National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Comparison of 2002-2003 and 2011-2012
Model-Based Prevalence Estimates (50 States and the District of Columbia)

NOTE: The methodology used to conduct significance testing for State estimates between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 NSDUHs and to calculate p values is provided after Table 22.

131111
Table 1 – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 8.25a 8.95 0.000 11.44a 9.82 0.000 20.24a 21.39 0.005 5.72a 6.69 0.000
Northeast 8.45a 9.39 0.004 11.87a 9.90 0.000 23.71 23.59 0.874 5.58a 6.95 0.001
Midwest 7.96a 8.67 0.003 11.11a 9.46 0.000 19.93 20.74 0.166 5.38a 6.51 0.000
South 7.64 7.64 0.992 11.03a 9.06 0.000 18.82 19.01 0.728 5.23 5.51 0.306
West 9.32a 10.93 0.000 12.04 11.26 0.171 20.06a 23.97 0.000 6.96a 8.55 0.001
Alabama 6.62 7.72 0.122 9.65 8.99 0.597 15.94 17.51 0.355 4.57 5.85 0.134
Alaska 12.01b 14.03 0.095 13.34b 10.69 0.089 27.29 26.52 0.749 9.17b 12.17 0.053
Arizona 8.87 9.57 0.444 12.61 11.44 0.462 18.88 20.67 0.382 6.53 7.39 0.428
Arkansas 7.78 7.55 0.753 11.72b 9.18 0.067 21.05b 17.56 0.074 4.89 5.64 0.389
California 9.01a 11.00 0.001 11.44 11.18 0.766 18.83a 24.35 0.000 6.86a 8.48 0.024
Colorado 11.12 12.24 0.301 13.83 13.17 0.694 25.52b 29.75 0.089 8.24 9.18 0.464
Connecticut 8.75 9.58 0.323 12.43 10.34 0.152 25.58 25.68 0.966 5.82 6.97 0.243
Delaware 8.74 9.36 0.435 13.54 11.79 0.263 25.77 23.09 0.247 5.19b 6.74 0.080
District of Columbia 11.59 13.51 0.104 11.54 12.59 0.506 26.23 26.97 0.763 8.71 10.42 0.219
Florida 8.72 8.32 0.449 11.42a 9.10 0.005 21.32 21.25 0.959 6.58 6.27 0.616
Georgia 7.54 7.43 0.882 10.43 9.66 0.574 17.51 18.52 0.608 5.31 5.14 0.840
Hawaii 8.90 9.71 0.421 13.97 11.64 0.189 19.31 22.20 0.194 6.56 7.56 0.408
Idaho 7.24 7.17 0.925 11.02 9.00 0.125 15.80 16.34 0.769 4.86 5.27 0.629
Illinois 7.50a 8.73 0.011 10.83a 8.73 0.006 20.22b 22.33 0.071 4.80a 6.42 0.005
Indiana 8.07 8.50 0.587 10.15 8.90 0.359 20.67 20.46 0.918 5.45 6.32 0.337
Iowa 6.47 7.45 0.168 9.22 8.53 0.596 15.80b 18.95 0.098 4.33 5.28 0.259
Kansas 6.74a 5.43 0.043 9.33b 7.27 0.093 16.67b 13.54 0.075 4.43 3.72 0.340
Kentucky 8.33 7.21 0.138 11.70a 7.89 0.004 18.43 19.13 0.719 6.15 5.16 0.264
Louisiana 8.07b 6.96 0.098 10.76a 7.55 0.008 20.54a 16.08 0.013 5.17 5.20 0.966
Maine 9.31 9.95 0.501 12.58 10.81 0.231 25.20 24.28 0.683 6.52 7.82 0.240
Maryland 7.57 7.30 0.698 10.76 9.13 0.220 22.02 19.22 0.186 4.85 5.10 0.749
Massachusetts 9.28b 10.94 0.075 13.94 12.29 0.276 27.46 27.24 0.927 5.81b 7.91 0.057
Michigan 9.06a 10.89 0.001 12.80 11.67 0.205 21.22a 23.76 0.027 6.42a 8.58 0.001
Minnesota 7.59 8.27 0.383 11.59 9.40 0.114 19.28 19.18 0.965 4.91 6.35 0.109
Mississippi 6.56b 7.78 0.074 10.59 9.17 0.301 16.33 18.08 0.341 3.98a 5.70 0.036
Missouri 9.17a 7.46 0.037 10.05 9.59 0.727 21.37 19.41 0.334 6.90b 5.17 0.071
Montana 10.58 11.54 0.328 15.57a 11.98 0.026 22.34a 28.10 0.011 7.77 8.80 0.392
Nebraska 7.67 6.72 0.154 12.71a 8.16 0.001 18.91 16.76 0.238 4.78 4.78 1.000
Nevada 10.30 11.07 0.481 12.46 11.19 0.434 22.02 23.14 0.629 8.17 9.11 0.473
New Hampshire 11.15 10.34 0.429 14.46b 11.74 0.089 29.61 28.78 0.733 7.82 7.29 0.658
New Jersey 6.97 7.99 0.180 10.42 9.20 0.386 21.36 22.89 0.484 4.48 5.60 0.190
New Mexico 10.00 11.28 0.230 14.16 13.51 0.722 22.17 24.45 0.332 7.08 8.71 0.217
New York 8.90 9.73 0.142 11.68a 9.37 0.006 23.89 23.56 0.799 6.07b 7.34 0.061
North Carolina 7.92 7.85 0.923 13.62a 9.65 0.008 20.35 21.59 0.567 5.09 5.37 0.739
North Dakota 7.22 6.25 0.187 11.64a 6.75 0.000 18.02 16.02 0.300 4.35 4.12 0.775
Ohio 8.04a 9.53 0.002 11.39a 9.83 0.050 20.64 22.06 0.218 5.42a 7.42 0.001
Oklahoma 8.58 8.36 0.810 12.23a 9.24 0.041 18.97 17.60 0.494 6.06 6.59 0.625
Oregon 10.84a 13.86 0.009 12.30 11.73 0.710 24.72 27.79 0.176 8.30a 11.89 0.011
Pennsylvania 7.50 8.05 0.253 11.28a 8.89 0.003 20.54 19.58 0.413 4.91b 6.02 0.054
Rhode Island 10.95a 15.61 0.000 13.25 15.16 0.306 32.44 32.88 0.860 6.75a 12.33 0.000
South Carolina 7.23a 8.90 0.030 11.05 10.16 0.525 19.54 21.31 0.372 4.54a 6.64 0.019
South Dakota 7.15 7.01 0.852 13.26a 7.67 0.000 17.92 14.87 0.114 4.13 5.57 0.113
Tennessee 6.70 7.13 0.553 9.23 8.46 0.546 16.16 18.03 0.346 4.78 5.17 0.643
Texas 6.97 7.05 0.857 10.18 8.97 0.122 16.54 16.91 0.732 4.59 4.91 0.533
Utah 6.32 6.01 0.644 8.76b 6.73 0.098 12.69 13.05 0.828 4.00 4.25 0.757
Vermont 10.96a 14.14 0.005 16.67 15.46 0.520 29.58 33.32 0.140 6.99a 10.72 0.007
Virginia 7.68 7.46 0.765 11.88a 8.52 0.014 20.53 20.22 0.876 5.03 5.15 0.884
Washington 9.96a 11.92 0.045 13.49 12.19 0.397 24.65 25.90 0.569 6.96a 9.57 0.028
West Virginia 6.61 6.99 0.557 11.70a 8.73 0.028 17.37b 20.96 0.063 4.29 4.73 0.545
Wisconsin 7.48 8.18 0.348 10.73 9.68 0.460 18.85 19.98 0.567 4.98 6.04 0.227
Wyoming 7.51 7.01 0.522 10.05 8.04 0.124 18.36b 14.99 0.087 5.07 5.51 0.628
131111
Table 2 – Marijuana Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 10.78a 11.83 0.000 15.38a 13.86 0.000 29.13a 31.12 0.000 6.95a 8.25 0.000
Northeast 11.69a 12.93 0.001 16.39a 14.48 0.001 33.77a 35.58 0.046 7.58a 8.95 0.001
Midwest 10.80a 11.50 0.011 15.46a 13.22 0.000 29.83 30.95 0.112 6.75a 7.97 0.000
South 9.62b 10.10 0.055 14.64a 12.60 0.000 25.90a 27.78 0.005 6.09a 6.74 0.021
West 11.84a 14.04 0.000 15.63 15.94 0.649 29.86a 33.10 0.001 7.99a 10.36 0.000
Alabama 8.35 9.06 0.337 12.75 10.86 0.175 23.79 23.54 0.904 5.03 6.29 0.117
Alaska 16.65b 19.28 0.065 18.87 17.03 0.337 38.90 38.20 0.787 12.46a 16.07 0.043
Arizona 10.48 11.78 0.162 16.96 14.41 0.159 27.54 29.20 0.475 6.46b 8.41 0.056
Arkansas 10.22 9.40 0.331 15.76a 12.23 0.025 28.89b 25.10 0.098 6.15 6.37 0.812
California 11.33a 14.02 0.000 14.11a 16.14 0.047 28.29a 33.50 0.000 7.81a 10.09 0.002
Colorado 15.08 16.22 0.342 19.55 17.64 0.336 36.57 39.39 0.257 10.73 12.14 0.306
Connecticut 11.78b 13.64 0.062 17.58 16.19 0.458 38.82 38.95 0.961 7.09a 9.36 0.042
Delaware 11.65a 14.09 0.011 18.20 16.70 0.407 33.24a 38.92 0.028 7.09a 9.55 0.019
District of Columbia 15.09a 19.75 0.000 14.83 17.23 0.178 37.61b 42.29 0.076 10.68a 14.64 0.010
Florida 11.36 11.07 0.649 16.13a 12.99 0.002 29.83 31.36 0.269 8.13 7.79 0.632
Georgia 9.61 9.74 0.871 14.20 12.52 0.278 23.85 26.12 0.310 6.36 6.44 0.933
Hawaii 11.56 13.33 0.120 18.09 16.60 0.472 30.20 31.51 0.605 7.70b 10.14 0.061
Idaho 9.26 9.60 0.686 14.63 12.97 0.302 24.37 24.02 0.876 5.27 6.54 0.150
Illinois 9.99a 11.41 0.007 14.46b 12.71 0.061 29.61a 32.34 0.046 5.90a 7.69 0.003
Indiana 10.33 10.79 0.594 13.95 11.93 0.185 28.44 29.26 0.713 6.48 7.36 0.354
Iowa 9.32 10.33 0.217 13.39 12.52 0.573 25.88 29.24 0.154 5.63 6.72 0.213
Kansas 9.08 8.38 0.364 13.24 11.62 0.281 25.44 23.98 0.508 5.29 5.12 0.836
Kentucky 10.30 9.49 0.318 16.32a 11.74 0.003 26.21 26.62 0.847 6.78 6.40 0.661
Louisiana 9.82 9.82 0.994 13.02b 10.67 0.079 27.52 24.69 0.169 5.78 6.97 0.172
Maine 12.34b 14.26 0.071 18.76b 15.57 0.071 37.34 36.14 0.628 7.80a 11.03 0.008
Maryland 10.54 10.50 0.965 14.75 13.98 0.641 30.31 33.25 0.219 6.84 6.31 0.560
Massachusetts 15.45 15.41 0.977 20.15 17.81 0.204 38.19 40.51 0.376 11.24 10.72 0.701
Michigan 12.61a 13.87 0.043 17.03a 15.00 0.044 32.38 34.41 0.125 8.55a 10.20 0.028
Minnesota 11.40 11.82 0.653 17.30a 13.64 0.028 30.34 33.77 0.180 7.13 7.99 0.391
Mississippi 7.98b 9.29 0.079 11.01 11.11 0.943 22.06 24.82 0.202 4.68b 6.20 0.059
Missouri 11.91b 10.28 0.052 16.15b 13.32 0.064 31.48 28.55 0.195 7.87 6.79 0.243
Montana 13.83a 16.03 0.048 21.07 18.86 0.254 35.15 38.22 0.205 9.00a 12.10 0.016
Nebraska 10.39 9.20 0.137 16.42a 12.20 0.012 27.17 25.98 0.600 6.29 5.87 0.626
Nevada 12.01a 14.44 0.036 19.67 16.90 0.181 29.02 31.99 0.244 8.31a 11.30 0.022
New Hampshire 16.30 14.61 0.190 20.52 17.85 0.185 44.61 42.36 0.383 11.31 9.88 0.343
New Jersey 8.64a 10.39 0.028 14.03 13.21 0.609 29.40b 33.78 0.082 5.00b 6.52 0.065
New Mexico 12.30a 14.43 0.047 19.03 19.22 0.930 33.80 32.98 0.763 7.24a 10.59 0.006
New York 12.22a 13.51 0.040 15.98a 13.86 0.035 33.60 34.87 0.366 8.20a 9.71 0.043
North Carolina 9.83 10.34 0.545 16.97b 13.73 0.063 26.70b 30.83 0.080 6.05 6.56 0.578
North Dakota 9.81 9.66 0.856 16.18a 11.26 0.003 28.80 27.25 0.510 4.95 5.73 0.337
Ohio 10.91a 12.68 0.001 15.33 14.10 0.195 30.34 31.90 0.239 6.96a 9.33 0.000
Oklahoma 9.50 10.42 0.281 15.34b 12.34 0.068 25.47 25.47 0.999 5.60a 7.47 0.045
Oregon 13.78a 17.47 0.002 17.38 16.74 0.729 36.44 37.91 0.563 9.47a 14.30 0.001
Pennsylvania 9.88a 11.12 0.023 15.24a 12.90 0.015 29.95 31.93 0.161 5.95a 7.43 0.019
Rhode Island 15.22a 19.47 0.001 18.29 20.11 0.379 45.71 46.03 0.903 9.29a 14.26 0.001
South Carolina 9.67a 11.51 0.030 13.44 13.82 0.807 27.75 30.67 0.187 5.96a 7.97 0.035
South Dakota 9.83 10.03 0.809 17.65a 11.66 0.000 28.35 25.92 0.313 5.02a 7.06 0.020
Tennessee 7.36a 8.91 0.039 12.15 11.13 0.486 21.07b 24.80 0.092 4.44a 6.03 0.045
Texas 8.56b 9.34 0.081 13.91b 12.33 0.087 22.28b 24.64 0.052 5.01a 6.01 0.050
Utah 8.17 7.68 0.516 11.08 9.93 0.437 20.77 18.66 0.301 3.93 4.75 0.295
Vermont 15.93a 19.29 0.007 22.69 21.50 0.574 44.56 46.99 0.369 10.10a 14.32 0.004
Virginia 9.69 10.32 0.434 15.47 13.73 0.290 29.57 30.39 0.733 5.68 6.48 0.348
Washington 13.50b 15.40 0.076 17.64 16.49 0.514 36.16 36.23 0.977 9.05a 11.82 0.026
West Virginia 9.16 9.99 0.292 16.92a 13.13 0.020 27.87 29.73 0.414 5.24b 6.72 0.083
Wisconsin 10.01 10.35 0.688 15.84a 12.44 0.040 30.00 29.27 0.749 5.61 6.95 0.134
Wyoming 10.45 10.88 0.644 14.46 13.21 0.450 28.79 27.38 0.557 6.38 7.73 0.186
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Table 3 – Marijuana Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 6.18a 7.13 0.000 8.03a 7.55 0.038 17.17a 18.89 0.000 4.01a 5.05 0.000
Northeast 6.78a 7.72 0.000 8.84b 8.05 0.063 21.00 21.34 0.631 4.26a 5.40 0.000
Midwest 6.14a 6.86 0.001 8.17a 7.29 0.006 17.21a 18.53 0.015 3.88a 4.81 0.000
South 5.49b 5.83 0.077 7.40a 6.65 0.018 15.32a 16.37 0.038 3.51b 3.91 0.075
West 6.81a 9.01 0.000 8.22 8.81 0.219 17.05a 21.24 0.000 4.73a 6.83 0.000
Alabama 4.32 5.07 0.145 6.37 5.62 0.427 12.47 14.34 0.233 2.60 3.38 0.179
Alaska 9.78a 12.97 0.008 11.08 10.01 0.469 23.99 24.77 0.736 7.14a 11.18 0.009
Arizona 5.68a 7.22 0.032 7.74 8.37 0.587 15.18 17.20 0.284 3.67a 5.33 0.045
Arkansas 5.63 5.30 0.576 7.97b 6.01 0.055 16.48 14.71 0.321 3.39 3.61 0.745
California 6.50a 9.08 0.000 7.66 8.83 0.109 16.09a 21.74 0.000 4.57a 6.74 0.000
Colorado 8.49a 10.41 0.044 9.82 10.47 0.649 21.67a 26.81 0.023 6.01 7.63 0.140
Connecticut 6.94a 8.44 0.048 9.22 8.72 0.690 23.62 23.66 0.985 4.22a 6.01 0.033
Delaware 6.89 7.49 0.373 9.41 9.58 0.891 22.06 20.95 0.621 3.96 4.95 0.164
District of Columbia 9.60 10.45 0.394 7.43 9.35 0.117 24.14 24.49 0.887 6.93 7.24 0.784
Florida 6.58 6.65 0.877 8.52a 7.03 0.034 17.68 19.02 0.222 4.75 4.73 0.966
Georgia 4.93b 5.96 0.069 6.87 7.20 0.746 13.01a 16.65 0.041 3.18 3.88 0.261
Hawaii 6.95 7.57 0.479 10.23 9.69 0.715 17.00 18.15 0.573 4.90 5.69 0.441
Idaho 5.09 5.29 0.732 7.92b 6.21 0.098 12.47 13.09 0.704 3.10 3.77 0.310
Illinois 5.60a 7.03 0.000 7.61 6.94 0.312 17.43a 20.27 0.011 3.23a 4.79 0.001
Indiana 6.12 6.20 0.910 7.37 6.25 0.275 17.19 16.78 0.831 3.91 4.31 0.581
Iowa 4.90a 6.10 0.044 7.10 6.65 0.659 13.14a 16.84 0.035 3.04b 4.13 0.100
Kansas 4.91 4.06 0.113 7.39b 5.47 0.058 13.92 11.34 0.103 2.79 2.55 0.669
Kentucky 5.62 5.63 0.986 8.16a 6.06 0.049 14.15b 17.35 0.062 3.82 3.65 0.796
Louisiana 5.77a 4.62 0.029 6.92a 5.01 0.040 17.04a 13.00 0.012 3.33 3.02 0.593
Maine 7.95 8.38 0.630 10.56 8.94 0.219 23.22 22.66 0.799 5.33 6.29 0.346
Maryland 5.73 5.81 0.879 7.87 7.54 0.767 19.43 17.53 0.332 3.27 3.66 0.533
Massachusetts 7.80b 9.37 0.057 10.53 10.58 0.970 24.54 25.77 0.594 4.79b 6.34 0.094
Michigan 7.20a 8.89 0.000 9.23 8.89 0.628 18.49a 22.13 0.001 4.95a 6.61 0.005
Minnesota 6.37 6.30 0.910 8.92 7.27 0.148 17.49 17.58 0.964 4.00 4.33 0.651
Mississippi 4.64a 5.80 0.044 6.04 6.32 0.771 12.99b 15.86 0.095 2.74b 3.88 0.083
Missouri 6.76 5.94 0.231 7.43 7.28 0.884 18.55 17.41 0.552 4.59 3.83 0.309
Montana 9.17 10.45 0.203 12.07b 9.56 0.060 20.66a 26.51 0.008 6.71 7.94 0.299
Nebraska 5.97 5.51 0.452 9.13a 6.53 0.025 15.61 14.83 0.655 3.66 3.74 0.901
Nevada 7.62 8.36 0.423 9.58 8.77 0.554 18.29 20.01 0.433 5.68 6.44 0.476
New Hampshire 10.23b 8.37 0.063 11.79 9.61 0.128 27.31 26.37 0.685 7.36b 5.41 0.090
New Jersey 5.05 6.05 0.105 7.33 6.85 0.662 17.89 19.26 0.508 2.93 3.96 0.119
New Mexico 7.37a 9.14 0.039 10.35 9.82 0.718 18.98 21.35 0.267 4.74a 6.94 0.031
New York 7.34b 8.24 0.064 8.76 7.86 0.220 21.44 21.35 0.937 4.82a 5.98 0.046
North Carolina 5.89 6.49 0.351 8.44 7.69 0.503 17.22 19.28 0.287 3.66 4.24 0.412
North Dakota 5.35 5.15 0.747 7.58 6.02 0.150 15.35 14.44 0.625 2.94 3.07 0.848
Ohio 6.49a 7.37 0.042 8.74b 7.53 0.072 18.22 19.22 0.357 4.17a 5.39 0.016
Oklahoma 5.58 6.04 0.480 8.13 6.37 0.105 15.51 14.14 0.443 3.31b 4.55 0.099
Oregon 8.88a 12.16 0.002 9.31 9.86 0.663 22.17b 25.81 0.088 6.57a 10.25 0.004
Pennsylvania 5.64 6.18 0.171 8.18b 6.87 0.051 17.66 17.54 0.919 3.37b 4.20 0.069
Rhode Island 9.56a 13.00 0.001 10.86 12.44 0.320 29.93 30.16 0.927 5.70a 9.74 0.002
South Carolina 5.65a 7.20 0.016 7.25 7.24 0.993 16.46 19.24 0.139 3.52a 5.15 0.026
South Dakota 5.24 5.79 0.387 9.57a 6.44 0.011 14.66 13.95 0.687 2.74a 4.28 0.039
Tennessee 4.59 5.41 0.145 6.37 5.92 0.630 13.40 14.70 0.470 2.88 3.81 0.125
Texas 4.79 5.11 0.333 6.38 6.32 0.928 12.86 13.76 0.346 2.95 3.30 0.361
Utah 4.00 4.41 0.441 5.30 5.12 0.851 9.53 9.83 0.829 2.15 3.04 0.151
Vermont 9.77a 12.86 0.005 13.32 13.36 0.981 26.95a 33.18 0.011 6.34a 9.34 0.024
Virginia 5.96 5.54 0.487 8.43b 6.61 0.091 17.70 17.06 0.732 3.73 3.44 0.662
Washington 7.41a 10.21 0.001 9.11 9.45 0.783 21.22 23.44 0.270 4.82a 8.11 0.001
West Virginia 5.12 5.27 0.795 8.62b 6.63 0.070 14.67b 17.55 0.099 3.17 3.29 0.843
Wisconsin 5.40a 6.69 0.042 7.71 7.78 0.948 15.98 18.18 0.230 3.18a 4.65 0.035
Wyoming 5.45 5.68 0.710 7.14 6.00 0.273 15.59 13.06 0.151 3.27 4.36 0.137
131111
Table 4 – Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 39.05a 31.37 0.000 33.66a 27.02 0.000 24.19a 17.37 0.000 42.38a 34.36 0.000
Northeast 36.36a 29.56 0.000 30.73a 24.64 0.000 20.56a 14.85 0.000 39.58a 32.62 0.000
