behaviors
  • Based on SAMHSA's 2003 National Survey on Drug Use & Health, males were more likely than females to be dependent on or abusing alcohol or an illicit drug, except among the youth.  The rates of dependence or abuse were the same (9%) for both males and females aged 12 to 17. The rate of substance dependence or abuse for those age 50 or older was 4.9% for males and 1.5% for females. Among the age group most likely to use alcohol or illicit drugs (aged 18 to 49) and who were employed full time, the rate of substance dependence or abuse was 15% for males and 8% for females. Among the unemployed, the rate was 23% for males and 12.5% for females. By marital status among those aged 18 to 49: the rate of substance dependence or abuse for those who were married was 10% for males and 4% for females. The rate of substance dependence or abuse among the divorced or separated was 23% for males and 11% for females. Among those never married, the rate of substance dependence or abuse was 24% for males and 16% for females. Among those living with one or more children, the rate of substance dependence or abuse was 11% for males and 5.5% for females. See The NSDUH Report:  Gender Differences in Substance Dependence and Abuse
  • In 2003, almost 74% of adults age 21 or older reported that they had started drinking alcohol before the current legal drinking age of 21: 4% started drinking before age 12; 14% started between ages 12-14; 33% started between ages 15-17; and 22% started drinking between ages 18-20. Among the 14 million adults aged 21 or older who were classified as having past year alcohol dependence or abuse, more than 13 million (95%) had started drinking alcohol before age 21. In SAMHSA's 2003 National Survey on Drug Use & Health, persons reporting first use of alcohol before age 15 were more than 5 times as likely to report past year alcohol dependence or abuse than persons who first used alcohol at age 21 or older (16% vs. 3%). See The NSDUH Report:  Alcohol Dependence or Abuse and Age at First Use
  • All substance abuse treatment admissions increased 23% between 1992 and 2002. The number of adolescent treatment admissions, however, increased 65% (from 95,000 admissions in 1992 to 156,000 in 2002) and accounted for 8% of all admissions reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) in 2002. Between 1992 and 2002, adolescent substance abuse treatment admissions reporting marijuana as the primary substance increased from 23% to 64%; while substance abuse treatment admissions reporting alcohol as the primary substance decreased from 56% to 20% of all adolescent substance abuse treatment admissions. In 2002, more than half (54%) of adolescent substance abuse admissions were referred to substance abuse treatment through the criminal justice system compared with 40% in 1992.  See The DASIS Report:  Adolescent Treatment Admissions: 1992 and 2002
  • SAMHSA's Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) presents the characteristics of clients in treatment based on a representative sample of client treatment episodes. One of the few available national representative sample of clients in treatment, ADSS provides national information on the following:  characteristics of alcohol or drug treatment clients, services received, sources of referrals, reasons for discharge, and expected primary payment source.  Clients in methadone treatment were also included.  See  Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) Phase II:  Client Record Abstract Report (PDF format, 356 KB)
  • Of the admissions for whom living arrangement were recorded in SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) in 2002, 13% (171,400) were homeless at the time of admission. Females comprised 20% of the homeless admissions. Compared with all female admissions, the service setting for women who were homeless at time of substance abuse treatment admission was more likely to be detoxification (42% vs. 19%) or residential/rehabilitation (26% vs. 18%) and less likely to be ambulatory settings (32% vs. 63%). Homeless female admissions were more likely than all female admissions to report cocaine/crack (24% vs. 17%) or heroin (21% vs. 16%) as their primary substance of abuse. See The DASIS Report:  Characteristics of Homeless Female Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment, 2002
  • According to SAMHSA's DAWN data system, drug abuse related emergency department visits involving narcotic analgesics increased 153% in the nation (from 42,857 visits to 108,320 emergency department visits) between 1995 to 2002. The greatest increases during this period occurred for oxycodone (512%), methadone (176%), hydrocodone (159%), and morphine (116%). Dependence was the most frequently mentioned motive underlying drug abuse related emergency department visits involving narcotic analgesics (47%), followed by suicide (22%), psychic effects (15%). The drug abuse motive was unknown for 14% of the analgesic related emergency department visits. Disposition of emergency department patients involving narcotic analgesics was as follows: 53% were admitted for treatment, 44% were treated and released from the hospital, and 3% either left against medical advice, died, or had an unknown outcome. See The DAWN Report:  Narcotic Analgesics, 2002 Update
