Go to the Table of Contents
90413
Table 7.60A – Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Methamphetamine among Past Year Users Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Most Recently Used Methamphetamine from a Friend or Relative for Free in the Past Year: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Methamphetamine1 Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates in this table include data from methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Estimates for Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Methamphetamine include (a) past year users who reported obtaining this drug for their most recent use from a friend or relative for free and then reported a valid source for where their friend or relative obtained this drug and (b) past month users who reported only obtaining this drug for their past month use from a friend or relative for free and then reported a single valid source for where their friend or relative obtained this drug.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown or invalid data on Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Methamphetamine for respondent's most recent use were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From Friend or Relative for Free 141 114 19 * 54 46 68 *
Bought from Friend or Relative 254b 126 * * 66b 40 163 *
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
8 4 * * * * * *
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
184b 90 * * 59b 32 * *
Bought on the Internet 0 * 0 * * * * *
Some Other Way 20 14 * * 10 8 8 *
90413
Table 7.60B – Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Methamphetamine among Past Year Users Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Most Recently Used Methamphetamine from a Friend or Relative for Free in the Past Year: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Methamphetamine1 Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates in this table include data from methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Estimates for Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Methamphetamine include (a) past year users who reported obtaining this drug for their most recent use from a friend or relative for free and then reported a valid source for where their friend or relative obtained this drug and (b) past month users who reported only obtaining this drug for their past month use from a friend or relative for free and then reported a single valid source for where their friend or relative obtained this drug.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown or invalid data on Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Methamphetamine for respondent's most recent use were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From Friend or Relative for Free 23.3b 32.9 30.9 * 28.2 35.6 19.3 *
Bought from Friend or Relative 41.8 36.3 * * 34.0 31.1 46.1 *
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
1.3 1.1 * * * * * *
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
30.4 25.8 * * 30.4 24.6 * *
Bought on the Internet 0.0 * 0.2 * * * * *
Some Other Way 3.3 4.0 * * 5.4 6.5 2.1 *
90413
Table 7.61A – Sources Where Methamphetamine Was Obtained for Nonmedical Use in the Past Month among Past Month Users Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source for Past Month Nonmedical
Use among Past Month
Methamphetamine Users1
Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates in this table include data from methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Respondents could indicate multiple sources from which they obtained methamphetamine for past month nonmedical use; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data on Source for Past Month Nonmedical Use and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding other-specify questions were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From Friend or Relative for Free 308 * * * 68 * * *
Bought from Friend or Relative 242 * * * 44b 23 * *
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
22 * * * * * * *
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
184 * * * 39 * * *
Bought on the Internet 1 0 * * 1 * * *
Some Other Way 16 20 * * 6 4 6 *
90413
Table 7.61B – Sources Where Methamphetamine Was Obtained for Nonmedical Use in the Past Month among Past Month Users Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source for Past Month Nonmedical
Use among Past Month
Methamphetamine Users1
Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates in this table include data from methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Respondents could indicate multiple sources from which they obtained methamphetamine for past month nonmedical use; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data on Source for Past Month Nonmedical Use and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding other-specify questions were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From Friend or Relative for Free 55.3 * * * 54.7 * * *
Bought from Friend or Relative 43.2 * * * 35.8 29.4 * *
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
3.9 * * * * * * *
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
33.0 * * * 31.4 * * *
Bought on the Internet 0.2 0.0 * * 0.5 * * *
Some Other Way 3.0 5.7 * * 5.2 5.3 1.5 *
90413
Table 7.62A – Sources Where Friend or Relative Obtained Methamphetamine among Past Month Users Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Methamphetamine Used in the Past Month from a Friend or Relative for Free, by Age Group: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Methamphetamine1 Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates in this table include data from methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Respondents could indicate multiple sources from which a friend or relative obtained methamphetamine; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown or invalid data on Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Drug for respondent's past month use were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From Friend or Relative for Free * * * * * * * *
Bought from Friend or Relative * * * * * * * *
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
6 5 * * * * * *
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
* * * * * * * *
Bought on the Internet 4 * * * * * * *
Some Other Way * * * * * * * *
90413