Midwest 38.02a 29.51 0.000 33.94a 27.64 0.000 22.41a 16.23 0.000 41.39a 32.04 0.000
South 43.56a 35.16 0.000 35.89a 30.03 0.000 27.51a 19.66 0.000 47.40a 38.50 0.000
West 35.24a 28.47 0.000 32.25a 23.48 0.000 23.64a 16.75 0.000 37.80a 31.25 0.000
Alabama 48.47a 38.54 0.000 39.58 35.69 0.121 30.97a 20.52 0.000 52.76a 42.07 0.000
Alaska 27.54a 20.57 0.000 25.38b 21.26 0.087 17.53a 12.92 0.008 29.65a 21.93 0.001
Arizona 40.53a 28.83 0.000 34.76a 25.09 0.000 26.48a 16.51 0.000 43.90a 31.49 0.000
Arkansas 46.86a 36.40 0.000 39.51a 32.01 0.004 27.94a 18.65 0.000 51.23a 39.99 0.000
California 36.63a 30.17 0.000 32.86a 22.08 0.000 25.51a 17.88 0.000 39.22a 33.57 0.000
Colorado 28.74a 24.11 0.010 28.97a 21.57 0.001 17.51a 11.71 0.001 30.67b 26.53 0.068
Connecticut 34.36a 25.79 0.000 27.71a 23.05 0.050 17.99a 12.35 0.001 37.62a 28.26 0.000
Delaware 37.95a 30.10 0.000 30.07a 22.15 0.001 22.13a 14.78 0.000 41.69a 33.66 0.001
District of Columbia 33.64a 25.27 0.000 28.14a 20.68 0.006 19.51a 12.54 0.000 36.90a 28.63 0.001
Florida 42.60a 35.10 0.000 34.48a 27.82 0.000 26.92a 19.82 0.000 45.82a 38.22 0.000
Georgia 44.17a 35.80 0.000 35.25 33.03 0.354 30.63a 20.73 0.000 47.92a 38.90 0.000
Hawaii 34.25a 28.87 0.008 29.60a 23.86 0.016 24.59a 14.36 0.000 36.43b 31.70 0.061
Idaho 38.60a 29.41 0.000 36.63a 27.25 0.000 26.41a 17.84 0.000 41.44a 31.81 0.000
Illinois 38.54a 31.55 0.000 33.22a 28.22 0.000 22.90a 17.30 0.000 42.05a 34.42 0.000
Indiana 41.91a 30.03 0.000 36.55a 27.82 0.000 24.32a 16.92 0.000 45.90a 32.67 0.000
Iowa 44.24a 30.79 0.000 40.63a 31.72 0.000 26.80a 16.86 0.000 48.03a 33.17 0.000
Kansas 42.85a 29.29 0.000 38.79a 29.62 0.000 24.23a 19.69 0.026 47.07a 31.02 0.000
Kentucky 41.86a 35.18 0.001 38.83b 34.46 0.083 26.11a 21.10 0.023 44.97a 37.62 0.004
Louisiana 45.73a 39.08 0.000 37.94b 33.72 0.084 25.31 22.39 0.148 51.01a 42.88 0.001
Maine 31.33a 21.45 0.000 26.71 23.36 0.130 14.91a 11.53 0.029 34.37a 22.68 0.000
Maryland 35.62b 31.94 0.064 30.86a 25.38 0.019 22.51a 17.66 0.018 38.35 35.13 0.193
Massachusetts 26.82a 22.89 0.031 26.76a 19.87 0.001 15.07a 10.70 0.005 28.70 25.41 0.145
Michigan 35.94a 26.13 0.000 32.43a 24.82 0.000 20.12a 13.45 0.000 39.19a 28.51 0.000
Minnesota 31.11 28.59 0.179 29.53 27.14 0.290 18.15a 14.05 0.027 33.69 31.18 0.286
Mississippi 49.33a 39.57 0.000 38.60 36.03 0.315 31.44a 26.43 0.037 54.57a 42.48 0.000
Missouri 36.69a 31.71 0.010 33.96a 27.05 0.002 22.99a 17.32 0.004 39.49b 34.75 0.053
Montana 33.27a 25.18 0.000 28.46a 23.93 0.035 18.13a 12.77 0.002 36.66a 27.36 0.000
Nebraska 41.65a 29.86 0.000 33.50 29.80 0.139 27.59a 17.75 0.000 45.53a 32.02 0.000
Nevada 34.02a 28.13 0.004 33.52a 22.82 0.000 22.76a 15.38 0.000 35.86a 30.88 0.049
New Hampshire 28.34a 22.72 0.004 22.61 20.25 0.260 12.94a 9.51 0.022 31.53a 25.10 0.009
New Jersey 41.79a 33.62 0.000 35.58a 25.80 0.000 23.13a 14.63 0.000 45.25a 37.46 0.004
New Mexico 39.36a 30.23 0.000 30.44a 24.83 0.027 23.00a 16.46 0.002 43.80a 33.35 0.000
New York 36.10a 31.34 0.000 30.29a 25.03 0.000 22.59a 16.73 0.000 39.08a 34.67 0.005
North Carolina 44.10a 32.72 0.000 36.16a 27.24 0.000 25.34a 17.35 0.000 48.29a 35.95 0.000
North Dakota 38.86a 32.11 0.001 34.58 33.13 0.563 24.34a 17.40 0.001 42.50a 35.15 0.003
Ohio 39.30a 28.94 0.000 35.11a 26.76 0.000 23.10a 16.04 0.000 42.66a 31.36 0.000
Oklahoma 42.65a 31.35 0.000 35.17a 29.71 0.033 27.13a 20.22 0.002 46.70a 33.59 0.000
Oregon 30.98a 21.55 0.000 28.97a 21.84 0.001 16.99a 13.34 0.041 33.61a 22.85 0.000
Pennsylvania 40.78a 30.96 0.000 32.97a 27.15 0.000 21.48a 16.28 0.000 44.91a 33.88 0.000
Rhode Island 31.91a 23.89 0.000 25.90a 20.08 0.010 16.38a 11.39 0.002 35.48a 26.76 0.001
South Carolina 43.44a 34.69 0.000 36.41a 29.13 0.002 24.77a 18.30 0.001 47.68a 38.16 0.000
South Dakota 37.53a 30.44 0.000 35.30b 30.84 0.072 21.83 18.87 0.163 40.94a 32.43 0.000
Tennessee 42.06a 35.47 0.001 35.74b 31.50 0.086 26.26a 19.20 0.001 45.53a 38.65 0.004
Texas 45.42a 37.66 0.000 36.30a 30.79 0.000 30.65a 20.64 0.000 49.77a 41.91 0.000
Utah 42.42a 37.42 0.006 42.42 39.69 0.329 29.72b 25.05 0.058 46.15a 39.92 0.012
Vermont 27.52a 23.11 0.018 23.08 23.67 0.790 12.08 10.72 0.349 30.78a 25.19 0.018
Virginia 40.45a 28.91 0.000 36.17a 24.65 0.000 23.35a 16.03 0.000 43.80a 31.64 0.000
Washington 26.80a 23.01 0.032 26.99a 22.54 0.042 16.30b 13.52 0.084 28.57b 24.66 0.075
West Virginia 46.64a 35.81 0.000 33.04 29.97 0.211 25.76a 19.36 0.002 51.58a 38.89 0.000
Wisconsin 34.52a 28.87 0.005 31.12 29.07 0.391 19.86a 16.01 0.029 37.63a 31.00 0.008
Wyoming 38.88a 30.92 0.000 34.88 32.64 0.376 21.04a 17.20 0.048 42.85a 33.13 0.000
131111
Table 5 – First Use of Marijuana, by Age Group and State: Average Annual Rates and P Values from Tests of Differences between Rates, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Average annual marijuana initiation rate = 100 × {[X1 ÷ (0.5 × X1 + X2)] ÷ 2}, where X1 is the number of marijuana initiates in the past 24 months and X2 is the number of persons who never used marijuana. Both of the computation components, X1 and X2, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach. Note that the age group is based on a respondent's age at the time of the interview, not his or her age at first use.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 1.81b 1.89 0.097 6.57a 5.96 0.000 6.82a 7.60 0.003 0.13a 0.19 0.027
Northeast 1.85b 2.00 0.069 7.10a 6.13 0.001 7.75b 8.62 0.060 0.12a 0.22 0.026
Midwest 1.88 1.87 0.918 6.47a 5.80 0.002 7.35 7.51 0.644 0.13 0.18 0.179
South 1.70 1.68 0.810 6.50a 5.52 0.000 6.25 6.72 0.144 0.12 0.16 0.290
West 1.89a 2.19 0.003 6.38 6.70 0.336 6.58a 8.40 0.000 0.15b 0.24 0.097
Alabama 1.55 1.45 0.499 5.97 4.94 0.150 6.23 5.95 0.767 0.09 0.11 0.627
Alaska 2.68 2.86 0.581 7.77 6.70 0.261 8.43 8.65 0.876 0.16a 0.42 0.013
Arizona 1.73 2.01 0.181 6.42 6.45 0.966 6.01 7.63 0.152 0.14 0.22 0.178
Arkansas 1.72 1.56 0.360 6.67a 5.17 0.050 7.11 5.73 0.181 0.10 0.13 0.479
California 1.79a 2.26 0.001 5.88b 6.83 0.055 6.27a 8.82 0.000 0.14 0.25 0.122
Colorado 2.31 2.34 0.908 7.59 7.49 0.917 8.10 9.43 0.349 0.20 0.25 0.544
Connecticut 2.03 2.19 0.466 8.31b 6.63 0.076 8.22 9.32 0.406 0.13 0.23 0.133
Delaware 1.89b 2.30 0.066 7.94 7.32 0.521 7.21b 9.94 0.058 0.12a 0.24 0.042
District of Columbia 1.96a 3.19 0.000 6.89 8.37 0.113 8.17a 11.69 0.019 0.17a 0.52 0.008
Florida 1.58 1.57 0.958 6.75a 5.64 0.014 6.44 7.03 0.354 0.12 0.17 0.271
Georgia 1.61 1.73 0.497 5.93 5.63 0.693 4.76 5.98 0.184 0.13 0.16 0.509
Hawaii 1.98 2.01 0.899 7.02 7.10 0.936 8.90 8.15 0.630 0.07a 0.31 0.010
Idaho 1.93 1.81 0.583 6.36 5.40 0.221 5.43 6.15 0.467 0.13 0.16 0.605
Illinois 1.76 1.84 0.478 6.24 5.70 0.209 6.87 7.76 0.185 0.13 0.19 0.181
Indiana 1.71 1.89 0.349 5.48 5.49 0.984 7.54 7.57 0.975 0.13 0.17 0.389
Iowa 1.62 1.71 0.630 5.37 5.58 0.774 7.15 7.26 0.924 0.11 0.13 0.560
Kansas 1.70 1.74 0.860 5.13 5.08 0.945 7.68 6.72 0.394 0.11 0.15 0.434
Kentucky 1.67 1.54 0.487 6.95a 5.43 0.049 6.29 5.79 0.631 0.12 0.15 0.509
Louisiana 1.76 1.53 0.197 5.64b 4.34 0.059 7.91 6.18 0.102 0.09 0.16 0.176
Maine 2.20 2.05 0.513 8.31b 6.72 0.080 10.35 8.42 0.187 0.13 0.22 0.119
Maryland 1.86 1.90 0.827 6.67 6.10 0.482 7.16 7.71 0.631 0.13 0.20 0.229
Massachusetts 2.06a 2.66 0.012 7.74 7.66 0.928 8.17a 11.09 0.047 0.16b 0.28 0.097
Michigan 2.06 2.21 0.238 6.78 6.46 0.485 7.66 8.42 0.272 0.14 0.20 0.174
Minnesota 2.06 1.89 0.410 6.86 5.62 0.109 7.15 8.06 0.466 0.15 0.21 0.329
Mississippi 1.43 1.49 0.719 4.55 4.71 0.814 5.33 5.82 0.595 0.09 0.13 0.388
Missouri 2.02b 1.68 0.086 7.10 5.92 0.146 7.26 6.28 0.381 0.14 0.15 0.797
Montana 2.55 2.42 0.603 9.08 8.40 0.483 10.20 9.97 0.885 0.12 0.21 0.166
Nebraska 1.76 1.69 0.694 6.63b 5.21 0.077 5.99 6.95 0.363 0.11 0.15 0.437
Nevada 2.02 2.17 0.531 8.42 7.05 0.195 6.08a 9.09 0.019 0.15 0.22 0.316
New Hampshire 2.58 2.70 0.653 8.82 7.87 0.347 11.14 11.58 0.799 0.16 0.26 0.219
New Jersey 1.57 1.77 0.254 6.62 5.99 0.445 5.97b 8.02 0.078 0.12 0.18 0.218
New Mexico 2.35 2.35 0.988 8.26 8.93 0.553 10.49 7.89 0.110 0.14 0.24 0.244
New York 1.88 1.90 0.885 6.85a 5.68 0.014 8.02 7.93 0.909 0.12a 0.24 0.025
North Carolina 1.81 1.58 0.206 7.81a 5.56 0.007 6.81 6.74 0.950 0.11 0.13 0.538
North Dakota 1.97 1.64 0.103 6.96a 4.52 0.002 8.45 6.82 0.175 0.09 0.16 0.172
Ohio 1.86 2.00 0.236 6.62 6.31 0.498 7.30 7.94 0.371 0.12 0.18 0.149
Oklahoma 1.79 1.72 0.721 6.33 5.63 0.373 6.67 5.81 0.414 0.10 0.16 0.244
Oregon 1.95b 2.40 0.052 6.94 6.53 0.637 7.53b 9.77 0.099 0.14b 0.27 0.065
Pennsylvania 1.72 1.83 0.341 6.65a 5.43 0.006 7.51 8.31 0.265 0.10b 0.17 0.090
Rhode Island 2.14a 2.74 0.026 7.89 8.61 0.486 10.02 10.94 0.592 0.15 0.26 0.107
South Carolina 1.85 1.74 0.554 6.56 6.35 0.795 8.05 6.41 0.134 0.10 0.15 0.309
South Dakota 2.23a 1.56 0.001 8.39a 5.10 0.000 8.58b 6.31 0.060 0.10 0.15 0.237
Tennessee 1.38 1.51 0.460 5.09 5.23 0.838 5.50 5.87 0.711 0.10 0.14 0.446
Texas 1.78 1.74 0.770 6.52a 5.26 0.005 5.55a 6.89 0.028 0.14 0.15 0.888
Utah 1.77a 1.33 0.031 4.50 3.67 0.235 5.26 4.22 0.233 0.13 0.11 0.677
Vermont 2.70 2.74 0.910 10.35 9.43 0.410 10.44 9.12 0.433 0.15b 0.29 0.100
Virginia 1.93 2.07 0.500 7.34 6.39 0.260 7.50 8.26 0.514 0.12 0.20 0.134
Washington 2.07 2.18 0.630 7.14 6.63 0.560 7.11 8.35 0.326 0.16 0.24 0.255
West Virginia 1.53 1.65 0.442 7.29 6.75 0.525 6.27 7.67 0.191 0.09 0.13 0.399
Wisconsin 2.06b 1.66 0.053 7.17a 5.20 0.017 8.25 6.55 0.148 0.12 0.17 0.349
Wyoming 1.92 1.61 0.114 6.44 5.42 0.193 7.06 6.03 0.346 0.12 0.16 0.385
131111
Table 6 – Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 3.73a 3.27 0.000 5.70a 3.90 0.000 8.17a 7.00 0.000 2.68 2.54 0.307
Northeast 3.38 3.17 0.247 5.35a 3.43 0.000 8.51a 7.09 0.001 2.31 2.48 0.449
Midwest 3.48b 3.20 0.053 5.48a 3.79 0.000 7.81a 6.94 0.009 2.43 2.49 0.745
South 3.83a 3.16 0.000 5.85a 3.89 0.000 8.38a 6.82 0.000 2.76b 2.44 0.086
West 4.11a 3.57 0.013 5.97a 4.34 0.000 7.93 7.25 0.143 3.14 2.80 0.212
Alabama 3.72 3.75 0.937 5.36 4.55 0.395 8.06 7.42 0.547 2.73 3.01 0.590
Alaska 4.00 3.30 0.101 5.39a 3.37 0.015 8.51 7.19 0.263 2.97 2.57 0.426
Arizona 4.66b 3.70 0.076 7.22a 4.60 0.022 8.98b 6.82 0.087 3.51 3.04 0.467
Arkansas 3.92 3.83 0.831 6.54 4.95 0.121 9.24 8.02 0.314 2.62 2.97 0.514
California 3.94 3.50 0.180 5.79a 4.45 0.025 7.02 7.14 0.859 3.11 2.70 0.309
Colorado 4.67a 3.64 0.040 6.47a 4.14 0.021 9.80 8.06 0.189 3.53 2.84 0.247
Connecticut 3.25 2.92 0.391 5.35a 3.07 0.009 7.57 7.54 0.976 2.35 2.18 0.709
Delaware 3.91 3.77 0.762 6.02a 3.70 0.012 10.12 9.03 0.431 2.58 2.88 0.568
District of Columbia 4.06 4.52 0.427 4.22 4.33 0.896 6.65 6.52 0.906 3.54 4.06 0.473
Florida 3.70a 2.94 0.010 5.17a 3.66 0.003 8.41a 6.69 0.013 2.85 2.29 0.109
Georgia 3.97a 3.01 0.020 5.54b 4.02 0.093 8.05b 6.22 0.095 3.01 2.30 0.159
Hawaii 3.46 3.60 0.793 6.53b 4.48 0.065 6.93 7.62 0.573 2.49 2.88 0.553
Idaho 3.73 3.45 0.508 5.66b 4.09 0.086 7.42 7.29 0.905 2.65 2.67 0.966
Illinois 3.30 2.97 0.231 5.22a 3.35 0.000 7.50b 6.36 0.098 2.29 2.35 0.842
Indiana 3.56 3.96 0.357 5.69b 4.09 0.084 8.30 8.94 0.585 2.39 3.06 0.195
Iowa 3.17 2.64 0.173 4.37 3.31 0.192 7.35 6.17 0.292 2.21 1.93 0.544
Kansas 3.11 2.84 0.500 4.49 3.96 0.557 6.66 5.53 0.266 2.21 2.20 0.984
Kentucky 4.38a 3.10 0.004 6.67a 3.25 0.000 9.83a 7.34 0.042 3.14 2.39 0.150
Louisiana 4.24b 3.48 0.078 6.14a 3.93 0.014 8.78b 6.91 0.094 3.04 2.78 0.623
Maine 3.82 3.18 0.142 5.36a 3.22 0.011 10.00 8.70 0.311 2.70 2.39 0.548
Maryland 3.44b 2.68 0.058 4.87a 3.14 0.035 7.66 6.03 0.121 2.58 2.07 0.291
Massachusetts 3.63 3.26 0.367 6.40a 3.86 0.006 10.20a 7.19 0.017 2.25 2.50 0.592
Michigan 3.62 3.62 0.998 6.44a 4.56 0.002 7.76 6.99 0.259 2.50 2.92 0.264
Minnesota 3.21 2.91 0.419 5.27a 3.49 0.035 7.23 6.48 0.500 2.19 2.25 0.871
Mississippi 3.60 3.46 0.741 6.26a 4.21 0.032 7.39 6.33 0.341 2.43 2.83 0.438
Missouri 4.16a 2.89 0.003 5.40a 3.68 0.049 8.91b 6.66 0.052 3.15b 2.15 0.051
Montana 3.78 3.26 0.208 7.03a 4.42 0.011 7.23 7.66 0.709 2.70 2.41 0.559
Nebraska 3.44a 2.67 0.035 5.94a 3.32 0.004 8.20a 5.97 0.033 2.17 2.01 0.705
Nevada 4.47b 3.49 0.077 5.12 3.97 0.251 9.35a 6.51 0.023 3.62 2.94 0.312
New Hampshire 4.05 3.47 0.175 6.20a 3.67 0.005 11.72 9.72 0.158 2.57 2.47 0.845
New Jersey 3.40 3.25 0.727 5.15 3.77 0.111 9.12 7.62 0.226 2.36 2.53 0.714
New Mexico 4.57 3.85 0.204 6.26 5.52 0.524 9.94a 6.16 0.005 3.30 3.23 0.910
New York 3.10 3.02 0.801 4.87a 2.91 0.000 7.53 6.63 0.210 2.14 2.40 0.472
North Carolina 3.96a 2.88 0.007 6.90a 3.44 0.000 8.28 6.68 0.153 2.85 2.19 0.162
North Dakota 3.30a 2.39 0.018 5.76a 2.67 0.001 6.93 5.53 0.177 2.19 1.69 0.249
Ohio 3.44 3.51 0.785 5.27a 3.98 0.017 7.87 7.66 0.767 2.42 2.77 0.310
Oklahoma 4.41 3.70 0.155 6.33a 4.04 0.024 10.88a 6.96 0.002 2.89 3.07 0.772
Oregon 4.29 3.81 0.352 5.55b 3.89 0.061 9.38 8.69 0.595 3.26 3.03 0.707
Pennsylvania 3.44 3.16 0.313 5.51a 3.76 0.001 8.04a 6.60 0.039 2.43 2.51 0.820
Rhode Island 4.64 4.70 0.909 5.50 4.26 0.209 13.37a 9.60 0.016 2.94 3.81 0.217
South Carolina 3.58 3.45 0.751 5.30 4.05 0.155 8.73 7.11 0.152 2.44 2.75 0.565
South Dakota 3.29 2.81 0.210 6.38a 3.25 0.001 7.81b 5.67 0.054 1.95 2.26 0.477
Tennessee 3.64 3.42 0.588 5.46 4.22 0.181 7.40 8.24 0.482 2.78 2.53 0.619
Texas 3.89a 3.15 0.008 6.19a 4.17 0.001 8.33a 6.38 0.005 2.66 2.39 0.428
Utah 3.74 3.13 0.124 5.35a 2.99 0.006 7.30 6.23 0.322 2.39 2.43 0.933
Vermont 3.87 3.74 0.771 6.78a 4.33 0.014 9.22 8.66 0.663 2.56 2.83 0.610
Virginia 3.54 3.01 0.169 5.83a 3.32 0.005 7.95 7.09 0.436 2.51 2.27 0.596
Washington 4.22 3.89 0.479 6.12b 4.49 0.089 9.77 8.10 0.179 3.01 3.12 0.857
West Virginia 3.51 3.11 0.303 6.07a 3.42 0.003 8.09 8.69 0.600 2.48 2.25 0.617
Wisconsin 3.63a 2.85 0.045 5.59a 3.57 0.022 8.23 6.91 0.253 2.54 2.09 0.331
Wyoming 3.67a 2.53 0.005 5.12a 3.14 0.016 8.14a 4.77 0.002 2.61 2.06 0.254
131111
Table 7 – Cocaine Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 2.50a 1.65 0.000 1.90a 0.82 0.000 6.67a 4.59 0.000 1.85a 1.24 0.000
Northeast 2.52a 1.94 0.000 1.67a 0.75 0.000 7.17a 5.37 0.000 1.89a 1.50 0.032
Midwest 2.50a 1.43 0.000 1.93a 0.70 0.000 6.71a 3.71 0.000 1.83a 1.13 0.000
South 2.41a 1.49 0.000 1.96a 0.80 0.000 6.11a 3.98 0.000 1.83a 1.15 0.000
West 2.62a 1.87 0.000 1.96a 1.01 0.000 7.10a 5.74 0.003 1.89a 1.29 0.002