  • Most of the substance abuse treatment admissions in 2002 reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) were either first-time admissions (44%) or had between one and four previous treatment episodes (45%). The remaining 11% had five or more previous treatment episodes. Substance abuse treatment admissions reporting 5 or more prior treatment episodes were more likely than first time admissions to report opiates as their primary substance of abuse (36% vs. 10%).  Admissions with 5 or more prior treatment episodes were more likely than first time admissions to have been self or individually referred (52% vs. 27%) or to have been referred by an alcohol or drug abuse provider (18% vs. 6%), and less likely to have been referred by the criminal justice system (16% vs. 47%). See The DASIS Report:  Admissions with Five or More Prior Treatment Episodes: 2002
  • SAMHSA's 2002/2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health provided data on three categories of risk factors for substance use among American Indian or Alaska Native youths: individual/peers, family, and school. American Indian or Alaska Native youths were more likely than other youths to perceive moderate to no risk associated with substance use, to perceive their parents as not strongly disapproving of their substance use, and to believe that all or most of the students in their school get drunk at least once a week. According to American Indian or Alaska Native youths, their parents were about as likely as those of other youths to talk to their child about dangers of substance use, to let the youth know they had done a good job, to tell their youth that they were proud of something they had done, to make their youth do chores around the house or to limit the amount of time watching TV. However, parents of American Indian or Alaska Native youths were less likely to provide help with school homework or to limit the time out with friends on school nights. See The NSDUH Report:  Risk & Protective Factors for Substance Use Among American Indian or Alaska Native Youths
  • According to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), the primary methamphetamine/ amphetamine treatment admission rate in the United States increased from 10 admissions per 100,000 to 52 admissions per 100,000 population aged 12 or older between 1992 and 2002. In 2002, 19 States had rates in excess of the national rate (52 admissions per 100,000 population): 10 States were in the West, 7 were in the Midwest and 2 were in the South. The highest rates were in Oregon (324 admissions per 100,000), Hawaii (217 per 100,000), California (200 per 100,000), Iowa (198 per 100,000), Wyoming (167 per 100,000), Nevada (156 per 100,000), Washington State (150 per 100,000), and Arkansas (125 admissions per 100,000 population). See The DASIS Report:  Primary Methamphetamine / Amphetamine Treatment Admissions:  1992-2002
  • SAMHSA's 2003 National Survey on Drug Use & Health estimated that 19.5 million Americans aged 12 or older currently used an illicit drug, 70.8 million currently smoked tobacco, and 119 million currently drank alcohol. Rates of current illicit drug use varied significantly among racial/ethnic groups. The rate of persons aged 12 or older who drove under the influence of alcohol at least once in the year prior to their interview decreased from 14.2% in 2002 to 13.6% in 2003. While there was no change in the overall rate of illicit drug use between 2002 and 2003 or the number of persons needing substance abuse treatment, the number receiving drug treatment at a specialty facility was lower in 2003. The rate of adults with serious mental illness receiving treatment for a mental health problem in the past year also did not change between 2002 and 2003 but the rate of inpatient treatment did increase. See 2003 National Survey on Drug Use & Health Full Report;     Highlights
  • In 2002, of the 363,000 treatment admissions of women of usual childbearing age (aged 15 to 44 years) for which pregnancy status was recorded in SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), 4% were known to be pregnant when admitted. Compared to nonpregnant admissions, pregnant women aged 15 to 44 entering treatment were more likely to report cocaine/crack (22% vs. 17%), amphetamine/methamphetamine (21% vs. 13%), or marijuana (17% vs. 13%) as their primary substance of abuse and less likely to report alcohol (18% vs. 31%). See The DASIS Report: Pregnant Women in Substance Abuse Treatment: 2002
  • Based on SAMHSA's 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, rates of current underage drinking among youth aged 12 to 17 was higher in rural than nonrural areas. Current underage drinking among those aged 18 to 20, however, were higher in nonrural areas. Rural youth aged 12 to 17 reported lower levels of perceived risk from alcohol use, less disapproval of alcohol use, and less perceived parental disapproval of underage drinking than those in nonrural areas. Binge drinking (defined as 5 or more drinks on the same occasion at least one day in the past month) was also higher among rural youth age 12 to 17 (4.1%) than nonrural (1.6%) but did not differ by rural status for those aged 18 to 20. See The NSDUH Report:  Underage Drinking in Rural Areas