Table 7.62B – Sources Where Friend or Relative Obtained Methamphetamine among Past Month Users Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Methamphetamine Used in the Past Month from a Friend or Relative for Free, by Age Group: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Methamphetamine1 Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates in this table include data from methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Respondents could indicate multiple sources from which a friend or relative obtained methamphetamine; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown or invalid data on Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Drug for respondent's past month use were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From Friend or Relative for Free * * * * * * * *
Bought from Friend or Relative * * * * * * * *
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
2.2 3.1 * * * * * *
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
* * * * * * * *
Bought on the Internet 1.6 * * * * * * *
Some Other Way * * * * * * * *
90413
Table 7.63A – Source Where Sedatives Were Obtained for Most Recent Nonmedical Use among Past Year Users Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source for Most Recent Nonmedical Use
among Past Year Sedative Users1
Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates for Source for Most Recent Nonmedical Use include (a) past month users who reported a single source of obtainment during the past 30 days, (b) past month users who identified their last source of obtainment after reporting multiple sources of obtainment in the past 30 days, and (c) all other past year users who reported their last source of obtainment in the past year.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Nonmedical Use and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding other-specify questions were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From One Doctor 176a 102 17a 9 20 16 140 *
From More Than One Doctor 12 20 3 2 4 * 5 17
Wrote Fake Prescription 6 8 * * * * * *
Stole from Doctor's Office, Clinic,
  Hospital, or Pharmacy
5 8 * 1 1 3 * *
From Friend or Relative for Free 472 419 34 41 88 100 350 *
Bought from Friend or Relative 64 40 9 9 23 19 * 12
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
22 23 5 11 10 6 6 5
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
25 30 4 6 9 6 13 18
Bought on the Internet 5 3 1 * * 0 * *
Some Other Way 24 24 6 4 4 4 15 17
90413
Table 7.63B – Source Where Sedatives Were Obtained for Most Recent Nonmedical Use among Past Year Users Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source for Most Recent Nonmedical Use
among Past Year Sedative Users1
Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates for Source for Most Recent Nonmedical Use include (a) past month users who reported a single source of obtainment during the past 30 days, (b) past month users who identified their last source of obtainment after reporting multiple sources of obtainment in the past 30 days, and (c) all other past year users who reported their last source of obtainment in the past year.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data on Source for Most Recent Nonmedical Use and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding other-specify questions were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From One Doctor 21.7a 15.1 20.3a 10.6 12.4 10.4 24.5 *
From More Than One Doctor 1.5 3.0 3.9 2.9 2.5 * 0.8 3.9
Wrote Fake Prescription 0.8 1.2 * * * * * *
Stole from Doctor's Office, Clinic,
  Hospital, or Pharmacy
0.6 1.2 * 0.9 0.5 2.1 * *
From Friend or Relative for Free 58.0 61.9 42.4 48.8 54.8 63.3 61.2 *
Bought from Friend or Relative 7.9 5.9 10.9 10.9 14.3 11.8 * 2.7
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
2.6 3.3 6.6 12.8 6.5 3.9 1.0 1.3
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
3.1 4.4 4.7 6.8 5.5 3.9 2.2 4.1
Bought on the Internet 0.6 0.4 1.2 * * 0.1 * *
Some Other Way 3.0 3.6 6.8 4.1 2.2 2.4 2.7 4.0
90413
Table 7.64A – Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Sedatives among Past Year Users Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Most Recently Used Sedatives from a Friend or Relative for Free in the Past Year: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Sedatives1 Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates for Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Drug include (a) past year users who reported obtaining this drug for their most recent nonmedical use from a friend or relative for free and then reported a valid source for where their friend or relative obtained this drug and (b) past month users who reported only obtaining this drug for their past month nonmedical use from a friend or relative for free and then reported a single valid source for where their friend or relative obtained this drug.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown or invalid data on Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Drug for respondent's most recent use and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding other-specify questions were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From One Doctor 379 319 * * 59 67 * *
From More Than One Doctor 11 9 * * 2 2 * *
Wrote Fake Prescription * * * * * * * *
Stole from Doctor's Office, Clinic,
  Hospital, or Pharmacy
0 4 * * * * * *
From Friend or Relative for Free 12 21 * * 8 9 * *
Bought from Friend or Relative 6 4 * * 3 * * *
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
2 1 * * * * * *
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
2 1 * * * * * *
Bought on the Internet 0 0 * * 0 0 * *
Some Other Way * 3 * * 2 * * *
90413
Table 7.64B – Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Sedatives among Past Year Users Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Most Recently Used Sedatives from a Friend or Relative for Free in the Past Year: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Sedatives1 Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates for Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Drug include (a) past year users who reported obtaining this drug for their most recent nonmedical use from a friend or relative for free and then reported a valid source for where their friend or relative obtained this drug and (b) past month users who reported only obtaining this drug for their past month nonmedical use from a friend or relative for free and then reported a single valid source for where their friend or relative obtained this drug.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown or invalid data on Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Drug for respondent's most recent use and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding other-specify questions were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From One Doctor 89.9 88.2 * * 79.6 79.7 * *