Alabama 2.25a 1.20 0.000 1.66a 0.67 0.003 5.49a 2.68 0.000 1.75a 1.01 0.023
Alaska 2.40b 1.73 0.078 2.44a 0.88 0.001 8.37a 4.98 0.005 1.38 1.24 0.747
Arizona 3.45a 2.02 0.000 3.24a 1.00 0.000 8.53a 5.66 0.020 2.57a 1.52 0.020
Arkansas 2.17a 1.34 0.002 1.86a 0.74 0.002 6.05a 3.22 0.001 1.52 1.10 0.165
California 2.54a 1.90 0.006 1.70a 1.08 0.031 6.61 5.78 0.239 1.92a 1.29 0.024
Colorado 3.90a 2.41 0.001 2.64a 1.09 0.002 10.29 8.83 0.331 2.96a 1.49 0.006
Connecticut 2.13 1.93 0.501 1.82a 0.85 0.008 7.02 6.71 0.775 1.46 1.31 0.677
Delaware 2.76a 1.88 0.011 1.61a 0.74 0.007 7.38b 5.27 0.057 2.12b 1.44 0.088
District of Columbia 3.58 3.01 0.389 0.65b 0.34 0.075 4.55 4.88 0.711 3.65 2.78 0.292
Florida 2.53a 1.71 0.000 1.94a 0.66 0.000 6.83a 5.31 0.025 1.99a 1.28 0.011
Georgia 2.47a 1.57 0.002 1.68a 0.64 0.001 5.26a 3.29 0.019 2.08b 1.38 0.057
Hawaii 1.76 1.67 0.766 1.70a 0.74 0.017 5.52 4.38 0.225 1.17 1.35 0.568
Idaho 1.64b 1.22 0.060 1.80a 0.69 0.003 5.03b 3.47 0.071 0.92 0.89 0.897
Illinois 2.44a 1.79 0.006 1.67a 0.74 0.000 6.53a 4.17 0.000 1.82 1.52 0.285
Indiana 2.57a 1.24 0.000 2.00a 0.76 0.002 7.20a 3.39 0.000 1.80a 0.93 0.004
Iowa 2.23a 1.16 0.000 2.18a 0.64 0.000 6.43a 3.31 0.001 1.44a 0.84 0.032
Kansas 2.21a 1.34 0.001 1.80a 0.74 0.004 6.31a 3.66 0.003 1.48b 1.00 0.091
Kentucky 2.56a 1.42 0.000 2.05a 0.78 0.001 6.59a 3.80 0.002 1.93a 1.11 0.013
Louisiana 2.78a 1.62 0.000 1.65a 0.63 0.000 5.38a 3.38 0.011 2.42a 1.42 0.014
Maine 2.30b 1.75 0.061 2.18a 0.79 0.000 8.05a 5.52 0.028 1.46 1.32 0.679
Maryland 2.05a 1.34 0.013 1.38a 0.57 0.006 4.80b 3.46 0.092 1.70b 1.08 0.082
Massachusetts 2.85a 1.85 0.004 2.05a 0.93 0.004 7.88a 5.48 0.048 2.14a 1.31 0.036
Michigan 2.59a 1.35 0.000 2.08a 0.79 0.000 6.26a 3.57 0.000 2.03a 1.04 0.000
Minnesota 2.51a 1.33 0.000 2.35a 0.63 0.000 7.47a 3.63 0.000 1.64b 1.03 0.052
Mississippi 2.05a 1.35 0.016 1.18 0.71 0.107 4.18a 2.42 0.010 1.75 1.24 0.164
Missouri 2.90a 1.26 0.000 2.03a 0.71 0.000 7.19a 3.39 0.000 2.27a 0.97 0.000
Montana 2.48a 1.57 0.001 2.51a 1.11 0.004 7.30 5.51 0.106 1.62a 0.98 0.031
Nebraska 2.12a 1.43 0.005 2.16a 0.79 0.000 5.72 4.33 0.124 1.42 1.00 0.123
Nevada 2.38a 1.39 0.000 1.97a 0.92 0.011 7.35a 4.36 0.011 1.66a 0.97 0.018
New Hampshire 2.97a 1.96 0.004 2.66a 0.84 0.000 10.17a 7.27 0.034 1.89b 1.26 0.094
New Jersey 2.25 1.86 0.187 1.78a 0.73 0.002 6.49 5.31 0.274 1.71 1.48 0.508
New Mexico 3.07a 2.07 0.010 2.81a 1.27 0.007 10.03a 5.72 0.002 1.81 1.54 0.523
New York 2.59b 2.11 0.066 1.41a 0.75 0.003 6.93b 5.62 0.057 2.02 1.65 0.249
North Carolina 2.43a 1.57 0.003 1.92a 0.84 0.004 6.42a 4.29 0.024 1.83b 1.22 0.067
North Dakota 1.94a 1.23 0.003 1.95a 0.69 0.001 5.94a 3.50 0.007 1.10 0.81 0.257
Ohio 2.53a 1.53 0.000 1.69a 0.60 0.000 6.99a 3.77 0.000 1.88a 1.28 0.027
Oklahoma 2.02a 1.29 0.003 1.86a 0.71 0.002 5.99a 3.32 0.002 1.27 1.00 0.302
Oregon 2.45b 1.95 0.100 1.91a 1.05 0.029 7.25 6.77 0.684 1.71 1.28 0.215
Pennsylvania 2.37a 1.74 0.012 1.49a 0.61 0.000 6.62a 4.15 0.000 1.79 1.46 0.276
Rhode Island 3.79a 2.62 0.019 2.10a 0.80 0.002 12.05a 6.82 0.000 2.50 2.02 0.415
South Carolina 2.64a 1.69 0.005 1.71a 0.62 0.000 6.36a 3.64 0.002 2.11 1.49 0.128
South Dakota 1.89a 0.98 0.000 2.41a 0.66 0.000 5.49a 2.83 0.001 1.10b 0.70 0.081
Tennessee 2.36a 1.39 0.000 1.85a 0.76 0.001 6.08a 3.55 0.005 1.80a 1.11 0.030
Texas 2.44a 1.39 0.000 2.58a 1.12 0.000 6.66a 4.22 0.000 1.58a 0.90 0.003
Utah 1.95 1.69 0.334 1.52a 0.74 0.026 4.78 4.16 0.478 1.21 1.28 0.818
Vermont 2.98a 2.08 0.012 2.81a 1.01 0.000 9.73b 7.14 0.067 1.85 1.34 0.180
Virginia 2.24a 1.29 0.000 1.72a 0.64 0.001 5.52a 3.58 0.022 1.78a 0.97 0.007
Washington 2.11b 1.60 0.060 1.77a 0.78 0.005 7.15a 4.95 0.036 1.29 1.14 0.608
West Virginia 2.30a 1.56 0.010 2.61a 1.01 0.000 7.42a 4.94 0.017 1.44 1.12 0.294
Wisconsin 2.45a 1.31 0.000 1.98a 0.65 0.000 6.62a 3.85 0.005 1.77a 0.97 0.009
Wyoming 2.21a 1.34 0.001 1.80a 0.80 0.005 7.60a 4.35 0.002 1.25 0.88 0.185
131111
Table 8 – Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 4.79b 4.57 0.080 7.61a 5.64 0.000 11.70a 9.96 0.000 3.20b 3.50 0.053
Northeast 4.05 4.14 0.653 6.37a 4.80 0.000 11.22a 9.25 0.000 2.62a 3.20 0.009
Midwest 4.58 4.60 0.926 7.53a 5.65 0.000 11.68a 10.33 0.001 2.90a 3.49 0.003
South 4.92a 4.50 0.011 7.88a 5.66 0.000 12.08a 9.73 0.000 3.27 3.45 0.356
West 5.42b 4.97 0.082 8.23a 6.21 0.000 11.51b 10.51 0.078 3.90 3.82 0.793
Alabama 4.89 5.22 0.477 8.01 7.19 0.476 12.98b 10.55 0.082 3.03b 4.05 0.070
Alaska 5.34 5.08 0.628 8.09 6.29 0.120 12.72 11.38 0.373 3.58 3.74 0.794
Arizona 6.07 5.40 0.270 9.35 7.66 0.217 13.91 11.61 0.165 4.18 4.02 0.818
Arkansas 5.03 5.84 0.119 7.95 8.30 0.770 13.38 12.93 0.779 3.15a 4.32 0.049
California 5.20 4.81 0.293 7.53a 5.72 0.007 9.79 9.88 0.910 4.02 3.74 0.544
Colorado 6.08b 5.05 0.069 8.98 7.15 0.147 13.94 12.18 0.276 4.31 3.59 0.256
Connecticut 4.03 3.91 0.778 5.70 4.53 0.192 11.54b 9.21 0.089 2.72 3.00 0.572
Delaware 5.12 5.43 0.568 7.30 6.24 0.330 13.90 12.45 0.386 3.33 4.14 0.197
District of Columbia 3.52b 4.41 0.078 5.26 4.05 0.182 6.73 7.74 0.367 2.73 3.65 0.126
Florida 4.85a 3.86 0.002 7.03a 4.87 0.000 12.83a 8.32 0.000 3.45 3.07 0.317
Georgia 5.12a 4.12 0.031 8.41a 5.26 0.004 10.66 8.85 0.169 3.64 3.12 0.332
Hawaii 3.90 4.36 0.392 6.52 6.34 0.880 9.41 9.98 0.675 2.67 3.26 0.345
Idaho 5.63 5.20 0.411 8.72a 6.37 0.042 13.57 11.64 0.219 3.48 3.89 0.477
Illinois 4.02 4.15 0.654 6.76a 4.89 0.002 10.92 9.69 0.143 2.42a 3.11 0.045
Indiana 5.88 5.63 0.655 8.37 6.80 0.181 15.82 13.47 0.174 3.70 4.09 0.539
Iowa 3.42 3.73 0.463 6.28b 4.60 0.087 8.78 9.58 0.555 2.02 2.59 0.240
Kansas 4.36 4.09 0.540 6.14 5.68 0.651 10.84 8.73 0.106 2.84 3.04 0.698
Kentucky 6.50a 4.49 0.000 9.96a 5.40 0.000 17.48a 10.39 0.000 4.16 3.40 0.203
Louisiana 5.16 4.69 0.313 7.46 5.91 0.127 13.19a 9.85 0.019 3.20 3.59 0.487
Maine 4.61 4.43 0.708 7.16a 5.09 0.042 14.07a 10.98 0.043 2.87 3.43 0.289
Maryland 4.03 3.90 0.745 5.95b 4.25 0.059 10.52b 8.35 0.091 2.75 3.12 0.464
Massachusetts 5.28a 3.91 0.004 7.78a 4.55 0.001 14.68a 8.98 0.000 3.47 2.94 0.326
Michigan 5.18 5.08 0.789 9.70a 6.67 0.000 11.90 10.78 0.182 3.37 3.90 0.237
Minnesota 3.93 4.10 0.696 6.37 5.23 0.229 8.79 9.07 0.831 2.70 3.15 0.386
Mississippi 4.40 4.94 0.215 8.48b 6.45 0.076 10.05 10.72 0.629 2.64a 3.68 0.040
Missouri 5.17 4.56 0.186 7.75b 5.69 0.054 12.93 10.71 0.125 3.44 3.38 0.897
Montana 4.22 4.75 0.245 8.06 6.99 0.372 10.19 11.42 0.379 2.61 3.41 0.127
Nebraska 3.82 3.98 0.694 7.31a 4.85 0.019 10.05 8.85 0.352 2.11b 3.01 0.065
Nevada 5.66 5.34 0.600 9.61a 6.34 0.013 13.30 11.42 0.254 3.93 4.23 0.659
New Hampshire 5.33b 4.46 0.064 7.91b 5.88 0.066 16.19a 11.55 0.005 3.28 3.18 0.845
New Jersey 3.61a 4.50 0.038 5.89 5.21 0.493 9.95 10.99 0.462 2.42a 3.44 0.042
New Mexico 5.18 5.41 0.704 8.36 8.36 1.000 10.80 11.10 0.843 3.64 4.04 0.573
New York 3.72 4.03 0.314 6.02a 4.07 0.001 9.78b 8.30 0.061 2.43a 3.27 0.021
North Carolina 5.07 4.61 0.357 8.81a 5.66 0.006 12.09 10.24 0.193 3.40 3.55 0.785
North Dakota 3.54 3.64 0.820 6.34a 4.09 0.016 7.76 8.01 0.839 2.27 2.66 0.433
Ohio 4.53 5.00 0.155 7.09a 5.82 0.040 11.98 10.87 0.205 2.90a 3.92 0.010
Oklahoma 5.81 5.24 0.312 9.24b 6.99 0.078 15.12a 10.90 0.010 3.53 3.99 0.474
Oregon 5.73 5.72 0.984 9.20a 6.77 0.042 14.56 13.75 0.623 3.78 4.32 0.420
Pennsylvania 3.81 4.05 0.414 6.24 5.61 0.303 10.86a 9.06 0.030 2.36b 3.03 0.054
Rhode Island 5.91 5.23 0.239 7.42b 5.46 0.079 16.95a 11.66 0.001 3.71 3.96 0.707
South Carolina 4.94 5.04 0.836 7.50 6.77 0.507 11.91 10.67 0.367 3.36 3.88 0.384
South Dakota 3.68 3.71 0.938 7.63a 4.29 0.001 8.75 8.65 0.933 2.09 2.78 0.153
Tennessee 4.65 5.10 0.357 9.08a 6.64 0.042 11.41 12.10 0.663 2.94 3.76 0.131
Texas 4.90 4.54 0.254 7.60a 5.59 0.002 11.11a 9.19 0.019 3.24 3.50 0.497
Utah 5.57a 4.38 0.013 7.81a 4.36 0.001 11.95a 8.84 0.026 3.27 3.35 0.886
Vermont 5.37 4.64 0.118 8.93a 5.64 0.003 14.60 12.02 0.104 3.31 3.26 0.931
Virginia 4.35 4.31 0.923 7.93a 4.87 0.002 10.75 10.29 0.733 2.84 3.22 0.450
Washington 5.86 5.09 0.163 10.19a 6.76 0.008 15.25a 10.22 0.001 3.66 4.04 0.549
West Virginia 5.34b 4.44 0.058 8.87a 5.97 0.010 15.67a 11.28 0.005 3.27 3.26 0.980
Wisconsin 4.66 4.46 0.669 7.58a 5.34 0.035 12.67a 9.24 0.016 2.81 3.55 0.175
Wyoming 4.98 4.33 0.174 8.00a 4.83 0.003 12.68a 8.97 0.009 3.08 3.46 0.486
131111
Table 9 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 50.50a 51.94 0.000 17.67a 13.11 0.000 60.91 60.45 0.403 53.22a 55.33 0.000
Northeast 55.33a 57.31 0.007 19.24a 15.81 0.000 66.19 65.84 0.697 58.21a 60.71 0.006
Midwest 52.96a 54.43 0.013 18.98a 13.14 0.000 66.22a 63.63 0.000 55.35a 58.06 0.000
South 45.89a 48.43 0.000 16.75a 12.05 0.000 57.13 57.62 0.506 47.95a 51.43 0.000
West 51.24 51.03 0.789 16.58a 12.80 0.000 57.43 57.94 0.587 55.15 54.76 0.692
Alabama 36.83a 43.21 0.001 15.00a 11.36 0.012 50.96 52.65 0.510 37.27a 45.56 0.001
Alaska 50.89b 54.46 0.082 15.90 13.39 0.175 59.83 59.47 0.894 55.92 59.28 0.203
Arizona 50.20 50.85 0.758 18.69a 13.07 0.002 58.45 57.05 0.595 53.29 54.75 0.588
Arkansas 38.93 40.35 0.480 16.71a 12.25 0.005 53.79 50.71 0.250 39.34 42.14 0.271
California 50.97 49.60 0.251 15.28a 13.08 0.025 55.53 57.76 0.124 55.38 52.96 0.116
Colorado 59.22 59.20 0.989 20.63a 13.40 0.000 68.89 68.08 0.735 62.79 63.22 0.859
Connecticut 57.93b 61.74 0.061 18.88 17.63 0.519 72.28 68.86 0.148 61.02a 66.05 0.047
Delaware 53.06 52.55 0.804 18.35a 13.87 0.008 62.71 63.73 0.691 55.89 55.14 0.772
District of Columbia 56.69a 63.94 0.001 13.02 14.79 0.316 67.17a 75.13 0.001 58.52a 65.08 0.013
Florida 52.44 51.88 0.643 17.35a 12.45 0.000 59.66 59.41 0.865 55.68 54.97 0.628
Georgia 46.07 46.71 0.741 15.09a 10.87 0.004 52.19 52.73 0.837 49.41 50.50 0.659
Hawaii 48.71 50.86 0.336 17.96a 12.44 0.002 58.57 57.12 0.594 51.28 54.12 0.310
Idaho 47.70 48.97 0.531 17.37a 11.31 0.000 53.62a 47.76 0.031 51.34 54.56 0.224
Illinois 51.71a 55.40 0.001 18.65a 13.14 0.000 64.16 64.08 0.953 54.10a 59.37 0.000
Indiana 46.60a 51.17 0.029 16.04a 11.28 0.002 61.78 61.82 0.987 48.16a 54.53 0.017
Iowa 55.37 56.46 0.603 20.18a 14.59 0.001 67.28 67.11 0.947 57.79 59.74 0.469
Kansas 48.92 50.74 0.386 19.41a 11.69 0.000 65.89a 60.14 0.018 49.96 54.25 0.113
Kentucky 40.57a 44.51 0.050 18.75a 10.88 0.000 58.07 56.07 0.435 40.27a 46.67 0.012
Louisiana 46.27b 49.62 0.070 19.35a 13.33 0.000 61.41 59.07 0.333 47.30a 52.57 0.026
Maine 52.17 54.04 0.395 16.55a 12.44 0.010 66.76 62.82 0.121 54.44 57.18 0.316
Maryland 54.67b 58.19 0.091 17.14 14.67 0.139 64.21 66.08 0.451 58.34 62.16 0.141
Massachusetts 59.59a 63.54 0.047 21.04a 15.59 0.002 68.94 69.28 0.890 62.75a 67.96 0.036
Michigan 53.78 53.74 0.968 19.23a 13.35 0.000 66.30a 62.30 0.002 56.54 57.42 0.541
Minnesota 58.45 58.57 0.952 19.54a 13.10 0.000 70.68a 64.24 0.011 61.73 63.19 0.571
Mississippi 35.54a 41.17 0.005 14.72 13.01 0.280 50.24 54.10 0.147 35.72a 42.62 0.007
Missouri 53.21 50.89 0.262 19.67a 12.83 0.000 64.52 60.57 0.112 55.85 53.94 0.468
Montana 55.36a 60.20 0.018 24.73a 15.49 0.000 69.29 69.06 0.923 57.19a 63.79 0.010
Nebraska 53.98 53.74 0.910 22.24a 11.45 0.000 68.38a 63.55 0.048 55.77 57.33 0.558
Nevada 50.68 52.82 0.334 18.40a 13.61 0.012 56.37 59.47 0.250 54.12 56.66 0.357
New Hampshire 59.80 62.89 0.123 21.44a 14.39 0.000 71.78 73.62 0.419 63.20 66.82 0.151
New Jersey 57.73 56.36 0.526 18.77 17.47 0.490 65.06 63.40 0.526 61.72 60.05 0.534
New Mexico 47.83 46.89 0.659 20.67a 12.69 0.000 60.78b 55.70 0.055 49.67 49.82 0.956
New York 54.71 55.49 0.530 19.49a 16.56 0.007 64.34 65.17 0.568 57.59 58.29 0.652
North Carolina 40.59a 47.56 0.001 16.12a 12.48 0.020 56.43 60.40 0.124 41.18a 49.72 0.001
North Dakota 58.04 59.12 0.598 25.23a 12.78 0.000 73.06 71.02 0.386 59.42 61.82 0.356
Ohio 51.81 52.41 0.608 17.52a 13.62 0.000 65.40b 63.11 0.087 54.20 55.48 0.386
Oklahoma 42.94 46.22 0.114 16.04a 10.68 0.001 58.23 56.23 0.464 43.81b 49.01 0.051
Oregon 53.14a 59.08 0.004 17.07a 12.50 0.006 65.32 61.99 0.185 55.79a 63.89 0.002
Pennsylvania 51.10a 55.47 0.000 18.06a 13.45 0.000 64.85 64.28 0.700 53.14a 58.82 0.000
Rhode Island 58.96a 63.35 0.031 22.12a 15.74 0.001 76.07 73.46 0.232 60.38a 66.80 0.013
South Carolina 45.07a 50.32 0.011 14.36 12.18 0.148 61.10 60.54 0.825 46.35a 53.09 0.009
South Dakota 55.18 57.29 0.265 22.07a 14.13 0.000 71.49 67.82 0.130 56.98 60.79 0.114
Tennessee 36.27 39.15 0.147 13.27a 10.17 0.030 46.50 49.74 0.245 37.48 40.93 0.165
Texas 47.27 48.19 0.416 17.56a 11.91 0.000 57.99 56.57 0.322 49.86 51.92 0.159
Utah 29.57 29.61 0.984 10.23b 7.50 0.082 35.74 33.42 0.429 31.40 32.52 0.688
Vermont 58.43 58.57 0.945 22.00a 17.25 0.017 73.45 71.15 0.318 60.69 60.89 0.939
Virginia 51.17a 55.13 0.050 18.40a 12.15 0.000 61.25 63.50 0.374 53.91b 58.84 0.051
Washington 56.31 55.70 0.759 18.15a 12.92 0.002 63.66 62.61 0.655 60.33 59.65 0.787
West Virginia 37.20 37.53 0.873 18.28a 13.45 0.006 53.18 55.99 0.260 36.81 37.27 0.857
Wisconsin 57.92 60.96 0.137 21.39a 14.83 0.000 72.05 69.06 0.196 60.48b 65.23 0.068
Wyoming 52.14 53.24 0.603 18.30a 14.11 0.023 66.48b 62.04 0.092 54.35 56.32 0.467
131111
Table 10 – Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 22.75 22.80 0.864 10.65a 7.31 0.000 41.25a 39.65 0.004 21.20b 21.83 0.089
Northeast 23.82 24.64 0.144 11.33a 8.26 0.000 44.69 44.74 0.950 22.10 23.17 0.121
Midwest 25.18 25.20 0.963 12.11a 7.61 0.000 47.13a 44.06 0.000 23.09a 24.21 0.049
South 21.22 21.48 0.543 9.68a 6.86 0.000 38.12a 36.44 0.016 19.87b 20.74 0.096
West 21.81 21.24 0.303 10.19a 7.06 0.000 37.60 36.87 0.441 20.61 20.27 0.631
Alabama 18.10 20.03 0.169 8.23 7.12 0.280 34.97a 30.65 0.050 16.45b 19.79 0.059
Alaska 23.13 23.63 0.743 11.42a 6.74 0.000 41.22 40.65 0.820 22.26 22.83 0.769
Arizona 24.32 21.79 0.105 11.94a 6.79 0.000 41.43 37.91 0.179 23.04 20.97 0.287
Arkansas 21.76 20.42 0.365 11.31a 7.54 0.001 39.76a 33.36 0.009 19.99 19.84 0.936
California 21.25 20.76 0.568 9.16a 7.01 0.003 35.41 35.76 0.812 20.43 19.79 0.556
Colorado 25.75b 23.00 0.081 11.04a 7.11 0.001 46.73 42.81 0.130 24.10 21.57 0.196
Connecticut 23.09 25.70 0.117 11.18a 8.05 0.017 48.14 46.93 0.639 21.04b 24.55 0.085
Delaware 23.71 22.91 0.594 10.46a 6.81 0.002 42.89 43.23 0.896 22.12 21.31 0.662