  • Based on SAMHSA's 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, nearly 2 million women aged 18 or older were estimated to have both serious mental illness (SMI) and a substance use disorder during the past year. Women with co-occurring SMI and a substance use disorder were more likely than men with co-occurring SMI and a substance use disorder to have received treatment for a mental disorder and/or specialty substance use treatment during the past year. See  The NSDUH Report:  Women with Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness and a Substance Use Disorder
  • Drug abuse related emergency department visits involving amphetamines or methamphetamines increased 54% in the nation (from 25,245 to 38,961 emergency department visits) between 1995 to 2002. The greatest increases during this period occurred in Newark (574%), New Orleans (507%) and Baltimore (500%). Large increases also occurred in St. Louis (283%), Minneapolis (270%), and Miami (233%). In 2002, the majority of amphetamines or methamphetamines visits involved white patients (65%) and male patients (58%). More than half of the emergency department visits involving amphetamines or methamphetamines involved patients aged 18 to 34. See  The DAWN Report:  Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Emergency Department Visits, 1995-2002
  • Benzodiazepines are psychotherapeutic sedatives used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and seizures. SAMHSA's DAWN found that benzodiazepines were involved in 100,784 drug abuse related emergency department visits in 2002 and were the most frequently reported type of psychotherapeutic drug. From 1995 to 2002, drug abuse related emergency department visits involving benzodiazepines increased 41%. Nearly half of the drug abuse related emergency department visits involving benzodiazepines were the result of suicide attempts. See The DAWN Report:  Demographic Characteristics of Benzodiazepine-involved ED Visits
  • Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, during 2002 approximately 91% of youths aged 12 to 17 participated in one or more school-based, community-based, church or faith-based, or other activities (e.g., karate lessons) during the past year. Rates of past year use of cigarettes, alcohol, or illicit drugs were lower among youth who participated in such activities than nonparticipants. See The NSDUH Report: Participation in Youth Activities and Substance Use Among Youths
  • In SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), the substance abuse treatment admission rates for narcotic painkillers increased 155% between 1992 and 2002. The increase was smallest in large central metropolitan areas (58%) and greatest in the most rural areas, i.e., non-metropolitan areas without a city (269%). The proportions of narcotic painkiller treatment admissions taking the drugs orally or inhaling them increased while the proportion injecting them decreased. See The DASIS Report:  Treatment Admissions in Urban & Rural Areas Involving Abuse of Narcotic Painkillers: 2002 Update
  • In 2002, the criminal justice system was the principal source of referral for 36% of all substance abuse treatment admissions, as found by SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Specific criminal justice venues and programs referring clients to substance abuse treatment include State and Federal courts, other courts, probation programs, other recognized legal entities (e.g., local law enforcement, corrections, or youth agencies), diversionary programs (e.g., Treatment Accountability for Safer Communities [TASC]), prisons, and "driving under the influence/driving while intoxicated (DUI/DWI) programs. Probation/parole programs referrals were the most common type of criminal justice system referral (47%). See The DASIS Report:  Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Referred by the Criminal Justice System

  • SAMHSA's DAWN found that the following "club drugs" (GHB, ketamine, LSD, and MDMA) collectively were involved in 8,127 emergency department visits in 2002. Most of the patients in club drug related emergency department (ED) visits were under age 26: 56% of the GHB, 68% of the ketamine, 75% of the MDMA, and 76% of the LSD related emergency department visits. Although relatively rare, club drug related emergency department visits more than doubled from 1994 to 1999 and generally decreased from 2000 to 2002. See The DAWN Report:  Club Drugs, 2002 Update

  • Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, in 2002, there were 17.5 million adults aged 18 or older with serious mental illness (SMI) during the 12 months prior to being interviewed. This represents 8.3% of all adults in the United States. On average, adults with SMI were younger, less educated, and more likely to be female than adults without SMI.  The two racial/ethnic groups with the highest prevalence of SMI were those reporting more than one race (13.6%) and American Indians and Alaska Natives (12.5%).  The prevalence of SMI was more than twice as high among those who used an illicit drug during the past year than it was among those who did not (17.1 vs. 6.9%). This relationship was observed across most demographic and socioeconomic subgroups and across most types of illicit drugs used.  In 2002, there were 5 million adults aged 18 or older who had SMI and used an illicit drug in the past year; this represented 28.9% of all persons with SMI.  See Serious Mental Illness and Its Co-Occurrence with Substance Use Disorders, 2002.