From More Than One Doctor 2.6 2.4 * * 2.4 2.6 * *
Wrote Fake Prescription * * * * * * * *
Stole from Doctor's Office, Clinic,
  Hospital, or Pharmacy
0.0 1.2 * * * * * *
From Friend or Relative for Free 3.0 5.7 * * 10.1 10.3 * *
Bought from Friend or Relative 1.3 1.1 * * 4.5 * * *
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
0.4 0.2 * * * * * *
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
0.4 0.3 * * * * * *
Bought on the Internet 0.0 0.0 * * 0.3 0.1 * *
Some Other Way * 0.8 * * 2.3 * * *
90413
Table 7.65A – Sources Where Sedatives Were Obtained for Nonmedical Use in the Past Month among Past Month Users Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source for Past Month Nonmedical Use
among Past Month Sedative Users1
Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents could indicate multiple sources from which they obtained sedatives for past month nonmedical use; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data on Source for Past Month Nonmedical Use and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding other-specify questions were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From One Doctor * 42 * * * * * *
From More Than One Doctor 6 14 * * * * * *
Wrote Fake Prescription * * * * * * * *
Stole from Doctor's Office, Clinic,
  Hospital, or Pharmacy
* * * * * * * *
From Friend or Relative for Free * 181 * * * * * *
Bought from Friend or Relative 26 27 * * * * * *
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
17 19 * * * * * *
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
21 23 * * * * * *
Bought on the Internet * 1 * * * * * *
Some Other Way 15 10 * * * * * *
90413
Table 7.65B – Sources Where Sedatives Were Obtained for Nonmedical Use in the Past Month among Past Month Users Aged 12 or Older, by Age Group: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source for Past Month Nonmedical Use
among Past Month Sedative Users1
Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents could indicate multiple sources from which they obtained sedatives for past month nonmedical use; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown data on Source for Past Month Nonmedical Use and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding other-specify questions were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From One Doctor * 16.4 * * * * * *
From More Than One Doctor 1.7 5.5 * * * * * *
Wrote Fake Prescription * * * * * * * *
Stole from Doctor's Office, Clinic,
  Hospital, or Pharmacy
* * * * * * * *
From Friend or Relative for Free * 70.1 * * * * * *
Bought from Friend or Relative 7.9 10.3 * * * * * *
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
5.2 7.3 * * * * * *
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
6.4 9.1 * * * * * *
Bought on the Internet * 0.4 * * * * * *
Some Other Way 4.8 3.9 * * * * * *
90413
Table 7.66A – Sources Where Friend or Relative Obtained Sedatives among Past Month Users Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Sedatives Used in the Past Month from a Friend or Relative for Free, by Age Group: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Sedatives1 Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents could indicate multiple sources from which a friend or relative obtained sedatives; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown or invalid data on Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Drug for respondent's past month use and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding other-specify questions were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From One Doctor * * * * * * * *
From More Than One Doctor * * * * * * * *
Wrote Fake Prescription * * * * * * * *
Stole from Doctor's Office, Clinic,
  Hospital, or Pharmacy
* * * * * * * *
From Friend or Relative for Free * * * * * * * *
Bought from Friend or Relative * * * * * * * *
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
* * * * * * * *
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
* * * * * * * *
Bought on the Internet * * * * * * * *
Some Other Way * * * * * * * *
90413
Table 7.66B – Sources Where Friend or Relative Obtained Sedatives among Past Month Users Aged 12 or Older Who Obtained Sedatives Used in the Past Month from a Friend or Relative for Free, by Age Group: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2006-2007 and 2007-2008
Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Sedatives1 Total
(2006-2007)
Total
(2007-2008)
Aged 12-17
(2006-2007)
Aged 12-17
(2007-2008)
Aged 18-25
(2006-2007)
Aged 18-25
(2007-2008)
Aged 26+
(2006-2007)
Aged 26+
(2007-2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents could indicate multiple sources from which a friend or relative obtained sedatives; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown or invalid data on Source Where Friend or Relative Obtained Drug for respondent's past month use and respondents with unknown or invalid responses to the corresponding other-specify questions were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
From One Doctor * * * * * * * *
From More Than One Doctor * * * * * * * *
Wrote Fake Prescription * * * * * * * *
Stole from Doctor's Office, Clinic,
  Hospital, or Pharmacy
* * * * * * * *
From Friend or Relative for Free * * * * * * * *
Bought from Friend or Relative * * * * * * * *
Took from Friend or Relative without
  Asking
* * * * * * * *
Bought from Drug Dealer or Other
  Stranger
* * * * * * * *
Bought on the Internet * * * * * * * *
Some Other Way * * * * * * * *
90409
Table 7.67A – Social Context and Location of Most Recent Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 to 20, by Gender: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Social Context and Location
of Most Recent Alcohol Use
Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Male
(2007)
Male
(2008)
Female
(2007)
Female
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown responses were excluded.