District of Columbia 25.34a 32.57 0.000 5.62 5.58 0.963 39.25a 51.81 0.000 24.35a 30.10 0.011
Florida 21.74 21.16 0.529 9.50a 6.80 0.000 39.02a 36.07 0.036 20.76 20.43 0.771
Georgia 20.73 19.42 0.362 8.20b 6.45 0.071 33.73 31.97 0.480 20.17 18.94 0.490
Hawaii 23.68 21.85 0.269 11.93a 6.86 0.000 41.12 38.85 0.389 22.47 20.86 0.422
Idaho 21.05 19.90 0.447 11.57a 7.16 0.000 36.12a 30.75 0.030 19.45 19.78 0.864
Illinois 25.17 25.78 0.523 11.70a 7.50 0.000 46.77 44.77 0.164 23.22 24.91 0.162
Indiana 22.27 24.01 0.231 9.82a 7.16 0.013 45.11 43.11 0.416 19.83 22.84 0.102
Iowa 26.34 27.54 0.456 13.85a 8.67 0.000 48.87 50.30 0.593 23.72 25.84 0.293
Kansas 21.71 23.37 0.259 11.56a 7.73 0.002 45.26b 40.91 0.094 18.63a 22.28 0.049
Kentucky 19.24a 22.27 0.031 11.08a 7.49 0.002 38.83 41.19 0.356 16.86a 20.94 0.020
Louisiana 23.77 25.06 0.373 10.87a 7.03 0.000 40.36 37.88 0.274 22.39 25.02 0.154
Maine 21.74 21.48 0.863 11.12a 7.48 0.002 44.67 42.25 0.335 19.64 20.02 0.833
Maryland 21.65 23.05 0.361 9.43a 7.20 0.041 39.77 43.18 0.194 20.48 21.64 0.537
Massachusetts 27.22 26.62 0.726 14.19a 8.44 0.000 46.98 47.21 0.930 25.64 25.05 0.782
Michigan 24.46 24.76 0.742 12.06a 7.67 0.000 44.49 42.94 0.242 22.75 23.81 0.359
Minnesota 28.07 26.90 0.474 13.27a 7.92 0.000 49.84 46.92 0.274 26.22 25.94 0.888
Mississippi 19.70 20.06 0.802 8.52 7.17 0.197 32.24 32.72 0.840 18.86 19.49 0.731
Missouri 24.56 23.20 0.381 12.61a 7.60 0.000 43.89b 39.37 0.065 22.80 22.38 0.825
Montana 27.41 25.50 0.249 17.85a 8.93 0.000 50.83 48.04 0.271 24.58 23.70 0.674
Nebraska 26.26 24.07 0.156 14.30a 7.23 0.000 49.83a 41.90 0.002 23.44 23.05 0.841
Nevada 20.87a 24.15 0.050 10.90a 6.90 0.001 33.81 37.59 0.159 20.17b 24.15 0.054
New Hampshire 24.02 24.02 0.995 13.29a 8.66 0.001 49.11 50.51 0.589 21.59 21.64 0.980
New Jersey 21.74 23.45 0.272 10.11 8.66 0.247 41.95 45.99 0.133 20.36 21.86 0.430
New Mexico 24.00 21.38 0.104 14.04a 7.60 0.000 41.39 37.09 0.103 22.31 20.45 0.356
New York 24.27 24.22 0.963 10.71a 8.48 0.005 42.55 42.62 0.961 22.96 22.80 0.900
North Carolina 19.31 18.26 0.454 10.02a 6.90 0.006 38.03 34.26 0.141 17.40 17.00 0.817
North Dakota 31.37 30.37 0.561 16.58a 7.47 0.000 55.15 53.79 0.619 28.43 27.96 0.832
Ohio 24.40 24.20 0.821 11.31a 7.47 0.000 45.99a 43.01 0.033 22.50 23.19 0.529
Oklahoma 19.01b 21.78 0.052 10.70a 6.86 0.001 37.98 38.22 0.924 16.53a 20.75 0.018
Oregon 20.52 22.39 0.200 10.70a 7.83 0.016 40.58 39.43 0.653 18.40 21.33 0.101
Pennsylvania 22.83a 24.81 0.035 11.24a 7.52 0.000 45.96 43.98 0.169 20.59a 23.58 0.010
Rhode Island 26.97b 30.11 0.078 12.73a 8.63 0.003 55.31 53.92 0.599 23.56b 27.94 0.052
South Carolina 22.54 23.94 0.359 8.80 7.16 0.128 42.03 39.80 0.366 20.93 23.23 0.228
South Dakota 28.13 28.94 0.618 15.85a 9.12 0.000 54.15 52.06 0.431 24.89 27.37 0.225
Tennessee 16.55 18.04 0.277 8.39b 6.46 0.075 29.89 31.57 0.500 15.34 17.21 0.260
Texas 23.90 23.55 0.697 9.84a 6.76 0.000 40.02a 37.08 0.032 22.96 23.45 0.672
Utah 15.86 15.83 0.980 7.86a 5.50 0.039 24.95 24.24 0.767 14.70 15.65 0.604
Vermont 25.51b 22.86 0.093 14.70a 9.94 0.001 49.19 49.52 0.902 22.87 19.71 0.102
Virginia 20.51 20.85 0.818 10.70a 6.52 0.000 40.44 38.74 0.509 18.58 19.51 0.617
Washington 20.94 21.42 0.737 11.06a 7.56 0.003 41.67 40.90 0.754 18.76 19.84 0.540
West Virginia 19.33 19.78 0.748 13.11a 8.74 0.001 38.11 40.18 0.384 17.02 17.89 0.610
Wisconsin 28.98 27.42 0.388 13.48a 7.60 0.000 54.87a 46.19 0.001 26.50 26.71 0.927
Wyoming 24.93 23.29 0.283 12.94a 7.90 0.000 49.68 45.36 0.104 21.98 21.26 0.704
131111
Table 11 – Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 42.04 42.24 0.559 38.36a 40.21 0.000 32.56a 34.50 0.000 44.20 43.84 0.443
Northeast 39.65b 40.79 0.093 36.76a 38.92 0.009 28.81a 31.73 0.000 41.75 42.54 0.356
Midwest 38.83 37.95 0.102 37.30 37.43 0.835 28.48a 29.97 0.015 40.89a 39.38 0.026
South 44.60 44.30 0.577 40.12a 42.59 0.000 35.85a 37.53 0.007 46.74 45.68 0.123
West 43.24 44.08 0.235 37.93a 39.97 0.022 34.44b 35.95 0.100 45.63 46.09 0.613
Alabama 46.19 44.83 0.460 42.74 42.69 0.984 37.64 38.73 0.641 48.17 46.18 0.391
Alaska 40.78 39.37 0.463 35.13 37.39 0.333 29.24 32.91 0.130 43.78 40.86 0.238
Arizona 39.54a 44.51 0.013 36.77 40.43 0.145 33.66 36.39 0.275 41.00a 46.46 0.032
Arkansas 43.34 42.30 0.586 41.25 40.10 0.625 35.99 34.80 0.623 44.93 43.86 0.656
California 45.47 46.34 0.439 38.79 41.05 0.109 37.05 38.14 0.468 48.00 48.58 0.685
Colorado 38.39 39.24 0.656 32.48 36.37 0.101 28.41 28.70 0.900 40.94 41.37 0.856
Connecticut 39.85 42.21 0.231 36.18 37.97 0.457 27.52 29.79 0.320 42.12 44.68 0.299
Delaware 39.62 40.92 0.482 39.63 39.75 0.962 29.37a 34.53 0.041 41.39 42.15 0.738
District of Columbia 45.47a 39.90 0.005 43.87 43.25 0.808 37.24a 31.45 0.026 47.24a 41.64 0.023
Florida 44.38b 46.50 0.076 40.02b 42.32 0.094 37.54a 41.00 0.013 45.89 47.78 0.201
Georgia 47.12a 43.28 0.047 42.61 43.40 0.745 38.37 37.64 0.766 49.36a 44.28 0.036
Hawaii 39.86 40.39 0.794 38.93 40.30 0.591 32.94 31.49 0.566 41.09 41.78 0.783
Idaho 39.96 39.03 0.610 37.53 34.60 0.188 30.42 32.15 0.470 42.33 40.90 0.541
Illinois 40.66 40.80 0.903 38.28 40.43 0.109 31.51 32.32 0.534 42.61 42.29 0.823
Indiana 42.73a 37.78 0.009 40.32 38.15 0.366 30.82 30.00 0.715 45.27a 39.12 0.010
Iowa 34.19 35.10 0.628 31.78 34.84 0.177 25.92 27.80 0.400 36.09 36.43 0.885
Kansas 40.70b 37.24 0.072 38.43 36.53 0.436 28.12 28.19 0.974 43.47b 38.98 0.067
Kentucky 42.34 41.81 0.778 39.08 39.49 0.861 33.87 35.99 0.370 44.23 43.05 0.622
Louisiana 43.83 42.32 0.385 39.89b 44.17 0.061 35.50 38.90 0.131 46.10 42.73 0.129
Maine 36.26 36.62 0.851 32.80 36.35 0.121 24.59b 28.10 0.092 38.44 37.85 0.803
Maryland 41.88 43.58 0.395 38.85a 44.83 0.015 35.09 35.45 0.883 43.37 44.78 0.571
Massachusetts 34.67a 38.98 0.026 34.03 34.74 0.753 24.06a 29.13 0.023 36.44a 41.20 0.048
Michigan 39.74 39.66 0.942 38.10 38.39 0.827 29.27b 31.44 0.072 41.79 41.24 0.690
Minnesota 36.35 36.80 0.807 36.49 33.05 0.134 24.65 26.12 0.495 38.45 39.01 0.811
Mississippi 49.91b 46.11 0.056 44.09 44.99 0.716 41.78 40.68 0.669 52.44a 47.26 0.041
Missouri 38.35 36.69 0.364 36.71 38.53 0.400 28.92 30.70 0.417 40.25 37.49 0.232
Montana 36.33 37.94 0.398 31.95 33.91 0.361 24.62 27.04 0.251 39.04 40.17 0.640
Nebraska 37.99 37.06 0.606 35.97 39.31 0.166 25.27 26.87 0.451 40.73 38.57 0.345
Nevada 41.75 42.76 0.618 38.57 39.88 0.607 35.01 36.52 0.548 43.24 44.13 0.722
New Hampshire 33.32a 37.43 0.037 27.98a 35.16 0.002 20.30a 26.41 0.002 36.08 39.42 0.177
New Jersey 44.79 42.97 0.361 38.38 39.71 0.579 34.09 32.59 0.529 47.14 44.93 0.373
New Mexico 47.07 46.08 0.627 40.01 38.30 0.507 37.35 39.42 0.424 49.98 48.25 0.511
New York 41.50b 43.45 0.100 39.15 41.17 0.165 31.25a 34.66 0.012 43.50 45.27 0.236
North Carolina 45.72 43.86 0.342 39.55 41.11 0.535 33.43 36.07 0.276 48.60 45.48 0.201
North Dakota 33.65 35.54 0.314 32.51 34.96 0.291 23.09b 26.80 0.089 36.02 37.46 0.547
Ohio 37.72 37.27 0.674 37.89 36.69 0.365 28.46 29.99 0.214 39.29 38.54 0.588
Oklahoma 43.77 43.44 0.868 37.84 39.71 0.450 31.48a 39.12 0.003 46.98 44.70 0.368
Oregon 39.88 38.18 0.373 36.22 35.07 0.613 29.13 30.97 0.404 42.18 39.68 0.289
Pennsylvania 37.29 37.02 0.812 35.40a 38.50 0.025 26.27a 29.79 0.006 39.32 38.07 0.385
Rhode Island 36.25 37.28 0.601 34.95 37.03 0.384 27.75 30.28 0.269 37.96 38.66 0.775
South Carolina 45.48 42.65 0.153 42.76 43.06 0.899 32.65 34.48 0.432 48.11 44.00 0.103
South Dakota 35.95 36.24 0.880 33.49 36.18 0.239 23.15b 27.17 0.069 38.83 37.83 0.686
Tennessee 45.42 43.05 0.224 41.10 42.52 0.567 34.76 37.76 0.231 47.77 43.99 0.119
Texas 44.61 46.31 0.109 38.81a 43.76 0.000 37.33 38.04 0.624 46.96 48.25 0.346
Utah 50.94a 46.23 0.024 47.56 47.15 0.883 40.56 40.27 0.916 54.64a 47.45 0.012
Vermont 37.08 37.71 0.748 30.43 31.12 0.754 22.04 24.77 0.193 40.56 40.64 0.975
Virginia 42.20 41.33 0.663 40.32 41.38 0.660 31.25 33.62 0.296 44.23 42.65 0.525
Washington 39.20 41.42 0.258 35.22 38.14 0.224 27.05a 31.38 0.046 41.83 43.47 0.505
West Virginia 42.90 39.83 0.116 34.10 36.98 0.218 33.85 30.45 0.133 45.37 41.53 0.110
Wisconsin 36.57 35.25 0.483 34.07 33.99 0.974 25.07b 28.79 0.086 38.99 36.49 0.295
Wyoming 37.38 35.57 0.337 35.00 36.82 0.422 22.86 26.33 0.121 40.48 37.04 0.148
131111
Table 12 – Alcohol Use and Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2002-2003)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2011-2012)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(P Value)
Binge Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2002-2003)
Binge Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2011-2012)
Binge Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 28.89a 24.70 0.000 19.22a 15.55 0.000
Northeast 31.50a 29.18 0.001 20.74a 18.01 0.000
Midwest 31.65a 25.49 0.000 21.99a 16.91 0.000
South 27.17a 22.37 0.000 17.54a 14.09 0.000
West 26.82a 24.28 0.000 17.91a 14.77 0.000
Alabama 24.88a 20.45 0.005 16.45a 13.01 0.007
Alaska 26.43a 22.90 0.046 19.42a 15.00 0.001
Arizona 28.64a 22.95 0.002 19.76a 14.00 0.000
Arkansas 25.16b 22.01 0.057 18.84a 15.34 0.013
California 24.67 25.18 0.630 16.09 14.99 0.198
Colorado 33.02a 25.51 0.000 21.31a 14.97 0.000
Connecticut 32.63 30.72 0.284 21.42b 18.60 0.069
Delaware 31.13b 27.54 0.056 20.37a 16.99 0.031
District of Columbia 31.16a 38.42 0.001 16.58a 21.77 0.008
Florida 27.50a 23.93 0.000 16.87a 14.42 0.002
Georgia 24.15a 19.69 0.005 15.31a 12.05 0.005
Hawaii 28.58a 21.51 0.000 20.77a 13.01 0.000
Idaho 26.66a 19.99 0.000 18.81a 13.38 0.000
Illinois 30.52a 25.12 0.000 21.63a 16.48 0.000
Indiana 27.53a 24.23 0.044 18.75b 16.43 0.099
Iowa 34.35a 28.11 0.001 24.68a 19.54 0.002
Kansas 31.31a 24.25 0.000 21.90a 16.61 0.000
Kentucky 28.99a 20.66 0.000 19.61a 15.11 0.001
Louisiana 31.05a 24.01 0.000 18.97a 14.47 0.000
Maine 30.23a 24.72 0.001 22.54a 16.18 0.000
Maryland 28.10b 24.98 0.068 17.52a 14.40 0.015
Massachusetts 32.50 30.75 0.336 22.40a 19.07 0.031
Michigan 31.83a 25.93 0.000 21.36a 17.14 0.000
Minnesota 33.36a 23.98 0.000 24.17a 16.49 0.000
Mississippi 24.01 22.03 0.240 15.72a 12.98 0.040
Missouri 32.41a 22.99 0.000 21.16a 14.82 0.000
Montana 38.39a 29.93 0.000 28.80a 19.65 0.000
Nebraska 34.98a 24.92 0.000 23.77a 16.66 0.000
Nevada 26.87 25.26 0.391 16.81 14.57 0.122
New Hampshire 35.98 34.84 0.535 25.02 23.12 0.243
New Jersey 29.38 28.96 0.821 17.59 18.35 0.613
New Mexico 32.37a 21.65 0.000 22.15a 14.08 0.000
New York 31.59b 29.51 0.066 20.34a 17.67 0.003
North Carolina 26.71a 21.25 0.001 17.99a 12.63 0.000
North Dakota 41.54a 32.83 0.000 31.04a 24.21 0.000
Ohio 30.13a 26.44 0.000 20.95a 17.21 0.000
Oklahoma 28.47a 22.30 0.000 19.07a 14.87 0.003
Oregon 28.22a 24.47 0.028 18.61 16.36 0.115
Pennsylvania 30.86a 26.99 0.000 21.05a 16.77 0.000
Rhode Island 38.31a 31.48 0.000 26.58a 20.44 0.000
South Carolina 27.25a 22.22 0.002 18.05a 14.49 0.008
South Dakota 37.21a 26.31 0.000 28.52a 19.15 0.000
Tennessee 23.80a 18.21 0.001 15.95a 11.94 0.004
Texas 27.35a 22.37 0.000 17.14a 14.06 0.000
Utah 19.41a 15.73 0.050 15.43a 10.82 0.003
Vermont 35.56 33.09 0.195 25.77a 21.45 0.008
Virginia 30.33a 23.94 0.000 20.47a 16.02 0.002
Washington 31.54a 24.17 0.000 21.02a 14.99 0.000
West Virginia 28.84 26.87 0.271 21.48 21.10 0.801
Wisconsin 34.72a 27.54 0.000 24.45a 17.66 0.000
Wyoming 33.64a 27.21 0.001 24.93a 18.31 0.000
131111
Table 13 – Tobacco Product Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 30.09a 26.60 0.000 14.83a 9.30 0.000 45.02a 38.75 0.000 29.59a 26.67 0.000
Northeast 29.21a 25.62 0.000 14.42a 9.46 0.000 45.89a 38.04 0.000 28.45a 25.42 0.000
Midwest 32.85a 29.49 0.000 16.97a 10.47 0.000 49.35a 43.29 0.000 32.12a 29.53 0.000
South 31.66a 27.99 0.000 15.72a 9.50 0.000 45.84a 39.18 0.000 31.39a 28.39 0.000
West 25.56a 22.49 0.000 11.70a 7.83 0.000 38.83a 34.60 0.000 25.15a 22.23 0.000
Alabama 33.02 32.20 0.657 16.66a 10.77 0.000 45.20 43.71 0.524 33.07 32.87 0.935
Alaska 30.73 31.53 0.668 16.39a 10.30 0.000 48.43 46.56 0.473 30.42 31.72 0.589
Arizona 30.45a 25.99 0.015 15.11a 7.93 0.000 39.80 37.36 0.381 31.00a 26.39 0.050
Arkansas 39.35a 31.62 0.000 19.57a 11.68 0.000 55.88a 42.67 0.000 39.12a 32.25 0.005
California 22.45a 19.40 0.001 9.22a 6.56 0.000 35.14a 31.10 0.003 22.07a 18.93 0.009
Colorado 31.24 28.50 0.114 17.44a 10.63 0.000 49.95a 43.10 0.007 29.86 28.19 0.443
Connecticut 27.06 24.69 0.174 15.19a 8.44 0.000 46.14a 37.70 0.001 25.86 24.64 0.578
Delaware 29.52 28.04 0.377 16.30a 10.07 0.000 46.47a 40.16 0.015 28.32 28.06 0.902
District of Columbia 29.21a 25.32 0.032 9.53a 6.11 0.005 37.39 33.58 0.133 29.34a 24.86 0.048
Florida 28.14a 24.59 0.001 14.34a 7.24 0.000 41.55a 34.87 0.000 27.91a 24.87 0.020
Georgia 30.88a 26.53 0.012 15.79a 10.27 0.000 41.74a 36.28 0.034 31.07b 27.00 0.065
Hawaii 24.62a 20.31 0.008 12.33a 8.57 0.009 36.59 33.79 0.272 24.37a 19.50 0.016
Idaho 28.09 25.90 0.211 14.70a 9.25 0.000 43.08a 35.30 0.003 27.13 26.60 0.811
Illinois 30.91a 26.40 0.000 14.97a 8.46 0.000 46.68a 39.94 0.000 30.33a 26.41 0.002
Indiana 33.09 32.86 0.895 16.84a 10.93 0.000 49.30b 44.66 0.063 32.42 33.65 0.581
Iowa 30.88a 26.69 0.018 16.34a 10.57 0.000 48.67a 42.53 0.016 29.44 25.88 0.113
Kansas 31.24 29.60 0.355 15.57a 10.46 0.001 45.68 43.80 0.450 30.73 29.58 0.615
Kentucky 39.78 38.45 0.508 23.18a 14.50 0.000 58.88b 54.07 0.057 38.54 38.76 0.930
Louisiana 32.70 32.95 0.882 17.58a 9.96 0.000 48.21a 41.32 0.004 31.87 34.39 0.256
Maine 31.33 28.46 0.125 13.55a 10.09 0.022 50.44a 44.04 0.010 30.69 28.18 0.278
Maryland 27.13a 23.39 0.026 12.70a 7.53 0.000 42.05a 36.29 0.021 26.76b 23.17 0.085
Massachusetts 26.09 23.81 0.163 14.37a 10.92 0.023 42.53a 34.22 0.001 24.88 23.43 0.479
Michigan 32.56b 30.77 0.084 15.89a 10.77 0.000 47.64a 44.30 0.012 32.32 30.99 0.319
Minnesota 31.44a 26.84 0.010 17.69a 10.56 0.000 51.31a 44.04 0.007 29.78b 26.01 0.090
Mississippi 35.49 35.53 0.986 16.57a 12.86 0.026 47.77 46.46 0.613 35.87 36.60 0.765
Missouri 36.69a 31.76 0.007 21.01a 12.28 0.000 51.76a 44.39 0.003 36.19b 32.02 0.072
Montana 34.18b 30.98 0.071 21.16a 15.47 0.002 53.76 49.68 0.102 32.51 29.68 0.208
Nebraska 30.59a 26.45 0.016 18.86a 9.84 0.000 48.81a 40.15 0.001 28.76 26.13 0.234
Nevada 34.99a 26.99 0.000 15.31a 9.10 0.000 42.38 39.60 0.314 36.47a 27.20 0.000