  • In 2002, opioid pain relievers accounted for about 10% of all drug mentions in drug abuse-related emergency department visits reported to SAMHSA's DAWN system. Oxycodone and hydrocodone were the most frequently named pain relievers. Between 1994 and 2002, mentions of oxycodone increased 450% and hydrocodone mentions increased 170%. Over 70% of the oxycodone or hydrocodone related visits involved multiple drugs. See  The DAWN Report: Oxycodone, Hydrocodone, and Polydrug Use, 2002.
  • Between 1997 and 2002, the number of treatment admissions involving narcotic painkillers in SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) increased more than the overall increase in treatment admissions or the increase in admissions for primary heroin abuse. The number of treatment admissions in which narcotic painkillers were involved not only doubled between 1992 and 2000 but continued to increased even more between 2000 and 2002. The proportion of new users of narcotic painkillers (those entering treatment within 3 years of beginning use) increased from 26% in 1997 to 39% in 2002. By 2002, 31 States had an admission rate for narcotic painkillers of at least 24 per 100,000 persons age 12 or older. Five of the 6 New England States reported the highest rates in the nation, ranging from 89 per 10,000 in Connecticut to 207 per 100,000 in Maine. See The DASIS Report:  Admissions Involving Narcotic Painkillers: 2002 Update
  • In 2002, the proportion of female admissions between the ages of 25 and 44 to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) who were currently married was less than in the general population. About 40% of the female admissions were self and individual referrals to treatment and about 25% were referred by the criminal justice system. Cocaine and opiates were reported as the primary substance of abuse more frequently by female admissions who had never been married and alcohol was reported more frequently by those who had ever been married. See The DASIS Report:  Marital Status of Women Aged 25-44: 2002 in substance abuse treatment.
  • Based on SAMHSA's 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, approximately 1.6 million youth (7%) aged 12 to 17 had run away from home and slept on the street in the past 12 months. Among youths aged 12 or 13, 6% had run away and among those aged 16 or 17, 10% had run away from home in the past 12 months. Youths who had run away from home in the past 12 months were more likely to have used alcohol, marijuana, or an illicit drug other than marijuana in the past year than youths who had not run away. Alcohol was used in the past year by 50% of the runaway youths aged 12 to 17 and 33% of those who had not run away from home. Marijuana was used in the past year by 23% of the runaways aged 12 to 18 and 12% of those who had not run away from home. See The NSDUH Report:  Substance Use Among Youths Who Had Run Away From Home
  • SAMHSA's 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that 17.5 million adults aged 18 or older (8%) were estimated to have a serious mental illness in the past year. About 4 million of the adults with a serious mental illness in 2002 also were dependent on or abused alcohol or an illicit drug; that is, they had a co-occurring substance abuse and mental disorder. More than half of the adults with co-occurring serious mental illness and a substance use disorder received neither specialty substance use treatment nor mental health treatment during the past year. Among adults with co-occurring disorders, 34% received mental health treatment only, 2% received specialty substance use treatment only, and 12% received both mental health and specialty substance use treatment during the past year. See The NSDUH Report:  Adults with Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness and a Substance Use Disorder
  • SAMHSA's 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that 2.7% of persons aged 12 or older nationwide needed but did not receive treatment for an illicit drug problem and 7.3% needed but did not receive treatment for an alcohol problem. The States with the highest rates of individuals needing but not receiving substance abuse treatment were mainly in the West. The States with the highest rates of individuals needing but not receiving alcohol treatment were mainly in the Midwest and West. See The NSDUH Report:  State Estimates of Persons Needing But Not Receiving Substance Abuse Treatment, 2002
  • In 2000 and 2001, an annual average of 21.1 million adults (10.5% of the U.S. population aged 18 or older) received treatment for a mental or emotional problem within the past 12 months. Among adults receiving such treatment, 18.9% had perceived an unmet need for treatment at some time during the year. Among adults not receiving treatment for a mental or emotional treatment in the past year, 2.4% perceived an unmet need. Unmet need may be no treatment, delayed treatment or insufficient care. See Patterns of Mental Health Service Utilization and Substance Use Among Adults, 2000 and 2001