2 Respondents could indicate multiple locations for the most recent time they used alcohol; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
3 Some Other Place includes only valid responses from the other-specify questions, including these six types of commonly reported locations.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
SOCIAL CONTEXT OF MOST RECENT
ALCOHOL USE1
           
Drank Alone 516 462 356 299 161 163
Drank with One Other Person 1,479 1,331 813 711 667 620
Drank with Two or More Other People 8,460 8,003 4,291 4,133 4,169 3,871
LOCATION OF MOST RECENT ALCOHOL USE1,2            
Car or Other Vehicle 506b 371 276a 196 230a 175
Home 3,053 2,868 1,697 1,523 1,357 1,344
Someone Else's Home 5,845a 5,447 3,018 2,830 2,827 2,617
Park, Beach, or Parking Lot 467 462 240 248 227 214
Restaurant, Bar, or Club 969 834 331 357 638b 477
Concert or Sports Game 150 175 83 125 66 50
School 195 162 79 68 116 95
Some Other Place3 725 637 349 338 376 299
Party, Wedding, or Celebration 246 203 98 82 148 120
Outside (Location not Specified) 118 92 73 59 45 32
Hotel, Motel, or Resort 79 61 40 24 40 37
Camping, Hunting, or Fishing 40 53 20 43 20 9
Cabin, Cottage, Vacation Home, etc. 24 16 12 9 12 6
Dorm Room 22 10 7 7 15 4
90409
Table 7.67B – Social Context and Location of Most Recent Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 to 20, by Gender: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Social Context and Location
of Most Recent Alcohol Use
Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Male
(2007)
Male
(2008)
Female
(2007)
Female
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown responses were excluded.
2 Respondents could indicate multiple locations for the most recent time they used alcohol; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
3 Some Other Place includes only valid responses from the other-specify questions, including these six types of commonly reported locations.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
SOCIAL CONTEXT OF MOST RECENT
ALCOHOL USE1
           
Drank Alone 4.9 4.7 6.5 5.8 3.2 3.5
Drank with One Other Person 14.1 13.6 14.9 13.8 13.3 13.3
Drank with Two or More Other People 80.9 81.7 78.6 80.4 83.4 83.2
LOCATION OF MOST RECENT ALCOHOL USE1,2            
Car or Other Vehicle 4.9a 3.8 5.1a 3.9 4.6 3.8
Home 29.4 29.6 31.3 30.1 27.3 29.1
Someone Else's Home 56.3 56.2 55.7 55.9 56.9 56.6
Park, Beach, or Parking Lot 4.5 4.8 4.4 4.9 4.6 4.6
Restaurant, Bar, or Club 9.3 8.6 6.1 7.0 12.8a 10.3
Concert or Sports Game 1.4 1.8 1.5a 2.5 1.3 1.1
School 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.3 2.3 2.1
Some Other Place3 7.1 6.6 6.6 6.7 7.7 6.5
Party, Wedding, or Celebration 2.4 2.1 1.8 1.6 3.0 2.6
Outside (Location not Specified) 1.2 1.0 1.4 1.2 0.9 0.7
Hotel, Motel, or Resort 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.8
Camping, Hunting, or Fishing 0.4 0.6 0.4a 0.9 0.4 0.2
Cabin, Cottage, Vacation Home, etc. 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1
Dorm Room 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1
90409
Table 7.68A – Social Context and Location of Most Recent Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 to 20, by Age Group: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Social Context and Location
of Most Recent Alcohol Use
Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Aged 12-14
(2007)
Aged 12-14
(2008)
Aged 15-17
(2007)
Aged 15-17
(2008)
Aged 18-20
(2007)
Aged 18-20
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown responses were excluded.
2 Respondents could indicate multiple locations for the most recent time they used alcohol; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
3 Some Other Place includes only valid responses from the other-specify questions, including these six types of commonly reported locations.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
SOCIAL CONTEXT OF MOST RECENT
ALCOHOL USE1
               
Drank Alone 516 462 72 57 176 151 268 254
Drank with One Other Person 1,479 1,331 139 114 456a 362 884 855
Drank with Two or More Other People 8,460 8,003 395 460 2,591b 2,315 5,474 5,228
LOCATION OF MOST RECENT ALCOHOL
USE1,2
               
Car or Other Vehicle 506b 371 26 18 235b 140 245 213
Home 3,053 2,868 248 241 739 677 2,067 1,950
Someone Else's Home 5,845a 5,447 281 306 2,014b 1,719 3,550 3,422
Park, Beach, or Parking Lot 467 462 35 44 221a 165 211 252
Restaurant, Bar, or Club 969 834 24 13 120 106 825 714
Concert or Sports Game 150 175 8a 1 40 51 102 124
School 195 162 9 13 46 30 140 120
Some Other Place3 725 637 49 49 302 236 373 352
Party, Wedding, or Celebration 246 203 18 11 106 93 123 99
Outside (Location not Specified) 118 92 15 5 62 52 41 35
Hotel, Motel, or Resort 79 61 3 3 41a 15 35 44
Camping, Hunting, or Fishing 40 53 2 4 19 13 18 37
Cabin, Cottage, Vacation Home, etc. 24 16 * 5 6 5 18 6
Dorm Room 22 10 * * 2 0 20 10
90409
Table 7.68B – Social Context and Location of Most Recent Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 to 20, by Age Group: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Social Context and Location
of Most Recent Alcohol Use
Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Aged 12-14
(2007)
Aged 12-14
(2008)
Aged 15-17
(2007)
Aged 15-17
(2008)
Aged 18-20
(2007)
Aged 18-20
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown responses were excluded.