New Hampshire 31.71a 26.13 0.003 16.82a 10.93 0.000 50.33a 42.86 0.002 30.86a 25.26 0.016
New Jersey 26.84a 23.33 0.050 13.65a 8.71 0.001 44.45a 36.81 0.003 26.04 23.08 0.179
New Mexico 29.03b 26.07 0.098 15.37a 11.31 0.019 45.26 42.98 0.389 28.14 25.07 0.180
New York 28.82a 24.12 0.000 12.78a 7.95 0.000 43.64a 35.53 0.000 28.40a 23.98 0.001
North Carolina 35.90a 28.03 0.000 17.97a 9.34 0.000 50.13a 39.55 0.000 35.88a 28.41 0.001
North Dakota 32.51 29.80 0.126 20.88a 11.30 0.000 49.74b 45.20 0.068 30.50 28.62 0.407
Ohio 36.03a 32.20 0.000 17.27a 11.57 0.000 51.79a 46.18 0.000 35.91a 32.46 0.013
Oklahoma 35.86 35.11 0.700 17.60a 12.33 0.003 52.96a 46.83 0.022 35.16 35.94 0.757
Oregon 30.19a 26.34 0.027 14.42a 8.91 0.000 46.63a 39.04 0.002 29.46 26.29 0.141
Pennsylvania 32.94a 30.00 0.005 16.75a 11.40 0.000 50.17a 43.23 0.000 32.24b 29.92 0.078
Rhode Island 31.14b 28.05 0.089 16.13a 9.97 0.000 51.46a 40.49 0.000 29.29 27.70 0.489
South Carolina 31.92 33.22 0.488 15.52a 12.18 0.034 48.06b 43.86 0.086 31.27 33.90 0.273
South Dakota 35.10b 31.76 0.063 22.82a 12.40 0.000 57.69a 48.23 0.000 32.53 31.29 0.590
Tennessee 33.84 32.78 0.568 17.17a 11.47 0.001 46.30 42.99 0.211 33.86 33.68 0.940
Texas 29.68a 24.44 0.000 13.45a 8.09 0.000 42.47a 35.72 0.000 29.73a 24.71 0.000
Utah 19.67 18.94 0.657 8.43 6.24 0.102 25.46 25.10 0.886 20.09 19.70 0.863
Vermont 30.64 28.39 0.217 18.33a 13.45 0.006 52.64a 47.56 0.043 28.49 26.73 0.437
Virginia 29.73a 25.18 0.007 15.40a 8.68 0.000 47.83a 38.05 0.000 28.70b 24.96 0.075
Washington 26.76 24.65 0.187 13.22a 9.40 0.008 45.81a 39.58 0.011 25.37 24.00 0.492
West Virginia 37.22 37.24 0.991 21.34a 15.17 0.001 54.26 51.38 0.231 36.30 37.40 0.640
Wisconsin 30.55b 27.07 0.051 17.30a 9.63 0.000 50.41a 39.99 0.000 28.84 27.05 0.426
Wyoming 34.00 32.47 0.410 16.34b 13.44 0.097 55.18a 48.84 0.016 32.55 31.87 0.771
131111
Table 14 – Cigarette Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 25.71a 22.09 0.000 12.57a 7.16 0.000 40.50a 32.65 0.000 24.95a 22.13 0.000
Northeast 25.27a 21.17 0.000 12.72a 7.05 0.000 41.63a 32.37 0.000 24.27a 20.94 0.000
Midwest 28.10a 24.46 0.000 14.63a 8.14 0.000 44.57a 35.76 0.000 27.04a 24.58 0.000
South 26.76a 23.22 0.000 13.21a 7.19 0.000 40.76a 33.02 0.000 26.19a 23.55 0.000
West 22.03a 18.81 0.000 9.47a 6.30 0.000 35.22a 29.54 0.000 21.45a 18.51 0.000
Alabama 26.43 25.84 0.722 13.69a 8.22 0.000 39.24 36.57 0.269 25.88 26.17 0.895
Alaska 25.71 25.66 0.976 13.25a 7.57 0.000 43.97a 38.13 0.024 24.96 25.88 0.683
Arizona 27.51a 22.14 0.002 12.84a 6.44 0.000 38.85a 32.60 0.013 27.60a 22.39 0.022
Arkansas 32.84a 25.38 0.000 16.05a 8.71 0.000 50.97a 34.85 0.000 31.92a 25.87 0.009
California 19.36a 16.34 0.001 7.48a 5.43 0.002 31.77a 26.98 0.000 18.83a 15.81 0.009
Colorado 26.76a 22.87 0.018 13.74a 7.87 0.000 44.56a 34.52 0.000 25.43 22.71 0.194
Connecticut 23.78a 20.32 0.036 13.45a 6.34 0.000 41.56a 33.22 0.001 22.56 20.01 0.218
Delaware 26.09 23.71 0.145 14.07a 7.68 0.000 42.69a 36.05 0.008 24.79 23.47 0.518
District of Columbia 26.12a 21.38 0.006 7.10a 4.73 0.014 33.26a 28.47 0.041 26.40a 21.00 0.013
Florida 23.99a 20.95 0.002 12.26a 5.55 0.000 36.75a 29.09 0.000 23.59b 21.35 0.064
Georgia 25.80a 21.05 0.003 12.83a 8.12 0.001 35.48b 30.86 0.065 25.91a 21.06 0.018
Hawaii 21.97a 18.06 0.014 8.78a 6.25 0.034 34.32a 28.83 0.030 21.77a 17.68 0.039
Idaho 23.95 21.50 0.117 12.48a 7.84 0.001 39.02a 29.55 0.000 22.68 22.01 0.745
Illinois 26.77a 22.30 0.000 13.00a 6.54 0.000 42.75a 34.25 0.000 25.85a 22.30 0.003
Indiana 28.33 26.78 0.363 14.39a 8.60 0.000 44.94a 36.66 0.001 27.26 27.41 0.946
Iowa 26.45a 22.45 0.015 14.27a 8.77 0.000 41.91a 35.07 0.007 25.14 21.91 0.122
Kansas 25.95 23.66 0.155 13.95a 7.72 0.000 39.62a 33.93 0.021 25.06 23.92 0.585
Kentucky 34.77 32.44 0.229 17.62a 11.60 0.000 53.06a 45.22 0.002 33.74 32.85 0.717
Louisiana 28.27 27.49 0.635 15.01a 8.04 0.000 42.36a 35.71 0.004 27.45 28.50 0.625
Maine 26.82 24.77 0.241 12.16a 8.41 0.006 43.89a 36.80 0.005 26.10 24.78 0.544
Maryland 23.22a 19.10 0.007 11.08a 5.69 0.000 35.91a 30.26 0.019 22.88a 18.87 0.035
Massachusetts 22.42a 18.56 0.010 11.69a 7.38 0.001 38.40a 28.33 0.000 21.16 18.10 0.105
Michigan 28.19a 25.91 0.020 13.59a 8.14 0.000 42.81a 36.91 0.000 27.74 26.29 0.254
Minnesota 26.87a 21.98 0.002 15.67a 8.87 0.000 48.22a 37.13 0.000 24.59b 21.10 0.081
Mississippi 29.41 29.28 0.939 12.83a 8.88 0.004 41.57 38.80 0.253 29.46 30.30 0.723
Missouri 31.51a 25.60 0.001 17.88a 9.37 0.000 47.59a 35.96 0.000 30.56a 25.84 0.033
Montana 27.71b 24.50 0.052 16.10a 11.05 0.001 44.96a 40.10 0.049 26.26 23.47 0.187
Nebraska 25.93a 22.10 0.020 16.36a 7.62 0.000 43.92a 32.51 0.000 23.84 22.10 0.406
Nevada 30.50a 23.45 0.000 12.73a 7.00 0.000 36.40 35.36 0.693 31.95a 23.59 0.001
New Hampshire 26.17a 20.33 0.000 14.03a 8.69 0.000 44.80a 35.02 0.000 24.94a 19.37 0.006
New Jersey 23.42a 19.96 0.037 11.83a 6.74 0.000 40.67a 32.78 0.001 22.46 19.64 0.166
New Mexico 24.05 22.20 0.284 12.34a 8.54 0.013 38.45 35.07 0.188 23.19 21.75 0.517
New York 25.46a 20.50 0.000 11.81a 5.76 0.000 40.17a 30.86 0.000 24.76a 20.38 0.001
North Carolina 29.69a 23.70 0.001 14.78a 7.35 0.000 45.89a 34.06 0.000 28.95a 23.98 0.024
North Dakota 27.53 24.86 0.132 17.53a 8.92 0.000 42.78a 36.03 0.010 25.71 24.29 0.528
Ohio 30.48a 27.23 0.001 14.52a 8.62 0.000 46.03a 37.80 0.000 30.00b 27.81 0.092
Oklahoma 30.28 30.05 0.900 14.96a 8.39 0.000 44.71a 38.46 0.017 29.67 31.34 0.481
Oregon 24.96a 21.38 0.018 11.29a 6.84 0.000 41.49a 32.18 0.000 23.94 21.30 0.166
Pennsylvania 27.68a 24.26 0.001 14.73a 8.83 0.000 44.78a 35.58 0.000 26.59b 24.14 0.059
Rhode Island 27.35a 21.70 0.001 13.72a 7.72 0.000 47.60a 33.33 0.000 25.34a 21.05 0.040
South Carolina 26.85 28.06 0.483 12.21a 9.40 0.045 42.88a 37.56 0.030 25.97 28.65 0.225
South Dakota 30.31a 25.57 0.006 19.79a 9.30 0.000 51.76a 39.01 0.000 27.70 25.24 0.264
Tennessee 28.03 27.23 0.644 14.33a 8.70 0.000 38.83 34.84 0.114 27.95 28.23 0.901
Texas 25.56a 20.42 0.000 11.65a 5.96 0.000 39.18a 31.00 0.000 25.09a 20.54 0.000
Utah 16.74 16.03 0.644 6.57 5.64 0.470 24.61 23.20 0.584 16.36 16.18 0.928
Vermont 25.43a 22.09 0.032 14.84a 9.46 0.000 47.57a 35.70 0.000 23.03 21.12 0.334
Virginia 25.18a 19.81 0.001 14.17a 6.27 0.000 43.38a 30.36 0.000 23.69a 19.63 0.038
Washington 23.41b 20.44 0.051 10.84a 7.73 0.013 42.23a 32.98 0.000 21.93 19.88 0.288
West Virginia 29.52 29.81 0.874 17.34a 11.18 0.000 47.96a 41.87 0.012 27.94 29.93 0.389
Wisconsin 25.75a 21.69 0.015 15.32a 8.17 0.000 45.48a 32.45 0.000 23.67 21.54 0.316
Wyoming 26.81 25.30 0.359 12.78b 9.95 0.052 44.46a 37.58 0.008 25.50 24.97 0.799
131111
Table 15 – Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 71.27 71.43 0.644 63.67a 65.92 0.000 65.46b 66.26 0.067 73.33 73.01 0.446
Northeast 72.37a 73.68 0.026 64.05a 66.86 0.000 66.33 67.61 0.112 74.39 75.48 0.131
Midwest 69.07a 67.73 0.008 63.13a 65.29 0.001 62.39 62.51 0.859 71.10a 68.92 0.001
South 70.12a 71.04 0.049 62.02a 65.28 0.000 64.11a 65.67 0.016 72.28 72.69 0.488
West 74.38 73.73 0.315 66.41 66.82 0.640 69.92 69.48 0.606 76.35 75.39 0.235
Alabama 68.32 68.16 0.933 62.18 62.97 0.734 62.28 63.20 0.690 70.21 69.68 0.810
Alaska 70.30b 66.99 0.078 66.56b 62.42 0.085 65.46a 59.97 0.022 71.83 68.93 0.225
Arizona 72.74 69.67 0.105 64.39 63.92 0.849 70.87a 65.04 0.017 74.29 71.23 0.199
Arkansas 67.91 67.14 0.674 61.55 63.77 0.349 60.58 61.48 0.715 70.08 68.52 0.493
California 76.82 76.47 0.725 67.07 68.07 0.470 72.52 72.90 0.773 79.05 78.26 0.532
Colorado 70.29 71.37 0.535 63.77 66.64 0.224 61.30 64.89 0.144 72.75 73.03 0.896
Connecticut 72.67 74.44 0.292 64.74b 68.88 0.079 67.32 66.51 0.726 74.49 76.37 0.359
Delaware 71.47b 74.39 0.076 63.20 65.06 0.424 64.70a 69.31 0.050 73.70 76.34 0.190
District of Columbia 74.89 76.59 0.301 61.87 60.21 0.515 74.31 71.55 0.243 76.17 79.02 0.154
Florida 72.89a 75.81 0.004 63.06a 69.08 0.000 69.14 69.50 0.783 74.62a 77.48 0.022
Georgia 71.86 71.24 0.707 64.49 66.16 0.468 67.39 66.33 0.643 73.73 72.81 0.651
Hawaii 71.12 73.02 0.316 65.39 62.03 0.200 68.38 69.44 0.666 72.33 74.78 0.295
Idaho 72.24a 68.33 0.030 65.57 65.07 0.826 68.57a 63.50 0.036 74.08b 69.65 0.052
Illinois 69.57 70.79 0.248 64.55 65.78 0.352 63.86 65.95 0.126 71.28 72.25 0.468
Indiana 69.12 67.19 0.282 64.18 66.73 0.285 63.69 62.86 0.731 70.82 68.02 0.212
Iowa 65.85 67.04 0.524 61.99a 67.65 0.016 60.18 61.68 0.541 67.44 67.91 0.842
Kansas 70.61a 66.71 0.028 60.16 63.92 0.126 63.55 61.49 0.379 73.52a 68.03 0.016
Kentucky 62.46 63.45 0.609 58.90 61.73 0.244 53.67b 57.85 0.095 64.43 64.58 0.951
Louisiana 67.74a 71.05 0.048 59.33 63.11 0.103 63.25b 67.23 0.069 69.92 72.78 0.179
Maine 69.25 69.39 0.940 64.49 64.40 0.969 61.95 60.28 0.480 70.94 71.20 0.906
Maryland 71.76a 75.18 0.041 65.27 67.42 0.350 63.95b 68.13 0.082 73.89b 77.29 0.096
Massachusetts 75.55 74.60 0.579 67.22 65.21 0.368 70.84 68.73 0.372 77.31 76.70 0.770
Michigan 70.89a 67.79 0.003 64.02 65.01 0.452 64.00 62.95 0.420 73.07a 68.97 0.002
Minnesota 69.68 68.88 0.650 63.18 66.25 0.184 60.26 61.76 0.562 72.32 70.37 0.378
Mississippi 68.63 66.98 0.360 59.22 61.31 0.374 62.94 64.36 0.545 71.20 68.22 0.196
Missouri 68.02 66.12 0.288 61.78 63.67 0.415 61.37 61.10 0.911 70.06 67.27 0.210
Montana 71.38a 66.77 0.010 64.76 65.30 0.809 66.77b 62.56 0.080 73.14a 67.62 0.014
Nebraska 69.62 68.07 0.379 63.18 66.57 0.150 63.58 63.32 0.912 71.72 69.09 0.238
Nevada 69.57 70.00 0.821 64.24 64.55 0.903 62.56 65.22 0.303 71.38 71.44 0.978
New Hampshire 68.63b 72.03 0.072 59.52a 64.27 0.047 61.12 65.01 0.114 71.05 74.02 0.200
New Jersey 75.17 76.90 0.292 64.03a 69.13 0.032 66.84 70.15 0.159 77.79 78.86 0.587
New Mexico 73.04 73.03 0.995 61.12b 65.94 0.055 67.82 67.04 0.745 75.88 74.99 0.685
New York 72.81a 76.15 0.001 64.32a 68.98 0.001 67.84a 71.08 0.018 74.71a 77.86 0.015
North Carolina 68.08 68.95 0.639 60.76a 65.53 0.048 59.40b 63.79 0.079 70.51 70.21 0.896
North Dakota 66.97 67.65 0.705 61.29a 67.56 0.008 62.84 60.82 0.411 68.62 69.12 0.829
Ohio 67.60a 65.40 0.039 61.92b 64.14 0.098 59.92 60.84 0.488 69.71a 66.30 0.012
Oklahoma 66.52 66.32 0.913 60.58 60.74 0.946 58.78 62.18 0.179 68.86 67.78 0.642
Oregon 72.21 71.45 0.654 68.14 65.19 0.195 69.69 66.23 0.137 73.18 72.98 0.925
Pennsylvania 68.77 67.84 0.378 62.31 62.89 0.668 61.54 61.35 0.896 70.77 69.49 0.331
Rhode Island 73.34 72.51 0.644 65.01 65.64 0.794 72.97a 67.23 0.015 74.43 74.31 0.956
South Carolina 69.38 70.25 0.625 62.27 63.37 0.633 61.91 63.27 0.567 71.66 72.25 0.791
South Dakota 65.09 64.70 0.832 60.68b 64.73 0.098 56.27 59.86 0.169 67.49 65.53 0.406
Tennessee 66.84 66.10 0.685 62.38 64.04 0.503 60.70 63.07 0.364 68.44 66.85 0.474
Texas 71.88 71.60 0.768 61.14a 64.62 0.015 66.08 66.34 0.851 74.73 73.61 0.364
Utah 75.00 73.19 0.258 71.49 72.20 0.759 72.28 68.72 0.131 76.47 74.39 0.325
Vermont 70.15 71.05 0.609 63.59 65.40 0.455 62.72 63.96 0.610 72.30 72.88 0.790
Virginia 70.95 72.57 0.341 64.05b 68.22 0.070 66.03 66.44 0.866 72.67 74.14 0.485
Washington 70.63 70.98 0.842 66.48 63.81 0.245 64.26 65.32 0.650 72.29 72.77 0.827
West Virginia 67.26 66.34 0.616 59.35 62.80 0.154 58.54 60.66 0.380 69.58 67.55 0.364
Wisconsin 69.71 67.89 0.328 63.58 64.94 0.572 63.81 60.44 0.162 71.63 69.48 0.350
Wyoming 68.09 68.21 0.948 64.05 67.54 0.112 61.46 62.61 0.637 69.95 69.26 0.762
131111
Table 16 – Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 7.59a 6.64 0.000 5.88a 3.61 0.000 17.43a 14.36 0.000 6.12a 5.69 0.028
Northeast 7.24 6.87 0.217 5.73a 3.83 0.000 17.46a 14.64 0.000 5.81 5.91 0.770
Midwest 8.48a 6.99 0.000 6.49a 3.57 0.000 19.88a 14.89 0.000 6.72a 6.07 0.042
South 7.11a 5.95 0.000 5.45a 3.27 0.000 16.39a 13.13 0.000 5.73a 5.06 0.012
West 7.76 7.24 0.101 6.04a 4.03 0.000 16.58 15.56 0.154 6.40 6.17 0.552
Alabama 6.08b 4.97 0.080 4.83a 3.27 0.027 13.65 11.46 0.150 4.91 4.05 0.252
Alaska 8.63 8.46 0.856 6.15a 3.81 0.004 18.79 16.09 0.166 7.37 7.69 0.777
Arizona 9.29a 6.95 0.008 7.38a 3.81 0.000 19.36a 14.20 0.011 7.75 6.10 0.115
Arkansas 7.57a 5.28 0.002 6.15a 3.17 0.000 17.59a 11.92 0.001 5.98b 4.41 0.067
California 7.22 7.10 0.813 5.51a 4.21 0.027 14.83 15.46 0.563 6.07 5.92 0.803
Colorado 9.20 8.05 0.181 6.71a 3.81 0.001 20.66 18.00 0.194 7.54 6.88 0.519
Connecticut 6.90 7.67 0.363 5.39b 3.91 0.076 18.87 16.21 0.169 5.36 6.79 0.151
Delaware 7.65 6.94 0.365 5.76a 3.32 0.001 18.17 15.97 0.258 6.08 5.82 0.770
District of Columbia 9.20a 11.71 0.026 3.00 3.18 0.777 16.26 17.64 0.467 8.37b 10.97 0.058
Florida 6.86a 5.88 0.042 5.40a 3.08 0.000 16.89a 13.18 0.000 5.60 5.07 0.351
Georgia 7.37a 5.27 0.004 4.78a 2.98 0.008 14.90a 11.66 0.049 6.37a 4.44 0.026
Hawaii 7.52 7.27 0.771 6.42a 4.37 0.049 18.14 17.73 0.843 5.97 5.96 0.995
Idaho 8.45a 6.70 0.033 7.79a 3.57 0.000 18.37a 14.50 0.045 6.51 5.75 0.436
Illinois 8.74a 7.18 0.004 6.08a 3.50 0.000 19.49a 15.32 0.000 7.21 6.28 0.158
Indiana 7.90 6.84 0.172 6.21a 3.58 0.001 19.19a 15.50 0.046 6.06 5.74 0.722
Iowa 8.25 7.36 0.272 7.56a 3.41 0.000 19.67b 16.28 0.087 6.18 6.27 0.920
Kansas 7.14 6.18 0.182 5.12a 3.58 0.048 18.49a 13.15 0.003 5.24 5.26 0.980
Kentucky 6.16 5.34 0.220 5.26a 3.31 0.008 14.67 11.90 0.101 4.80 4.51 0.705
Louisiana 7.95b 6.61 0.075 5.97a 3.18 0.000 17.56a 14.00 0.033 6.33 5.69 0.488
Maine 7.31 6.39 0.227 5.59a 3.32 0.003 18.26 15.31 0.107 5.88 5.44 0.623
Maryland 7.55b 6.09 0.051 5.37a 3.20 0.003 15.98 13.34 0.122 6.52 5.23 0.151
Massachusetts 8.60 7.90 0.434 7.35a 4.06 0.000 18.47 16.29 0.266 7.18 6.86 0.767
Michigan 8.46a 7.01 0.005 6.42a 3.78 0.000 18.29a 13.97 0.000 7.05 6.23 0.204
Minnesota 9.01b 7.37 0.051 7.24a 3.79 0.000 20.99a 16.52 0.029 7.08 6.31 0.429
Mississippi 6.46b 5.21 0.068 3.78 3.14 0.322 13.96 11.40 0.117 5.35 4.35 0.220
Missouri 7.89a 6.18 0.022 6.34a 3.60 0.000 19.76a 13.53 0.001 6.01 5.24 0.381
Montana 10.70a 8.20 0.016 11.21a 4.89 0.000 23.39a 18.46 0.020 8.36 6.90 0.237
Nebraska 10.18a 7.15 0.001 8.94a 3.89 0.000 25.16a 15.91 0.000 7.47 6.02 0.167
Nevada 8.01 8.70 0.465 6.93a 4.05 0.006 16.19 16.56 0.855 6.88 8.02 0.309
New Hampshire 9.09a 6.79 0.006 7.54a 4.09 0.000 23.21a 16.98 0.002 7.10 5.50 0.101
New Jersey 6.30 6.72 0.565 5.16 3.95 0.144 16.62 15.82 0.677 4.97 5.68 0.412