  • Based on SAMHSA's 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, among women aged 21 to 49, married women were less likely to have used tobacco, engaged in binge alcohol use, or used an illicit drug in the past month compared with women who were divorced or separated, never married, or living with an unmarried partner. Among married women, those with children younger than 18 living in the home were less likely to have used tobacco, engaged in binge alcohol use, or used any illicit drug in the past month than those with no child living in the home. Past month tobacco and illicit drug use were higher among women living with an unmarried partner than among women from other marital status groups. See The NSDUH Report:  Marital Status and Substance Use Among Women
  • SAMHSA's Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) provides national estimates for cost, revenue, counseling activities, and staffing. The ADSS Cost Study was the first study of treatment costs with validated cost data from a nationally representative sample of substance abuse treatment facilities. For data on mean cost per admission by type of treatment, cost per enrolled client day, and personnel costs associated with substance abuse treatment, see The DASIS Report: Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) Cost Study
  • In 2002, SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that almost 30 million persons aged 12 and older (13%) had used prescription pain relievers nonmedically at least once in their lifetime. The numbers of persons using prescription pain relievers nonmedically for the first time increased from 600,000 in 1990 to more than 2 million in 2001. About 1.5 million persons aged 12 or older were dependent on or abused prescription pain relievers in 2002. See The NSDUH Report:  Nonmedical Use of Prescription Pain Relievers
  • Almost half of all admissions reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) in 2002 were for alcohol abuse (43%).  Between 1992 and 2002, the proportion of all admissions by primary drug of abuse increased for amphetamine/ amphetamine and other stimulants from 1%  to 7%; for primary marijuana abuse from 6% to 15%; and for primary heroin abuse from 11%  to 15%. However, during this period, the proportion of all admission decreased for primary cocaine abuse from 18% to 13%.   See Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS):  2002 Highlights
  • In 2001, there were 58,000 substance abuse treatment admissions aged 55 or older; this was about 3% of all substance abuse treatment admissions reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Admissions aged 55 or older were more likely than younger admissions to enter treatment through self-referral (41% vs. 36%) and less likely to be referred through the criminal justice system (25% vs. 35%). See The DASIS Report:  Older Adults in Substance Abuse Treatment: 2001
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) was reported as the primary substance of abuse for about 3,100 substance abuse treatment admissions reported in 2001 to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). The average age of primary PCP admissions was younger than that of all other substance abuse treatment admissions: 28 years of age for primary PCP admissions vs. 34 years for all other substance abuse treatment admissions. Primary PCP admissions were more prevalent in the West (36%) and Northeast (33%) than in the Midwest (22%) or the South (15%). See The DASIS Report:  Characteristics of Primary Phencyclidine (PCP) Admissions: 2001.
  • Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 21% of young drivers aged 15 to 17 were binge drinkers and 6% were heavy drinkers during the combined years of 1999 to 2001. Rates of heavy drinking and binge drinking among young drivers varied by the States' Graduated Driver Licensing ratings, based on the extent to which they restrict driving behavior among young drivers. This report identifies the States categorized from most restrictive to least restrictive according to the 4 category rating scheme developed by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety and the Traffic Injury Research Foundation. See The NSDUH Report:  Graduated Driver Licensing and Drinking Among Young Drivers
  • In 2001, 60% of the 112,000 substance abuse treatment admissions aged 18-20 reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), involved alcohol. Admissions aged 18-20 for alcohol only were more likely to have been referred by the criminal justice system (70%) than admissions for alcohol with a secondary drug (56%).  Alcohol only treatment admissions aged 18-20 were less likely to have started using alcohol prior to the age of 13 than admissions for alcohol with a secondary drug (12% vs. 23%).  See The DASIS Report: Treatment Admissions for Primary Alcohol Abuse Among Youth Aged 18-20; 2001  
  • In 2001, amphetamines including methamphetamine, were the primary substance of abuse reported in more than 98,000 substance abuse treatment admissions. This represented 6% of the admissions reported that year to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Among admissions with amphetamines as a primary substance, the most common route of administration was smoking (44%), followed by injection (26%), and inhalation (19%). Primary amphetamine admissions were more likely to have been referred to substance abuse treatment by the criminal justice system than admissions for other substances (48% vs. 34%). See The DASIS Report:  Characteristics of Primary Amphetamine Treatment Admissions, 2001.