2 Respondents could indicate multiple locations for the most recent time they used alcohol; thus, these response categories are not mutually exclusive.
3 Some Other Place includes only valid responses from the other-specify questions, including these six types of commonly reported locations.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
SOCIAL CONTEXT OF MOST RECENT
ALCOHOL USE1
               
Drank Alone 4.9 4.7 11.9 9.0 5.5 5.3 4.0 4.0
Drank with One Other Person 14.1 13.6 22.9 18.1 14.2 12.8 13.3 13.5
Drank with Two or More Other People 80.9 81.7 65.2a 72.9 80.4 81.9 82.6 82.5
LOCATION OF MOST RECENT ALCOHOL
USE1,2
               
Car or Other Vehicle 4.9a 3.8 4.3 2.9 7.4b 5.0 3.7 3.4
Home 29.4 29.6 41.3 39.2 23.1 24.4 31.4 31.0
Someone Else's Home 56.3 56.2 46.9 49.9 63.1 61.9 53.8 54.3
Park, Beach, or Parking Lot 4.5 4.8 5.8 7.3 6.9 5.9 3.2 4.0
Restaurant, Bar, or Club 9.3 8.6 4.0 2.1 3.8 3.8 12.5 11.3
Concert or Sports Game 1.4 1.8 1.3a 0.1 1.3 1.8 1.5 2.0
School 1.9 1.7 1.5 2.0 1.4 1.1 2.1 1.9
Some Other Place3 7.1 6.6 8.5 8.1 9.6 8.6 5.7 5.6
Party, Wedding, or Celebration 2.4 2.1 3.1 1.8 3.4 3.4 1.9 1.6
Outside (Location not Specified) 1.2 1.0 2.6 0.9 2.0 1.9 0.6 0.6
Hotel, Motel, or Resort 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 1.3a 0.5 0.5 0.7
Camping, Hunting, or Fishing 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.6
Cabin, Cottage, Vacation Home, etc. 0.2 0.2 * 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1
Dorm Room 0.2 0.1 * * 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.2
90409
Table 7.69A – Source Where Alcohol was Obtained for Most Recent Use in the Past Month among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 to 20, by Gender: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Source of Most Recent Alcohol Use
in the Past Month1
Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Male
(2007)
Male
(2008)
Female
(2007)
Female
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown responses were excluded.
2 Respondents were permitted to specify other sources for most recent alcohol use in the past month. This source is one of the most commonly reported other sources for most recent alcohol use in the past month.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
UNDERAGE DRINKER PAID 3,156 3,012 2,022 1,878 1,133 1,133
Purchased It Himself or Herself 858 814 614 577 244 237
From Store, Restaurant, Bar, Club, or Event 731 692 508 485 223 207
Liquor, Convenience, or Grocery Store 496 440 396 343 100 97
Restaurant, Bar, or Club 229 226 109 116 119 110
Concert, Sports, or Other Event 5a 26 3a 25 2 1
From Another Person 128 119 106 92 22 27
From Person under Age 21 49 45 40 40 9 5
From Person Aged 21 or Older 79 71 66 52 13 19
Purchased by Someone Else 2,276 2,178 1,392 1,291 884 887
Parent or Guardian 50 80 31 40 20 40
Another Family Member Aged 21 or Older 242 229 141 125 101 104
Someone Not Related Aged 21 or Older 1,699 1,553 1,017 914 682 639
Someone under Age 21 229 262 164 175 66 86
UNDERAGE DRINKER DID NOT PAY 7,299a 6,768 3,442 3,253 3,857a 3,515
Got It from Parent or Guardian 553 553 244 251 309 302
Got It from Another Family Member Aged 21 or Older 872 867 407 420 464 447
Got It from Someone Not Related Aged 21 or Older 2,713 2,532 1,156 1,141 1,556 1,391
Got It from Someone under Age 21 1,512 1,429 739 692 773 737
Took It from Own Home 398 392 220 201 178 191
Took It from Someone Else's Home 247 216 132 97 115 119
Got It Some Other Way 623b 465 322 268 301b 198
From Friend or Acquaintance, Unspecified Age
  and Method2
263a 188 142 100 121 88
90409
Table 7.69B – Source Where Alcohol was Obtained for Most Recent Use in the Past Month among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 to 20, by Gender: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Source of Most Recent Alcohol Use
in the Past Month1
Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Male
(2007)
Male
(2008)
Female
(2007)
Female
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown responses were excluded.