New Mexico 10.01a 7.28 0.005 7.73a 4.51 0.003 22.68a 15.29 0.000 8.01 6.25 0.134
New York 7.15 6.56 0.261 5.59a 3.61 0.000 15.84a 13.03 0.006 5.90 5.76 0.829
North Carolina 6.75a 4.87 0.006 5.66a 3.19 0.002 16.54a 11.55 0.004 5.25 3.97 0.104
North Dakota 10.83a 8.69 0.026 10.33a 3.72 0.000 27.11a 19.70 0.002 7.49 6.91 0.610
Ohio 7.90a 6.85 0.038 5.80a 3.29 0.000 18.54a 14.23 0.000 6.36 6.07 0.640
Oklahoma 6.92 8.16 0.137 5.68a 3.51 0.007 17.03 14.97 0.272 5.15a 7.53 0.018
Oregon 7.37 7.53 0.840 5.84a 3.48 0.002 17.83 16.00 0.312 5.79 6.64 0.362
Pennsylvania 6.93 6.57 0.435 5.34a 3.93 0.007 18.08a 14.30 0.001 5.33 5.57 0.674
Rhode Island 10.10 8.92 0.225 6.62a 3.87 0.002 25.59a 19.22 0.005 7.70 7.51 0.865
South Carolina 7.88a 6.07 0.019 4.83b 3.59 0.098 19.48a 13.26 0.000 6.23 5.14 0.228
South Dakota 10.79a 8.68 0.027 9.77a 4.31 0.000 26.15a 17.69 0.000 7.93 7.66 0.808
Tennessee 5.97 5.79 0.790 4.77a 3.28 0.040 14.83 12.22 0.149 4.63 5.04 0.599
Texas 7.62a 6.51 0.015 5.84a 3.51 0.000 16.78a 14.18 0.012 6.10 5.50 0.286
Utah 6.87a 4.76 0.004 4.72a 2.70 0.011 12.98 10.63 0.159 5.50a 3.77 0.049
Vermont 7.77 6.72 0.186 6.45a 4.17 0.011 19.28 17.01 0.262 5.96 5.24 0.430
Virginia 7.33b 6.02 0.084 6.18a 3.09 0.000 17.60a 13.95 0.045 5.81 5.02 0.368
Washington 7.47 7.72 0.737 5.83a 4.10 0.033 18.24 16.64 0.378 5.85 6.68 0.367
West Virginia 6.52 5.77 0.281 6.32a 3.54 0.001 16.12 14.72 0.418 4.99 4.66 0.682
Wisconsin 9.53a 7.13 0.007 7.19a 3.49 0.000 23.30a 14.72 0.000 7.39 6.31 0.304
Wyoming 9.23b 7.72 0.077 7.54a 4.37 0.001 23.24a 17.46 0.006 6.81 6.43 0.704
131111
Table 17 – Alcohol Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 3.34 3.16 0.109 2.09a 1.34 0.000 6.87a 6.01 0.000 2.90 2.90 0.965
Northeast 3.35 3.11 0.225 2.13a 1.32 0.000 6.80 6.29 0.202 2.95 2.79 0.490
Midwest 3.51b 3.22 0.070 2.19a 1.35 0.000 7.70a 6.01 0.000 2.94 2.98 0.857
South 3.14 2.90 0.133 1.94a 1.25 0.000 6.42a 5.24 0.000 2.73 2.71 0.915
West 3.48 3.57 0.682 2.19a 1.50 0.001 6.77 6.97 0.660 3.06 3.23 0.563
Alabama 2.76 2.67 0.835 1.67 1.24 0.216 5.54 4.55 0.252 2.41 2.52 0.830
Alaska 3.75 3.61 0.784 2.33a 1.33 0.014 7.09 7.80 0.555 3.45 3.15 0.651
Arizona 3.91 3.63 0.614 3.20a 1.56 0.002 7.94 6.42 0.215 3.29 3.41 0.866
Arkansas 3.29 2.77 0.268 2.34a 1.19 0.002 6.90b 4.95 0.054 2.77 2.60 0.758
California 3.40 3.53 0.710 1.87 1.51 0.220 6.11 7.06 0.157 3.13 3.14 0.993
Colorado 3.73 4.12 0.500 2.51a 1.49 0.019 7.74 8.14 0.746 3.20 3.75 0.434
Connecticut 2.96 3.18 0.657 1.88 1.24 0.105 6.60 6.95 0.760 2.57 2.83 0.674
Delaware 3.43 3.16 0.565 1.93a 1.22 0.040 7.50 7.64 0.912 2.93 2.62 0.598
District of Columbia 4.81 5.62 0.282 1.44 1.28 0.681 6.76a 10.05 0.017 4.73 4.91 0.846
Florida 2.91 2.84 0.815 1.79a 1.21 0.021 6.45a 5.04 0.019 2.54 2.68 0.715
Georgia 3.19 2.75 0.345 1.65 1.14 0.132 5.26 4.54 0.410 3.04 2.65 0.516
Hawaii 3.52 3.46 0.914 2.87b 1.70 0.053 7.21 8.14 0.489 3.02 2.92 0.894
Idaho 3.66 3.17 0.353 2.83a 1.33 0.001 7.23b 5.32 0.072 3.06 3.05 0.997
Illinois 3.73 3.39 0.318 2.25a 1.36 0.001 7.59 6.58 0.149 3.25 3.10 0.739
Indiana 3.17 3.04 0.767 2.19a 1.33 0.024 7.47 6.41 0.323 2.52 2.67 0.782
Iowa 3.15 3.36 0.638 2.71a 1.37 0.001 6.94 7.12 0.869 2.49 2.94 0.418
Kansas 2.88 2.96 0.857 1.81 1.45 0.364 6.81 5.33 0.144 2.28 2.73 0.407
Kentucky 2.81 2.98 0.701 1.92 1.40 0.174 5.98 5.08 0.327 2.37 2.83 0.416
Louisiana 3.87 3.21 0.185 2.67a 1.27 0.001 7.50b 5.72 0.080 3.32 2.99 0.608
Maine 3.33 3.16 0.737 2.36a 1.25 0.005 8.12a 5.79 0.036 2.73 2.99 0.670
Maryland 3.63b 2.78 0.085 1.94a 1.14 0.023 6.20 6.20 0.997 3.46b 2.42 0.093
Massachusetts 3.95 3.51 0.401 2.89a 1.35 0.000 7.45 8.10 0.594 3.52 2.94 0.377
Michigan 3.80 3.45 0.327 2.26a 1.46 0.004 7.73a 5.82 0.003 3.34 3.30 0.929
Minnesota 3.56 3.25 0.534 2.57a 1.35 0.004 7.62 6.56 0.361 2.97 2.94 0.969
Mississippi 3.11 2.86 0.613 1.37 1.19 0.572 5.05 4.58 0.604 2.98 2.77 0.745
Missouri 3.17 2.97 0.659 1.87 1.32 0.125 7.60a 5.38 0.031 2.57 2.76 0.737
Montana 4.43 3.43 0.110 4.75a 1.58 0.000 9.64a 6.67 0.022 3.46 3.11 0.650
Nebraska 3.85 3.08 0.109 2.85a 1.34 0.001 7.99 6.58 0.225 3.20 2.68 0.392
Nevada 3.44 3.96 0.367 2.23 1.62 0.173 6.84 7.69 0.491 3.07 3.65 0.410
New Hampshire 3.48 3.11 0.449 2.32a 1.30 0.009 7.69 6.51 0.270 2.98 2.79 0.749
New Jersey 2.97 2.81 0.729 1.81 1.32 0.174 6.57 6.49 0.946 2.61 2.44 0.768
New Mexico 4.05 3.26 0.149 2.72a 1.65 0.045 9.90a 6.44 0.011 3.17 2.92 0.718
New York 3.60 3.11 0.168 2.17a 1.34 0.002 6.48 5.81 0.305 3.30 2.84 0.297
North Carolina 3.05 2.36 0.118 1.93a 1.18 0.038 6.13b 4.44 0.074 2.69 2.16 0.341
North Dakota 3.75 3.47 0.587 3.25a 1.30 0.000 8.42 7.47 0.438 2.84 2.87 0.958
Ohio 3.39 3.14 0.441 1.72b 1.28 0.074 7.87a 5.46 0.000 2.85 2.98 0.751
Oklahoma 2.86 3.27 0.351 2.02a 1.31 0.045 6.61 5.69 0.366 2.26 3.09 0.139
Oregon 3.31 3.87 0.303 2.13a 1.36 0.046 7.26 6.79 0.668 2.80 3.69 0.183
Pennsylvania 2.90 3.03 0.683 1.89a 1.28 0.015 6.56 5.55 0.114 2.44 2.81 0.337
Rhode Island 4.39 3.87 0.395 2.41a 1.40 0.025 10.70 8.77 0.181 3.49 3.20 0.706
South Carolina 3.64 3.18 0.403 1.76 1.31 0.216 7.93a 4.12 0.000 3.13 3.24 0.869
South Dakota 4.50 3.67 0.184 3.86a 1.56 0.000 8.72 6.88 0.161 3.77 3.37 0.604
Tennessee 2.71 2.88 0.725 1.71 1.22 0.182 5.87 4.65 0.197 2.31 2.78 0.406
Texas 3.11 3.02 0.751 1.93a 1.33 0.029 6.69b 5.58 0.083 2.60 2.78 0.630
Utah 3.14 2.61 0.220 1.77b 1.12 0.063 5.61 4.70 0.320 2.67 2.38 0.614
Vermont 3.25 2.93 0.502 2.90a 1.32 0.000 7.10 6.22 0.413 2.64 2.55 0.875
Virginia 3.48 3.07 0.385 2.60a 1.25 0.001 7.38 6.17 0.261 2.96 2.76 0.730
Washington 3.16 3.61 0.347 2.19 1.57 0.152 7.44 7.19 0.819 2.56 3.26 0.237
West Virginia 2.74 2.93 0.684 2.30a 1.28 0.013 6.01 5.69 0.739 2.26 2.68 0.441
Wisconsin 3.64 3.07 0.260 2.27a 1.28 0.012 8.56a 5.07 0.001 2.95 2.95 0.995
Wyoming 3.57 3.64 0.883 2.40a 1.41 0.017 8.17 8.21 0.974 2.87 3.11 0.696
131111
Table 18 – Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 2.95a 2.67 0.003 5.35a 4.31 0.000 8.02 7.66 0.139 1.74 1.61 0.229
Northeast 2.97a 2.66 0.021 5.45a 4.15 0.000 8.99a 7.91 0.017 1.70 1.61 0.548
Midwest 2.84a 2.57 0.022 5.47a 4.02 0.000 7.69a 6.99 0.040 1.60 1.63 0.819
South 2.92a 2.61 0.007 5.22a 4.00 0.000 7.53 7.19 0.280 1.80 1.65 0.273
West 3.09 2.88 0.183 5.36 5.19 0.681 8.36 8.81 0.378 1.79 1.51 0.110
Alabama 2.68 2.54 0.636 4.67a 3.14 0.028 6.53 6.19 0.719 1.73 1.83 0.803
Alaska 3.13b 2.61 0.074 6.31b 4.61 0.064 8.57 7.51 0.384 1.62 1.42 0.541
Arizona 3.35 2.86 0.163 6.83 5.45 0.207 8.15 7.08 0.386 1.98 1.79 0.625
Arkansas 2.96 2.87 0.792 5.13b 3.82 0.098 7.94 8.45 0.677 1.77 1.81 0.930
California 3.01 2.96 0.862 4.93 5.36 0.482 7.82a 9.66 0.021 1.84b 1.39 0.083
Colorado 3.23 2.97 0.418 5.02 5.51 0.617 10.20 9.28 0.512 1.78 1.59 0.607
Connecticut 2.88 2.68 0.553 5.41 4.68 0.400 9.20 7.89 0.292 1.62 1.62 0.999
Delaware 3.03 2.94 0.762 5.26 4.49 0.370 8.03 8.81 0.530 1.89 1.75 0.710
District of Columbia 3.96 3.52 0.365 4.30 5.19 0.348 8.72 7.68 0.403 2.99 2.42 0.311
Florida 3.12a 2.61 0.033 5.77a 4.24 0.005 8.41 8.36 0.945 2.04b 1.56 0.078
Georgia 2.88 2.56 0.311 4.93 3.79 0.140 6.35 6.76 0.693 1.95 1.64 0.402
Hawaii 2.75a 2.05 0.026 5.77 4.64 0.241 8.13 6.96 0.345 1.48 1.00 0.150
Idaho 2.93a 2.32 0.026 6.02a 4.10 0.024 7.66 6.54 0.318 1.46 1.31 0.618
Illinois 2.81 2.47 0.112 5.36a 3.71 0.002 7.69 7.73 0.956 1.59 1.42 0.475
Indiana 2.84 2.52 0.296 4.68 3.75 0.238 7.88 6.81 0.348 1.64 1.60 0.894
Iowa 2.52 2.39 0.651 4.81 3.59 0.109 6.61 6.83 0.840 1.44 1.45 0.966
Kansas 2.52 2.40 0.685 4.35 3.97 0.649 6.66 5.96 0.498 1.44 1.54 0.775
Kentucky 2.80 2.65 0.619 5.24a 3.48 0.022 7.41 7.44 0.980 1.69 1.76 0.825
Louisiana 3.34a 2.63 0.030 5.07a 3.22 0.008 7.63 6.63 0.344 2.21 1.82 0.318
Maine 2.94 2.64 0.338 5.66a 3.79 0.022 9.78 8.78 0.437 1.57 1.65 0.835
Maryland 3.02 2.75 0.394 5.22 4.06 0.161 9.15 8.61 0.680 1.75 1.62 0.699
Massachusetts 3.63a 2.51 0.001 6.44 4.93 0.106 11.41a 7.28 0.003 2.05b 1.39 0.069
Michigan 2.99 2.80 0.440 6.16a 4.60 0.008 7.52 6.74 0.234 1.75 1.89 0.606
Minnesota 2.75 2.36 0.173 5.73 4.44 0.143 7.45 6.40 0.357 1.48 1.45 0.925
Mississippi 2.85 2.65 0.537 4.23b 3.08 0.087 6.79 6.85 0.954 1.84 1.82 0.947
Missouri 3.01 2.63 0.216 5.13b 3.84 0.092 8.54 7.22 0.242 1.74 1.70 0.915
Montana 3.19b 2.67 0.098 7.18a 4.95 0.030 8.48 8.52 0.969 1.69 1.46 0.517
Nebraska 2.84 2.41 0.143 5.92b 4.36 0.089 7.04 5.76 0.196 1.59 1.57 0.956
Nevada 2.98 2.67 0.356 5.98 4.73 0.197 8.03 8.19 0.906 1.78 1.52 0.466
New Hampshire 3.37b 2.76 0.068 6.95b 5.08 0.063 11.18 9.18 0.168 1.67 1.49 0.609
New Jersey 2.69 2.46 0.419 5.06 4.41 0.446 7.82 8.49 0.577 1.65 1.31 0.260
New Mexico 3.81b 3.10 0.093 6.05 6.22 0.886 11.15a 8.15 0.047 2.09 1.82 0.565
New York 3.03 2.71 0.166 5.28a 3.68 0.002 8.87 8.18 0.375 1.78 1.64 0.589
North Carolina 2.94 2.91 0.938 5.67 4.44 0.147 7.39 8.03 0.561 1.83 1.88 0.887
North Dakota 2.79 2.64 0.629 5.89b 4.27 0.067 7.33 7.14 0.867 1.41 1.51 0.754
Ohio 2.93 2.85 0.692 5.61a 3.88 0.001 8.36 7.69 0.351 1.63 1.92 0.270
Oklahoma 2.85 2.59 0.390 5.13b 3.67 0.073 7.89 6.28 0.166 1.56 1.79 0.516
Oregon 3.05 3.00 0.894 5.27 5.07 0.820 9.44 9.12 0.801 1.67 1.80 0.728
Pennsylvania 2.60 2.73 0.559 5.11a 3.98 0.033 7.76 7.09 0.370 1.44 1.86 0.105
Rhode Island 3.90a 3.07 0.034 6.15 4.89 0.198 12.71a 8.11 0.002 2.02 1.89 0.767
South Carolina 2.85 2.87 0.950 4.67 4.05 0.429 7.87 7.02 0.443 1.72 2.03 0.411
South Dakota 2.67 2.38 0.298 5.83a 3.79 0.015 7.10 5.87 0.246 1.32 1.60 0.372
Tennessee 2.80 2.81 0.969 4.85b 3.47 0.068 7.08 8.61 0.209 1.82 1.78 0.912
Texas 2.73 2.38 0.101 5.14 4.36 0.160 6.89 5.84 0.107 1.53 1.44 0.712
Utah 2.85 2.89 0.900 4.75 3.99 0.352 5.98 6.55 0.584 1.57 1.85 0.426
Vermont 3.63 3.19 0.222 7.86a 4.70 0.004 12.03 10.56 0.347 1.62 1.76 0.693
Virginia 3.03a 2.36 0.019 5.67b 4.04 0.056 8.55 7.04 0.204 1.79 1.36 0.179
Washington 3.29a 2.70 0.048 6.05 4.81 0.186 10.50a 7.66 0.024 1.67 1.63 0.894
West Virginia 2.96 2.90 0.857 5.58a 3.66 0.015 9.27 8.50 0.534 1.64 1.98 0.349
Wisconsin 2.71 2.26 0.107 5.86b 4.21 0.064 7.28 6.07 0.256 1.45 1.39 0.842
Wyoming 2.64 2.33 0.254 4.53 4.34 0.820 8.18b 6.12 0.070 1.32 1.43 0.709
131111
Table 19 – Illicit Drug Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 1.91 1.86 0.534 2.97a 2.27 0.000 5.36 5.43 0.750 1.16 1.19 0.695
Northeast 1.97 1.88 0.464 3.07a 2.12 0.000 6.12b 5.49 0.091 1.17 1.25 0.540
Midwest 1.86 1.71 0.140 3.07a 2.11 0.000 5.14 4.87 0.320 1.10 1.12 0.831
South 1.89 1.78 0.248 2.93a 2.20 0.000 5.02 5.02 0.983 1.20 1.17 0.778
West 1.93 2.10 0.195 2.84 2.61 0.400 5.54a 6.50 0.023 1.13 1.24 0.484
Alabama 1.77 1.65 0.626 2.56 2.00 0.283 4.65 4.47 0.830 1.15 1.11 0.894
Alaska 2.08b 1.66 0.089 3.33b 2.25 0.066 6.00 4.99 0.296 1.18 0.96 0.392
Arizona 1.98 2.17 0.498 3.77 2.88 0.243 5.88 5.96 0.940 1.02 1.41 0.191
Arkansas 1.95 1.90 0.832 2.97 2.28 0.234 5.29 5.36 0.939 1.22 1.26 0.889
California 1.88 2.17 0.133 2.62 2.68 0.891 5.22a 7.03 0.006 1.15 1.19 0.881
Colorado 2.01 2.16 0.590 2.78 2.46 0.592 6.46 7.05 0.610 1.13 1.30 0.574
Connecticut 1.86 1.74 0.637 2.89 2.14 0.182 6.08 5.26 0.395 1.11 1.14 0.913
Delaware 1.98 1.98 0.999 2.87 2.08 0.137 5.65 5.93 0.782 1.23 1.29 0.834
District of Columbia 2.95 2.78 0.728 2.06 2.35 0.604 6.26 5.70 0.586 2.37 2.13 0.669
Florida 2.02 1.85 0.359 3.20a 2.25 0.015 5.83 5.71 0.842 1.34 1.22 0.590
Georgia 1.86 1.64 0.406 2.73 1.97 0.164 3.89 4.44 0.493 1.37 1.10 0.392
Hawaii 1.70 1.60 0.715 2.87 2.29 0.371 5.39 5.27 0.905 0.96 0.96 0.993
Idaho 1.79 1.60 0.421 3.18b 2.14 0.070 4.67 4.69 0.982 0.97 0.97 0.981
Illinois 1.89 1.65 0.174 3.26a 1.91 0.000 5.00 4.91 0.874 1.15 1.06 0.651
Indiana 1.85 1.67 0.448 2.80 2.09 0.194 5.21 4.83 0.664 1.10 1.06 0.886
Iowa 1.61 1.44 0.450 2.53 1.87 0.210 4.51 4.39 0.882 0.94 0.87 0.770
Kansas 1.67 1.43 0.286 2.66 1.94 0.183 4.66 3.92 0.364 0.95 0.91 0.863
Kentucky 1.91 2.01 0.685 3.31a 2.16 0.044 4.94 6.19 0.191 1.21 1.31 0.729
Louisiana 2.17 1.96 0.464 2.67 2.08 0.253 5.07 5.31 0.788 1.51 1.33 0.593
Maine 1.74 1.73 0.947 2.90 2.03 0.103 6.39 5.90 0.632 0.90 1.10 0.408
Maryland 2.00 1.96 0.877 2.95b 1.93 0.067 5.85 6.11 0.800 1.26 1.28 0.967
Massachusetts 2.43b 1.93 0.084 3.46b 2.39 0.088 8.33a 5.64 0.027 1.36 1.22 0.649
Michigan 1.93 1.93 0.969 3.34a 2.42 0.020 5.16 5.19 0.952 1.16 1.31 0.499
Minnesota 1.76 1.50 0.249 3.42a 2.11 0.027 5.02 4.14 0.322 0.94 0.99 0.819
Mississippi 1.84 1.91 0.769 2.49 2.13 0.480 4.25 4.99 0.377 1.25 1.32 0.827
Missouri 1.88 1.74 0.572 2.94 2.08 0.108 5.55 5.03 0.554 1.08 1.14 0.807
Montana 1.90 1.99 0.707 3.62 2.69 0.163 5.37 6.69 0.176 1.03 1.15 0.667
Nebraska 1.93b 1.49 0.084 3.47a 2.00 0.015 4.68 4.17 0.525 1.17 0.96 0.441
Nevada 1.91 2.04 0.643 3.41 2.59 0.226 5.52 6.14 0.550 1.15 1.32 0.588
New Hampshire 2.07 1.95 0.639 3.19 2.55 0.305 7.36 6.75 0.605 1.10 1.12 0.919
New Jersey 1.72 1.82 0.660 2.80 2.04 0.147 5.52 6.04 0.607 1.04 1.16 0.645
New Mexico 2.11 2.14 0.902 3.12 3.15 0.960 6.94 5.84 0.360 1.05 1.37 0.314
New York 2.10 1.94 0.459 3.18a 2.01 0.002 6.03 5.43 0.333 1.31 1.32 0.954
North Carolina 1.89 1.92 0.909 3.30b 2.30 0.095 4.96 5.74 0.411 1.19 1.25 0.845
North Dakota 1.69 1.74 0.831 3.17b 2.09 0.069 4.35 5.22 0.313 0.92 0.96 0.899
Ohio 1.97 2.01 0.803 2.83 2.30 0.141 5.76 5.63 0.823 1.19 1.38 0.378
Oklahoma 1.88 1.61 0.253 2.89b 1.98 0.096 5.55 4.16 0.120 1.03 1.10 0.771
Oregon 2.02 2.28 0.390 2.46 2.60 0.814 6.22 6.90 0.539 1.25 1.51 0.453
Pennsylvania 1.68 1.81 0.492 2.90a 2.14 0.035 5.06 4.89 0.772 0.98 1.25 0.188
Rhode Island 2.63 2.39 0.537 3.62b 2.43 0.074 8.27 6.26 0.105 1.48 1.64 0.699
South Carolina 1.75 1.89 0.566 2.55 2.18 0.470 4.37 4.72 0.663 1.17 1.38 0.497
South Dakota 1.66 1.41 0.249 3.01a 1.95 0.049 4.47 4.03 0.587 0.90 0.88 0.940
Tennessee 1.83 2.16 0.219 2.95 2.34 0.280 4.74a 6.82 0.040 1.20 1.38 0.559
Texas 1.71 1.49 0.153 2.85 2.30 0.152 4.68b 3.78 0.080 0.95 0.94 0.948
Utah 1.77 1.90 0.591 2.62 1.97 0.230 3.67 5.00 0.107 1.05 1.17 0.664
Vermont 2.16 2.24 0.766 3.62b 2.46 0.073 7.57 7.71 0.911 1.03 1.28 0.376
Virginia 1.99 1.69 0.231 2.99 2.28 0.225 5.65 4.81 0.370 1.26 1.08 0.522
Washington 2.12 1.92 0.424 3.08 2.44 0.279 6.90 5.31 0.112 1.17 1.29 0.667