  • The National Treatment System: Outpatient Methadone Facilities (Alcohol and Drug Services Study [ADSS]) This report provides national estimates for facilities that offer outpatient methadone treatment. It describes the relationship between methadone treatment practices and facility characteristics by examining facility size, ownership, amount of public revenue, urbanicity, level of facility affiliation, licensure, setting, services, and staffing composition. It provides information on treatment practices such as methadone dosing level and staffing patterns, and describes the characteristics of clients in treatment.
  • Between 1995 and 2001, the proportion of substance abuse treatment admissions with co-occurring substance abuse and psychiatric disorders reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) increased from 12% to 16%. The proportion of females among admissions with co-occurring disorders increased from 38% to 44% while remaining stable at about 30% among all other admissions. Primary use of opiates increased for admissions with co-occurring disorders (from 13% to 21%) while remaining stable for all other admissions at 25%. See The DASIS Report:  Admissions with Co-Occurring Disorders,  1995 and 2001.
  • About 34% of the substance abuse treatment admissions reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) were employed full- or part-time at the time of admission. Employed admissions were more likely to report alcohol as their primary substance of abuse than unemployed admissions (56% vs. 41%).  Among criminal justice referrals, employed admissions were three times more likely than unemployed admissions (16% vs. 5%) to have been referred as a result of arrests for "driving while intoxicated" (DWI)) or "driving under the influence" (DUI). See The DASIS Report:  Employed Admissions, 2001
  • In 2001, the 436,000 admissions for detoxification accounted for 25% of all substance abuse treatment admissions reported to SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Detoxification admissions were more likely to have had five or more previous admissions (26%) compared with all other admissions (9%). Compared with all other substance abuse treatment admissions, detoxification admissions were more likely to be Hispanic (17% vs. 11%) and older (average age 38 vs. 33), and less likely to be employed full-time(16% vs. 29%). See The DASIS Report:  Admissions for Detoxification, 2001.
  • SAMHSA's 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that more than 2.6 million youths aged 12 to 17 reported using inhalants at least once in their lifetime. The categories of inhalants most frequently used in the youths' lifetime were glue, shoe polish or toluene (4.5%), gasoline or lighter fluid (3.5%), and spray paints (2.5%). Over half (53%) of the youths who used an inhalant, however, had used more than one type in their lifetime. Youths who had used an inhalant in the past year were about 3 times more likely to use marijuana, 4 times more likely to use prescription drugs nonmedically, and 7 times more likely to use hallucinogens than those who had not used inhalants in the past year. See The NSDUH Report:  Inhalant Use Among Youths: 2002 Update
  • SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that, in 2002, over 60% of youths aged 12 to 17 who had used marijuana in the past year obtained their most recently used marijuana for free or shared someone else's marijuana. Among youths who obtained marijuana for free or shared it, blacks (18%) were more likely than whites (9%) or Hispanics (7%) to have obtained it from a relative or family member. Among youths who bought their most recently used marijuana, white youths (9%) were more likely than black youths (4%) to have purchased it inside a school building. See The NSDUH Report:  How Youths Obtain Marijuana 
  • Based on SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) conducted in 2000, 55% of hospital inpatient treatment episodes involved individuals who completed treatment and another 25% involved those who were transferred to further treatment.  The hospital inpatient treatment completion rate was highest, at 59%, for episodes involving alcohol as the primary substance of abuse.  See The DASIS Report:  Discharges from Hospital Inpatient Treatment, 2000
  • Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, in 2002, almost 1.5 million youths aged 12 to 17 had been detained in a jail or a detention center at least once in their lifetime.   Past year substance abuse or dependence was almost 3 times higher among youths who had been detained at least once in their lifetime than among youths who had never been in a jail or a detention center.  Prescription type drugs were used in the past year by 21.2% of youth who had been in a jail or detention compared with 8.4% of the youth who had never been detained.  See The NSDUH Report:  Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence Among Youth Who Have Been in a Jail or a Detention Center.
  • SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) found in 2000 that the completion rate for long-term residential treatment was highest (38%) involving alcohol as the primary substance of abuse. The completion rates for long-term residential treatment by other primary substances were: marijuana (32%), stimulants (30%), opiates (29%), and cocaine (29%). The median length of stay for completed long-term residential treatment episodes was 75 days, ranging from 73 days for cocaine to 91 days for opiates. See The DASIS Report:  Discharges from Long-term Residential Treatment, 2000.