2 Respondents were permitted to specify other sources for most recent alcohol use in the past month. This source is one of the most commonly reported other sources for most recent alcohol use in the past month.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
UNDERAGE DRINKER PAID 30.2 30.8 37.0 36.6 22.7 24.4
Purchased It Himself or Herself 8.2 8.3 11.3 11.3 4.9 5.1
From Store, Restaurant, Bar, Club, or Event 7.0 7.1 9.3 9.5 4.5 4.5
Liquor, Convenience, or Grocery Store 4.8 4.5 7.3 6.7 2.0 2.1
Restaurant, Bar, or Club 2.2 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.4
Concert, Sports, or Other Event 0.0a 0.3 0.1a 0.5 0.0 0.0
From Another Person 1.2 1.2 1.9 1.8 0.4 0.6
From Person under Age 21 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.2 0.1
From Person Aged 21 or Older 0.8 0.7 1.2 1.0 0.3 0.4
Purchased by Someone Else 21.8 22.3 25.6 25.2 17.7 19.1
Parent or Guardian 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.4a 0.9
Another Family Member Aged 21 or Older 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.0 2.3
Someone Not Related Aged 21 or Older 16.4 16.0 18.8 18.0 13.7 13.8
Someone under Age 21 2.2 2.7 3.0 3.4 1.3 1.9
UNDERAGE DRINKER DID NOT PAY 69.8 69.2 63.0 63.4 77.3 75.6
Got It from Parent or Guardian 5.5 5.8 4.6 5.1 6.4 6.7
Got It from Another Family Member Aged 21 or Older 8.7 9.2 7.8 8.5 9.6 9.9
Got It from Someone Not Related Aged 21 or Older 26.9 26.8 22.1 23.1 32.2 30.8
Got It from Someone under Age 21 15.0 15.1 14.1 14.0 16.0 16.3
Took It from Own Home 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.1 3.7 4.2
Took It from Someone Else's Home 2.5 2.3 2.5 2.0 2.4 2.6
Got It Some Other Way 6.2b 4.9 6.1 5.4 6.2b 4.4
From Friend or Acquaintance, Unspecified Age
  and Method2
2.6a 2.0 2.7 2.0 2.5 2.0
90409
Table 7.70A – Source Where Alcohol was Obtained for Most Recent Use in the Past Month among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 to 20, by Age Group: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Source of Most Recent Alcohol Use
in the Past Month1
Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Aged 12-14
(2007)
Aged 12-14
(2008)
Aged 15-17
(2007)
Aged 15-17
(2008)
Aged 18-20
(2007)
Aged 18-20
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown responses were excluded.
2 Respondents were permitted to specify other sources for most recent alcohol use in the past month. This source is one of the most commonly reported other sources for most recent alcohol use in the past month.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
UNDERAGE DRINKER PAID 3,156 3,012 53 34 759a 643 2,344 2,334
Purchased It Himself or Herself 858 814 14 7 149a 97 694 710
From Store, Restaurant, Bar, Club, or Event 731 692 8 5 110a 65 613 623
Liquor, Convenience, or Grocery Store 496 440 6 4 90b 44 400 391
Restaurant, Bar, or Club 229 226 2 0 20 18 207 208
Concert, Sports, or Other Event 5a 26 1 * * 3 4a 23
From Another Person 128 119 6 2 40 32 82 85
From Person under Age 21 49 45 4 2 19 13 26 29
From Person Aged 21 or Older 79 71 1 * 21 16 56 55
Purchased by Someone Else 2,276 2,178 36 27 603 541 1,637 1,610
Parent or Guardian 50 80 2 2 12 21 37 58
Another Family Member Aged 21 or Older 242 229 5 3 57 46 180 180
Someone Not Related Aged 21 or Older 1,699 1,553 19 12 406 372 1,274 1,170
Someone under Age 21 229 262 9 8 108 86 112a 168
UNDERAGE DRINKER DID NOT PAY 7,299a 6,768 555 594 2,466b 2,178 4,277 3,997
Got It from Parent or Guardian 553 553 90 87 199 210 264 256
Got It from Another Family Member Aged 21 or Older 872 867 69 83 293 241 510 543
Got It from Someone Not Related Aged 21 or Older 2,713 2,532 74 82 631 577 2,009 1,873
Got It from Someone under Age 21 1,512 1,429 112 118 672 599 728 712
Took It from Own Home 398 392 72 103 171 154 155 135
Took It from Someone Else's Home 247 216 36 39 118 87 94 90
Got It Some Other Way 623b 465 58 40 214 181 351b 245
From Friend or Acquaintance, Unspecified Age
  and Method2
263a 188 29 14 116 93 119 81
90409
Table 7.70B – Source Where Alcohol was Obtained for Most Recent Use in the Past Month among Past Month Alcohol Users Aged 12 to 20, by Age Group: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Source of Most Recent Alcohol Use
in the Past Month1
Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Aged 12-14
(2007)
Aged 12-14
(2008)
Aged 15-17
(2007)
Aged 15-17
(2008)
Aged 18-20
(2007)
Aged 18-20
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Respondents with unknown responses were excluded.