West Virginia 1.86 2.13 0.320 3.11 2.32 0.191 6.03 6.67 0.541 1.05 1.44 0.197
Wisconsin 1.73 1.46 0.243 3.08a 1.95 0.047 4.78 4.28 0.551 1.00 0.93 0.789
Wyoming 1.71 1.42 0.212 2.67 1.91 0.158 5.18 3.87 0.121 0.92 0.94 0.916
131111
Table 20 – Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 9.22a 8.27 0.000 8.89a 6.48 0.000 21.37a 18.73 0.000 7.15a 6.68 0.027
Northeast 8.88 8.39 0.123 8.91a 6.54 0.000 21.57a 19.31 0.001 6.86 6.77 0.818
Midwest 9.92a 8.55 0.000 9.46a 6.18 0.000 23.37a 18.84 0.000 7.58 7.09 0.128
South 8.77a 7.66 0.000 8.44a 6.13 0.000 20.21a 17.30 0.000 6.82a 6.20 0.042
West 9.52b 8.87 0.056 9.00a 7.27 0.000 21.01 20.40 0.424 7.49 7.01 0.248
Alabama 7.40 6.49 0.193 7.14 5.60 0.110 16.46 14.67 0.281 5.83 5.17 0.427
Alaska 10.41 9.93 0.597 9.45a 6.53 0.011 23.91 21.01 0.165 8.31 8.34 0.976
Arizona 11.04a 8.93 0.020 10.62a 7.53 0.018 23.42a 19.20 0.044 8.87 7.33 0.161
Arkansas 9.10a 7.47 0.038 9.02a 5.95 0.004 21.53a 17.24 0.026 6.90 6.00 0.338
California 9.00 8.67 0.515 8.27 7.50 0.295 19.40 20.77 0.255 7.21 6.56 0.307
Colorado 10.81 9.86 0.295 9.24b 7.29 0.099 25.03 22.83 0.316 8.55 7.99 0.604
Connecticut 8.80 9.06 0.763 8.95b 6.85 0.062 22.74 20.53 0.279 6.76 7.53 0.448
Delaware 9.29 8.85 0.587 8.74a 6.33 0.025 21.46 20.80 0.757 7.26 7.10 0.869
District of Columbia 11.87 13.41 0.194 5.95 7.29 0.210 21.16 21.16 0.999 10.56 12.06 0.300
Florida 8.80a 7.56 0.019 8.85a 5.96 0.000 21.29a 17.67 0.001 7.01 6.20 0.198
Georgia 9.11a 7.06 0.009 7.82b 5.88 0.059 19.07 16.39 0.163 7.49a 5.56 0.043
Hawaii 9.15 7.92 0.154 9.95b 7.52 0.064 23.25 21.07 0.308 6.79 5.92 0.397
Idaho 9.75b 8.22 0.063 10.91a 6.32 0.000 21.24b 17.35 0.054 7.19 6.86 0.743
Illinois 10.11a 8.51 0.003 9.05a 5.83 0.000 23.32a 19.83 0.004 7.92 6.93 0.136
Indiana 9.32 8.18 0.151 8.81a 5.92 0.006 23.20a 19.11 0.045 6.84 6.54 0.750
Iowa 9.47 8.62 0.297 9.51a 5.55 0.000 22.21 19.51 0.193 7.04 7.07 0.977
Kansas 8.33 7.70 0.395 7.33 5.88 0.171 20.75a 16.80 0.050 6.07 6.29 0.804
Kentucky 8.04 7.27 0.306 8.27a 5.77 0.014 18.86 16.47 0.204 6.13 5.93 0.827
Louisiana 9.70a 8.22 0.047 8.67a 5.80 0.004 20.91b 17.42 0.051 7.60 6.83 0.405
Maine 8.81 8.29 0.531 9.07a 5.84 0.002 21.37 19.93 0.463 6.89 6.90 0.996
Maryland 9.19b 7.72 0.073 8.20a 5.76 0.020 20.17 19.05 0.568 7.59 6.08 0.121
Massachusetts 10.71b 9.13 0.085 10.82a 7.03 0.002 24.13b 20.56 0.085 8.55 7.35 0.273
Michigan 10.05a 8.73 0.020 9.80a 7.01 0.000 21.81a 17.36 0.000 8.04 7.47 0.410
Minnesota 10.57b 8.99 0.064 10.60a 6.76 0.001 24.61b 20.61 0.072 8.02 7.36 0.513
Mississippi 7.91 7.09 0.266 6.29 5.81 0.622 17.46 14.93 0.165 6.22 5.83 0.659
Missouri 9.58a 7.97 0.042 9.19a 6.31 0.007 23.72a 17.51 0.002 7.14 6.55 0.527
Montana 12.02b 10.21 0.086 15.02a 8.51 0.000 26.55 23.42 0.159 9.00 8.25 0.557
Nebraska 11.07a 8.79 0.011 11.75a 7.12 0.000 26.52a 18.79 0.000 7.98 7.25 0.489
Nevada 9.75 9.97 0.817 10.26a 6.85 0.007 21.32 20.32 0.642 7.87 8.70 0.472
New Hampshire 10.90a 8.58 0.011 11.69a 7.11 0.000 27.70a 21.96 0.009 8.18 6.65 0.158
New Jersey 7.59 7.93 0.662 8.08 6.94 0.312 19.65 21.39 0.404 5.80 6.02 0.816
New Mexico 12.04a 9.51 0.016 11.74b 9.21 0.099 27.35a 19.86 0.001 9.24 7.75 0.246
New York 8.88 8.15 0.173 8.61a 5.99 0.000 20.33a 17.79 0.028 7.02 6.71 0.634
North Carolina 8.31 7.25 0.168 8.30a 6.11 0.044 20.21b 16.91 0.099 6.32 5.80 0.566
North Dakota 11.60b 9.97 0.086 12.97a 6.38 0.000 27.99a 22.57 0.014 7.98 7.70 0.808
Ohio 9.56b 8.56 0.058 8.99a 5.68 0.000 22.42a 18.84 0.002 7.43 7.22 0.743
Oklahoma 8.66 9.59 0.273 8.96a 6.41 0.023 21.08 18.79 0.267 6.23a 8.35 0.041
Oregon 9.25 9.24 0.987 9.35a 6.71 0.017 22.35 20.55 0.362 7.02 7.73 0.463
Pennsylvania 8.30 8.24 0.909 8.45a 6.64 0.009 21.57a 18.54 0.008 6.14 6.70 0.373
Rhode Island 11.97 10.57 0.166 9.88a 6.89 0.018 29.42a 23.11 0.007 9.04 8.56 0.691
South Carolina 9.26 8.05 0.132 7.71 6.63 0.303 22.59a 17.16 0.005 7.11 6.67 0.651
South Dakota 11.70b 9.92 0.061 12.84a 6.90 0.000 28.81a 20.56 0.000 8.18 8.44 0.816
Tennessee 7.94 7.74 0.787 7.86a 5.78 0.042 19.07 17.31 0.369 6.08 6.41 0.705
Texas 8.98a 7.91 0.029 8.81a 6.68 0.002 20.09a 17.24 0.008 6.82 6.34 0.424
Utah 7.99b 6.53 0.052 6.98a 4.65 0.028 15.73 14.45 0.491 5.90 5.02 0.339
Vermont 9.90 9.45 0.609 11.47a 7.76 0.005 24.33 23.44 0.680 7.20 7.25 0.966
Virginia 9.09a 7.39 0.031 9.40a 5.71 0.001 22.13a 18.06 0.045 6.93 5.76 0.208
Washington 9.48 9.26 0.783 9.30a 6.98 0.046 23.41 20.76 0.179 7.12 7.63 0.601
West Virginia 8.13 7.72 0.589 9.30a 6.29 0.007 20.37 18.86 0.432 6.02 6.21 0.836
Wisconsin 10.65a 8.82 0.042 10.09a 6.24 0.001 26.38a 18.61 0.000 7.91 7.50 0.706
Wyoming 10.07 9.14 0.272 9.77a 7.00 0.018 25.38a 19.66 0.007 7.21 7.56 0.730
131111
Table 21 – Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for illicit drugs, but not receiving treatment for an illicit drug problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens, heroin, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 2.66a 2.38 0.002 5.00a 3.97 0.000 7.45b 7.03 0.070 1.50 1.38 0.243
Northeast 2.63a 2.35 0.034 5.10a 3.80 0.000 8.33a 7.02 0.002 1.41 1.39 0.940
Midwest 2.53a 2.29 0.028 5.09a 3.63 0.000 7.11a 6.37 0.022 1.35 1.42 0.586
South 2.61a 2.33 0.015 4.87a 3.76 0.000 6.96 6.59 0.248 1.54 1.42 0.378
West 2.90b 2.59 0.052 5.01 4.72 0.459 7.89 8.30 0.428 1.67a 1.28 0.026
Alabama 2.22 2.20 0.931 4.25b 3.00 0.067 5.94 5.86 0.927 1.28 1.45 0.577
Alaska 3.13a 2.38 0.029 5.55b 4.03 0.075 8.08 7.01 0.359 1.83 1.29 0.157
Arizona 3.21b 2.60 0.090 6.65 5.17 0.190 7.80 6.71 0.379 1.88 1.55 0.412
Arkansas 2.67 2.49 0.536 4.78 3.54 0.101 7.51 7.84 0.779 1.52 1.44 0.811
California 2.81 2.68 0.580 4.57 4.88 0.601 7.33a 9.20 0.022 1.72a 1.17 0.031
Colorado 3.04 2.59 0.152 4.72 4.87 0.870 9.68 8.59 0.432 1.66 1.30 0.288
Connecticut 2.81b 2.27 0.097 5.05 4.10 0.268 8.19 6.96 0.288 1.73 1.31 0.255
Delaware 2.60 2.39 0.502 4.50 3.92 0.452 6.70 7.34 0.579 1.65 1.37 0.424
District of Columbia 3.02 3.40 0.396 3.80 4.45 0.445 8.13 7.13 0.421 1.94 2.44 0.357
Florida 2.83a 2.31 0.023 5.20a 3.99 0.019 7.76 7.57 0.785 1.83a 1.33 0.049
Georgia 2.55 2.26 0.309 4.79 3.64 0.131 5.92 5.92 0.998 1.62 1.41 0.547
Hawaii 2.63a 1.89 0.028 5.47 4.34 0.248 7.73 6.44 0.280 1.43 0.92 0.142
Idaho 2.75a 2.04 0.010 5.82a 3.69 0.010 7.21 6.08 0.291 1.34 1.09 0.385
Illinois 2.48 2.29 0.321 5.01a 3.46 0.002 6.96 7.31 0.622 1.34 1.28 0.807
Indiana 2.52 2.21 0.289 4.14 3.41 0.316 6.96 5.81 0.257 1.47 1.41 0.854
Iowa 2.36 2.01 0.209 4.18 3.06 0.121 6.00 6.19 0.854 1.43 1.14 0.365
Kansas 2.20 2.02 0.501 3.88 3.48 0.588 6.29 5.20 0.267 1.16 1.25 0.741
Kentucky 2.56 2.46 0.734 5.02a 3.34 0.025 6.98 7.03 0.961 1.49 1.61 0.727
Louisiana 2.89 2.38 0.119 4.25 3.21 0.135 6.77 5.90 0.373 1.90 1.63 0.483
Maine 2.84a 2.23 0.046 5.35a 3.12 0.005 8.95 7.91 0.404 1.61 1.33 0.417
Maryland 2.68 2.37 0.274 4.96 3.75 0.135 8.62 7.30 0.269 1.43 1.38 0.867
Massachusetts 3.12a 2.22 0.004 6.08b 4.33 0.062 10.41a 6.31 0.002 1.60 1.26 0.300
Michigan 2.60 2.49 0.636 5.88a 4.21 0.004 7.19 6.31 0.177 1.33 1.62 0.256
Minnesota 2.57a 1.99 0.035 5.46a 3.76 0.046 6.97b 5.14 0.092 1.36 1.26 0.729
Mississippi 2.52 2.45 0.828 3.92 3.02 0.185 6.26 6.43 0.863 1.55 1.64 0.794
Missouri 2.78b 2.29 0.086 4.66b 3.39 0.082 8.01 6.52 0.180 1.60 1.43 0.600
Montana 2.90b 2.42 0.098 6.42a 4.24 0.017 8.02 8.09 0.951 1.49 1.30 0.538
Nebraska 2.64 2.18 0.120 5.36 4.09 0.157 6.25 5.39 0.350 1.55 1.37 0.604
Nevada 2.69 2.35 0.280 5.40 4.26 0.221 7.75 7.10 0.606 1.54 1.34 0.563
New Hampshire 3.01 2.53 0.149 6.54b 4.74 0.070 10.57 8.59 0.164 1.35 1.33 0.956
New Jersey 2.27 2.12 0.568 4.64 4.11 0.518 7.07 7.04 0.981 1.28 1.14 0.610
New Mexico 3.50b 2.76 0.070 5.64 5.83 0.870 10.19 7.94 0.128 1.92 1.46 0.309
New York 2.74 2.47 0.245 4.98a 3.48 0.005 8.38 7.55 0.278 1.52 1.46 0.833
North Carolina 2.62 2.69 0.829 5.21 4.14 0.211 6.65 7.82 0.305 1.60 1.67 0.858
North Dakota 2.59 2.24 0.227 5.37a 3.56 0.030 6.90 6.28 0.563 1.31 1.24 0.821
Ohio 2.61 2.59 0.941 5.24a 3.60 0.001 7.76 7.18 0.400 1.36 1.71 0.152
Oklahoma 2.74a 2.11 0.038 4.91a 3.24 0.032 7.25b 5.41 0.087 1.56 1.38 0.605
Oregon 2.88 2.74 0.678 5.07 4.58 0.579 9.17 8.51 0.613 1.53 1.61 0.813
Pennsylvania 2.24 2.35 0.587 4.80a 3.62 0.022 7.21 6.19 0.133 1.11b 1.56 0.053
Rhode Island 3.18b 2.56 0.071 5.54b 4.05 0.095 11.23a 7.06 0.003 1.42 1.52 0.778
South Carolina 2.43 2.49 0.830 4.32 3.82 0.525 7.31 6.36 0.372 1.31 1.67 0.279
South Dakota 2.37 2.07 0.294 5.08a 3.43 0.046 6.20 5.01 0.237 1.21 1.39 0.568
Tennessee 2.54 2.42 0.694 4.43 3.25 0.110 6.71 7.47 0.513 1.59 1.49 0.757
Texas 2.47 2.18 0.141 4.91 4.11 0.140 6.39 5.60 0.210 1.31 1.25 0.786
Utah 2.69 2.54 0.628 4.22 3.70 0.516 5.42 6.27 0.394 1.59 1.48 0.743
Vermont 3.39b 2.78 0.090 7.19a 4.10 0.002 11.52 9.33 0.144 1.49 1.52 0.930
Virginia 2.69b 2.16 0.053 5.51a 3.79 0.043 7.95 6.48 0.195 1.46 1.23 0.447
Washington 3.08a 2.38 0.022 5.76b 4.24 0.082 10.00a 6.91 0.012 1.53 1.41 0.727
West Virginia 2.46 2.62 0.604 5.29a 3.09 0.004 8.37 7.75 0.600 1.18b 1.80 0.067
Wisconsin 2.28 2.02 0.296 5.67a 3.66 0.024 6.84 5.63 0.232 0.99 1.21 0.407
Wyoming 2.46a 1.93 0.047 4.23 3.62 0.416 7.82a 5.41 0.031 1.19 1.13 0.837
131111
Table 22 – Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2002-2003)
12+
(2011-2012)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2002-2003)
12-17
(2011-2012)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2002-2003)
18-25
(2011-2012)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2002-2003)
26+
(2011-2012)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2002-2003 and the 2011-2012 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for alcohol, but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers).
a Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2002-2003 estimate and the 2011-2012 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002, 2003, 2011, and 2012.
Total U.S. 7.19a 6.32 0.000 5.59a 3.46 0.000 16.89a 13.94 0.000 5.73b 5.36 0.053
Northeast 6.77 6.47 0.299 5.54a 3.70 0.000 16.94a 14.36 0.000 5.31 5.46 0.665
Midwest 7.96a 6.68 0.000 6.15a 3.40 0.000 18.96a 14.41 0.000 6.25 5.78 0.120
South 6.79a 5.75 0.000 5.19a 3.14 0.000 15.99a 12.78 0.000 5.41b 4.87 0.052
West 7.41a 6.78 0.040 5.69a 3.86 0.000 16.15b 15.01 0.088 6.06 5.68 0.305
Alabama 5.81 4.82 0.121 4.65a 3.12 0.028 13.20 11.16 0.165 4.65 3.93 0.337
Alaska 7.76 8.01 0.779 5.37a 3.60 0.021 18.23 15.63 0.146 6.44 7.21 0.486
Arizona 9.02a 6.60 0.005 7.16a 3.71 0.000 18.75a 13.67 0.006 7.54b 5.76 0.087
Arkansas 7.33a 4.99 0.001 6.08a 3.03 0.000 17.14a 11.69 0.001 5.76b 4.10 0.055
California 6.95 6.54 0.394 5.05b 4.06 0.078 14.54 15.00 0.653 5.84 5.29 0.349
Colorado 8.55 7.50 0.208 6.24a 3.50 0.000 20.00b 16.59 0.075 6.87 6.45 0.677
Connecticut 6.44 7.11 0.394 5.24a 3.70 0.045 18.16 15.77 0.190 4.90 6.18 0.175
Delaware 7.09 6.70 0.605 5.50a 3.13 0.001 17.19 15.51 0.343 5.56 5.61 0.953
District of Columbia 8.88a 11.03 0.050 2.48 3.06 0.392 16.09 17.11 0.587 8.03 10.21 0.105
Florida 6.47b 5.61 0.069 4.93a 2.96 0.000 16.46a 12.72 0.000 5.22 4.81 0.457
Georgia 7.07a 5.15 0.005 4.68a 2.89 0.006 14.94a 11.29 0.025 5.99b 4.36 0.052
Hawaii 7.31 7.03 0.745 6.19b 4.18 0.053 17.85 17.48 0.854 5.79 5.72 0.953
Idaho 8.18b 6.82 0.099 7.69a 3.56 0.000 18.00a 14.23 0.039 6.23 5.97 0.786
Illinois 8.31a 6.85 0.005 5.84a 3.34 0.000 18.98a 14.91 0.000 6.77 5.93 0.183
Indiana 7.15 6.64 0.507 5.51a 3.35 0.003 18.15b 14.88 0.074 5.36 5.61 0.778
Iowa 7.64 6.88 0.350 7.01a 3.17 0.000 18.20 15.30 0.126 5.72 5.85 0.895
Kansas 6.85 5.80 0.140 4.98b 3.51 0.058 17.70a 12.84 0.005 5.02 4.84 0.828
Kentucky 5.90 5.14 0.264 5.21a 3.19 0.005 14.15 11.77 0.127 4.55 4.29 0.741
Louisiana 7.34 6.32 0.147 5.09a 3.03 0.002 16.67b 13.58 0.052 5.81 5.41 0.643
Maine 6.59 5.81 0.295 5.43a 3.15 0.002 17.24 14.55 0.129 5.15 4.85 0.735
Maryland 7.09b 5.82 0.083 5.19a 3.10 0.003 15.17 13.05 0.206 6.08 4.94 0.203
Massachusetts 7.86 7.28 0.493 7.15a 3.89 0.000 18.08 15.77 0.221 6.31 6.17 0.887
Michigan 8.05a 6.76 0.012 6.22a 3.72 0.000 17.31a 13.41 0.000 6.70 6.00 0.272
Minnesota 8.14 7.03 0.173 6.55a 3.60 0.000 19.75a 15.86 0.043 6.26 6.00 0.779
Mississippi 6.17 5.12 0.114 3.47 3.00 0.429 13.69a 10.66 0.045 5.06 4.39 0.412
Missouri 7.63a 5.94 0.023 6.09a 3.49 0.001 19.32a 13.18 0.000 5.78 5.01 0.377
Montana 9.99a 7.56 0.014 10.37a 4.44 0.000 22.55a 16.90 0.005 7.69 6.39 0.275
Nebraska 9.51a 6.79 0.002 8.42a 3.58 0.000 23.20a 15.11 0.000 7.03 5.74 0.211
Nevada 7.83 8.44 0.522 6.80a 3.85 0.002 15.54 16.20 0.725 6.75 7.76 0.382
New Hampshire 8.64a 6.55 0.013 7.33a 3.90 0.000 22.30a 16.62 0.003 6.69 5.28 0.159
New Jersey 5.81 6.12 0.670 4.97 3.78 0.137 15.91 15.64 0.886 4.48 4.97 0.565
New Mexico 9.40a 6.95 0.010 7.46a 4.32 0.003 21.52a 14.23 0.000 7.45 6.03 0.224
New York 6.77 6.35 0.404 5.36a 3.58 0.000 15.53a 12.93 0.009 5.50 5.51 0.983
North Carolina 6.31a 4.47 0.007 5.34a 2.97 0.001 16.04a 11.13 0.004 4.80 3.56 0.113
North Dakota 9.91b 8.23 0.072 9.46a 3.36 0.000 25.71a 19.10 0.002 6.66 6.47 0.862
Ohio 7.47a 6.48 0.042 5.59a 3.09 0.000 17.69a 13.74 0.000 5.97 5.70 0.657
Oklahoma 6.61 7.96 0.102 5.41a 3.49 0.016 16.77 15.16 0.383 4.83a 7.24 0.015
Oregon 6.93 7.09 0.841 5.78a 3.27 0.001 16.86 15.40 0.409 5.40 6.20 0.374
Pennsylvania 6.54 6.19 0.442 5.20a 3.74 0.004 17.60a 13.93 0.000 4.93 5.17 0.661
Rhode Island 9.01 8.30 0.442 6.28a 3.72 0.002 23.85a 18.75 0.017 6.65 6.80 0.891
South Carolina 7.38b 5.96 0.075 4.50 3.52 0.161 18.58a 12.77 0.001 5.78 5.09 0.466
South Dakota 9.59 8.12 0.115 8.55a 3.95 0.000 24.04a 17.17 0.001 6.92 7.06 0.901
Tennessee 5.70 5.70 0.994 4.62a 3.09 0.025 14.41 12.26 0.207 4.38 4.93 0.490
Texas 7.43a 6.42 0.029 5.65a 3.38 0.000 16.62a 13.79 0.005 5.91 5.47 0.444
Utah 6.33a 4.48 0.008 4.71a 2.63 0.006 12.89b 9.81 0.052 4.71 3.57 0.167
Vermont 7.30 6.32 0.199 6.43a 3.93 0.004 18.33 16.00 0.219 5.51 4.92 0.502
Virginia 7.08b 5.76 0.066 6.01a 2.93 0.000 17.15a 13.38 0.026 5.59 4.80 0.356
Washington 7.00 7.33 0.666 5.70a 3.87 0.017 17.79 16.46 0.472 5.33 6.23 0.333
West Virginia 6.17 5.45 0.280 6.31a 3.32 0.000 15.53 14.63 0.588 4.64 4.30 0.663
Wisconsin 8.92a 6.98 0.030 7.00a 3.36 0.000 22.25a 14.78 0.000 6.80 6.13 0.519
Wyoming 8.71 7.36 0.104 7.13a 4.06 0.001 23.02a 16.82 0.002 6.22 6.10 0.902