  • Based on SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, in 2002 almost 5 million adults were alcohol dependent or alcohol abusing and had at least one child younger than age 18 living in their home. Parents with past year alcohol dependence or abuse were more likely to report household turbulence than parents who were not alcohol dependent or alcohol abusing. Household turbulence included people in their household having serious arguments and often insulting or yelling at each other. See The NSDUH Report:  Alcohol Dependence or Abuse Among Parents with Children Living in the Home.
  • Based on SAMHSA's 2000 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), about 10% (15,000) of substance abuse admissions aged 18 or younger were referred by schools.   Four States had rates of at least twice the national average of school referrals:  South Carolina (32%), Hawaii (28%), New Hampshire (25%) and Virginia (22%).  In four States, school referrals made up 2% or less of youth substance abuse admissions:  Montana, Nevada, Missouri, and North Dakota.  See The DASIS Report:  Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Referred by Schools, 2000.
  • According to SAMHSA's 2001 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), adolescent admissions for substance abuse increased from 1992 to 2001, due to increased admissions involving marijuana and increased referrals from the criminal justice system.  Since 1992, methamphetamine/amphetamine admission rates increased by 100% or more in 33 States, spreading east from the Pacific States into the Midwest and South. In 2001, for the fifth consecutive year, TEDS admissions for primary opiate abuse exceeded those for primary cocaine abuse.  See Treatment Data Episode Set (TEDS) 1992-2001:  National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services.
  • In 2002, according to SAMHSA's National Survey on Drug Use and Health, about 8 million youths (33%) aged 12 to 17 attended religious services 25 times or more in the past year.  More than 78% of youths (19 million) reported that religious beliefs are a very important part of their lives and 69% (17 million) reported that religious beliefs influence how they make decisions.  Youth aged 12 to 17 with higher levels of religiosity were less likely to have used cigarettes, alcohol, or illicit drugs in the past month than youths with lower levels of religiosity.  See The NSDUH Report:  Religious Beliefs and Substance Use Among Youths.
  • In SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), the number of substance abuse treatment admissions in which narcotic painkillers were involved increased 101% between 1992 and 2000. Increases in substance abuse treatment admission rates for abuse of narcotic painkillers were greatest in areas outside large central metropolitan areas. The proportion increased of narcotic painkiller treatment admissions taking the drugs orally while the proportion injecting narcotic painkillers decreased. However, only in rural areas did the proportion who inhaled the narcotic painkillers increase. See The DASIS Report: Treatment Admissions in Urban & Rural Areas Involving Abuse of Narcotic Painkillers.
  • According to SAMHSA's DAWN system, the growth in PCP related visits to emergency departments between 2001 and 2002 exceeded the national average in four metropolitan areas in the East:  Newark (254%), Washington, D.C. (148%), Baltimore (60%), and Philadelphia (46%).  See The DAWN Report:  Trends in PCP-related Emergency Department Visits(PDF format)
  • In 2002, males and females aged 12 to 17 were equally likely (55%) to report that obtaining marijuana would be easy. However, female youths were more likely than males to report it would be easy to obtain crack (32% vs. 21%), cocaine (29% vs. 21%), LSD (23% vs. 16%) and heroin (17% vs. 13%).  See The NSDUH Report:  Availability of Illicit Drugs Among Youths.
  • In SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) linked admission/ discharge records, 11% represented clients who received short-term residential substance abuse treatment. The completion rate for short-term residential treatment was highest (67%) for episodes where alcohol was the primary substance of abuse. Over half completed their short-term residential when their primary substance was opiates (59%), marijuana (58%), cocaine (55%) or stimulants (53%). The median length of stay for completed short-term residential treatment episodes was 26 days, ranging from 22 days for alcohol to 28 days for marijuana. See The DASIS Report:  Discharges from Short-term Residential Treatment, 2000.
  • Based on SAMHSA's 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the percentages of youths engaging in delinquent behaviors rose with increasing frequency of marijuana use. In 2002, more than 5 million youths engaged in serious fighting at school or work and almost 4 million took part in a group-against-group fight in the past year. Over half (57%) of those who used marijuana 300 or more days in the past year reported that they also sold illegal drugs. See  The NSDUH Report:  Marijuana Use and Delinquent Behaviors Among Youths.

This page was last updated on December 24, 2008.