2 Respondents were permitted to specify other sources for most recent alcohol use in the past month. This source is one of the most commonly reported other sources for most recent alcohol use in the past month.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
UNDERAGE DRINKER PAID 30.2 30.8 8.6 5.4 23.5 22.8 35.4 36.9
Purchased It Himself or Herself 8.2 8.3 2.3 1.1 4.6 3.4 10.5 11.2
From Store, Restaurant, Bar, Club, or Event 7.0 7.1 1.4 0.7 3.4 2.3 9.3 9.9
Liquor, Convenience, or Grocery Store 4.8 4.5 1.0 0.7 2.8a 1.6 6.1 6.2
Restaurant, Bar, or Club 2.2 2.3 0.3 0.0 0.6 0.6 3.1 3.3
Concert, Sports, or Other Event 0.0a 0.3 0.1 * * 0.1 0.1a 0.4
From Another Person 1.2 1.2 0.9 0.4 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.3
From Person under Age 21 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5
From Person Aged 21 or Older 0.8 0.7 0.2 * 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.9
Purchased by Someone Else 21.8 22.3 5.9 4.3 18.7 19.2 24.8 25.5
Parent or Guardian 0.5 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.9
Another Family Member Aged 21 or Older 2.3 2.4 0.8 0.5 1.8 1.6 2.7 2.9
Someone Not Related Aged 21 or Older 16.4 16.0 3.2 1.9 12.7 13.3 19.4 18.6
Someone under Age 21 2.2 2.7 1.5 1.3 3.4 3.1 1.7a 2.7
UNDERAGE DRINKER DID NOT PAY 69.8 69.2 91.4 94.6 76.5 77.2 64.6 63.1
Got It from Parent or Guardian 5.5 5.8 16.0 14.9 6.5 7.8 4.1 4.1
Got It from Another Family Member Aged 21 or Older 8.7 9.2 12.3 14.2 9.6 8.9 7.9 8.8
Got It from Someone Not Related Aged 21 or Older 26.9 26.8 13.1 14.0 20.6 21.4 31.1 30.3
Got It from Someone under Age 21 15.0 15.1 19.9 20.1 22.0 22.3 11.3 11.5
Took It from Own Home 4.0 4.1 12.8 17.5 5.6 5.7 2.4 2.2
Took It from Someone Else's Home 2.5 2.3 6.3 6.7 3.9 3.2 1.5 1.5
Got It Some Other Way 6.2b 4.9 10.3 6.8 7.0 6.7 5.4a 4.0
From Friend or Acquaintance, Unspecified Age
  and Method2
2.6a 2.0 5.1 2.3 3.8 3.5 1.8 1.3
90331
Table 7.71A – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy Status: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Drug Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS2 6,085 5,955 100 130 5,943 5,777
Marijuana and Hashish 4,247 4,316 76 97 4,137 4,181
Cocaine 699b 501 6 9 687b 487
Crack 164a 94 2 7 161b 87
Heroin 59 38 3 * 56 38
Hallucinogens 357 321 7 11 343 309
LSD 34 32 2 1 32 31
PCP 11 4 0 1 10 4
Ecstasy 221 206 4 * 214 196
Inhalants 151 142 4 6 147 136
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics3,4 2,420 2,222 34 27 2,377 2,172
Pain Relievers 1,678 1,608 25 17 1,644 1,571
OxyContin® 101 118 1 3 99 115
Tranquilizers 701 745 10 6 688 731
Stimulants4 532a 402 4 8 525b 391
Methamphetamine4 262b 131 4 * 258b 129
Sedatives 136 95 1 * 135 95
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA2
3,088a 2,784 39 51 3,033a 2,708
90331
Table 7.71B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy Status: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Drug Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS2 9.8 9.6 4.0 5.1 10.0 9.8
Marijuana and Hashish 6.8 7.0 3.0 3.8 7.0 7.1
Cocaine 1.1b 0.8 0.2 0.4 1.2b 0.8
Crack 0.3a 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.3b 0.1
Heroin 0.1 0.1 0.1 * 0.1 0.1
Hallucinogens 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.5
LSD 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1
PCP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ecstasy 0.4 0.3 0.2 * 0.4 0.3
Inhalants 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics3,4 3.9 3.6 1.3 1.0 4.0 3.7
Pain Relievers 2.7 2.6 1.0 0.7 2.8 2.7
OxyContin® 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2
Tranquilizers 1.1 1.2 0.4 0.2 1.2 1.2
Stimulants4 0.9a 0.7 0.1 0.3 0.9b 0.7
Methamphetamine4 0.4b 0.2 0.1 * 0.4b 0.2