Methodology Used to Estimate the Bayes Posterior Probability of No Change
between the 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 Small Area Estimates

To determine whether the differences between the 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) State prevalence rates are statistically significant, let pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a denote the 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 prevalence rates, respectively, for State-s and age group-a. The difference between pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a is defined in terms of the log odds ratio (lor sub s and a) as opposed to the simple difference because the posterior distribution of lor sub s and a is closer to Gaussian than the posterior distribution of the simple difference (Pi 2 sub s and a minus pi 1 sub s and a represents the simple difference between the 2011-2012 and 2002-2003 prevalence rates.). The lor sub s and a is defined as

Equation 1,     D

where ln denotes the natural logarithm. The p value given in each of the tables in this document (i.e., Tables 1 to 22) is computed to test the null hypothesis of no change (i.e., Pi 2 sub s and a is equal to pi 1 sub s and a. or equivalently, Log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a, is equal to zero.). An estimate of lor sub s and a is given by

Equation 2,     D

where p 1 sub s and a are the previously published 2002-2003 State estimates1 and p 2 sub s and a are the 2011-2012 State estimates presented in Tables 1 to 22 and elsewhere at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k12State/NSDUHsae2012/Index.aspx. To compute the variance of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, that is, variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, let Theta 1 hat equal the ratio of p 1 sub s and a and 1 minus p 1 sub s and a and Theta 2 hat equal the ratio of p 2 sub s and a and 1 minus p 2 sub s and a, then

Equation 3,     D

where covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat denotes the covariance between natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat. This covariance is defined in terms of the associated correlation as follows:

Equation 4.     D

Note that variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat used here to calculate variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a are the same variances used in calculating the previously published 2002-2003 Bayesian confidence intervals and the 2011-2012 Bayesian confidence intervals given here, respectively.

The correlation between natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat for an outcome measure by State by age group combination was estimated by taking the average of five correlations for each outcome measure by State by age group (2002-2003 vs. 2007-2008, 2002-2003 vs. 2008-2009, two sets of 2002-2003 vs. 2009-2010,2 and 2002-2003 vs. 2010-2011). The average of these five correlations is henceforth referred to as a "generalized correlation." Each of these five sets of correlations was produced by simultaneously fitting 4 years of NSDUH data separately for each outcome measure. For example, to produce correlations between the 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 State estimates for past month marijuana use, four age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 to 34, and 35 or older) by two time periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008), that is, eight subpopulation-specific models, were fitted each with its own set of fixed and random effects. In this case, the general covariance matrices for the State and within-State random effects were 8 × 8 matrices corresponding to the eight element (age group × time period) vectors of random effects.

For estimating correlations between the 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 State estimates, the pooled 2002-2003 data and the pooled 2011-2012 data were not modeled simultaneously (unlike in previous years) because the 2002-2003 estimates and data were based on the 2000 census geography and the 2011-2012 estimates and data were based on the 2010 census. In addition, new variable selection was performed on the 2011-2012 data, resulting in the inclusion of fixed-effect predictors that may differ from predictors from the 2002-2003 models. For the 2002-2003 versus 2011-2012 comparisons given here and for future comparisons involving extended time period differences, such as 2002-2003 versus 2012-2013, these generalized correlations will be used. Tables showing these generalized correlations will available at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k12State/NSDUHsae2012/Index.aspx.

Note that in tests conducted earlier using 2002-2003 versus 2007-2008 data and 2002-2003 versus 2008-2009 data, when the actual (modeled) correlation was replaced by an average correlation of those 2 years, the p values from both sets of comparisons were fairly comparable, and in most cases they had the same conclusion of whether the test between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 or 2008-2009 was significant or not. Only a few tests changed their significance (61 out of 9,632 tests across all outcomes, States, and age groups changed their conclusion, from significant to nonsignificant and vice versa) depending on which correlation (actual or the average) was used. More details on this study will be available at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/Methodological_Reports.aspx.

To calculate the p value for testing the null hypothesis of no difference (Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero), it is assumed (based on some empirical studies carried out earlier) that the posterior distribution of log-odds ratio lor is normal with Mean is equal to the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a. and Variance is equal to the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a.. With the null value of (Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero), the Bayes p value or posterior probability of no difference is The p value is equal to 2 times the probability of realizing a standard normal variate greater than or equal to the absolute value of a quantity z., where capital Z is a standard normal random variate, Quantity z is the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, divided by the square root of the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a., and absolute value of quantity z denotes the absolute value of quantity z.

End Notes

1 Wright, D., & Sathe, N. (2005). State estimates of substance use from the 2002-2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 05-3989, NSDUH Series H-26). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

2 Correlations were available for 2002-2003 versus 2009-2010 for NSDUH data that included falsified cases, as well as 2009-2010 data excluding falsified cases (for more details on falsification and the revision of 2006 to 2010 data, see Section A.7 of the "2010-2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology"). Note that the correlations for 2002-2003 versus 2007-2008 and 2002-2003 versus 2008-2009 were also based on falsified data.

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