Sedatives 0.2 0.2 0.0 * 0.2 0.2
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA2
5.0a 4.5 1.5 2.0 5.1a 4.6
90331
Table 7.72A – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Demographic/Pregnancy Characteristic Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
N/A: Not applicable.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Pregnant females aged 15 to 44 not reporting trimester were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 6,085 5,955 100 130 5,943 5,777
AGE            
15-17 889 836 12 19 866 801
18-25 2,547 2,565 61 67 2,467 2,476
26-44 2,648 2,554 27 45 2,610 2,499
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 5,334 5,308 93 117 5,202 5,154
White 4,264 4,167 67 76 4,167 4,071
Black or African American 810 874 21 36 783 825
American Indian or Alaska Native 40 35 * * 37 34
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 16 * * * 16 *
Asian 104 106 * * 102 103
Two or More Races 100 100 * * 97 96
Hispanic or Latino 751 647 8 13 741 623
TRIMESTER2            
First N/A N/A 42 56 N/A N/A
Second N/A N/A 32 46 N/A N/A
Third N/A N/A 22 24 N/A N/A
90331
Table 7.72B – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Demographic/Pregnancy Characteristic Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
N/A: Not applicable.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Pregnant females aged 15 to 44 not reporting trimester were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 9.8 9.6 4.0 5.1 10.0 9.8
AGE            
15-17 14.0 13.1 15.5 21.6 13.9 12.9
18-25 15.7 15.7 6.5 7.1 16.3 16.2
26-44 6.7 6.5 1.8 3.0 6.9 6.7
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 10.2 10.3 4.8 5.7 10.4 10.5
White 11.0 10.9 4.7 5.3 11.2 11.1
Black or African American 9.3 10.1 6.1 9.0 9.4 10.1
American Indian or Alaska Native 10.5 12.2 * * 10.0 12.2
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 6.0 * * * 6.4 *
Asian 3.2 3.2 * * 3.3 3.3
Two or More Races 14.6 13.9 * * 14.6 14.2
Hispanic or Latino 7.5a 6.2 1.4 2.6 7.9a 6.3
TRIMESTER2            
First N/A N/A 5.4 7.2 N/A N/A
Second N/A N/A 3.6 5.0 N/A N/A
Third N/A N/A 2.7 2.8 N/A N/A
90331
Table 7.73A – Marijuana Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Demographic/Pregnancy Characteristic Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
N/A: Not applicable.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Pregnant females aged 15 to 44 not reporting trimester were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 4,247 4,316 76 97 4,137 4,181
AGE            
15-17 661 624 10 15 642 597
18-25 1,991 2,025 46 51 1,931 1,956
26-44 1,595 1,667 20 31 1,565 1,628
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 3,792 3,875 69 91 3,690 3,755
White 3,043 3,005 54 55 2,963 2,935
Black or African American 566 674 13 33 548 629
American Indian or Alaska Native 30 28 * * 29 27
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 10 12 * * 10 12
Asian 59 68 * * 59 68
Two or More Races 84 88 * * 81 84
Hispanic or Latino 455 441 6 6 447 426
TRIMESTER2            
First N/A N/A 32 51 N/A N/A
Second N/A N/A 25 34 N/A N/A
Third N/A N/A 14 11 N/A N/A
90331
Table 7.73B – Marijuana Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Demographic/Pregnancy Characteristic Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
N/A: Not applicable.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Pregnant females aged 15 to 44 not reporting trimester were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 6.8 7.0 3.0 3.8 7.0 7.1
AGE            
15-17 10.4 9.8 12.6 17.1 10.3 9.6
18-25 12.3 12.4 4.9 5.4 12.7 12.8
26-44 4.0 4.3 1.3 2.1 4.1 4.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 7.3 7.6 3.6 4.4 7.4 7.7
White 7.8 7.9 3.8 3.8 8.0 8.0
Black or African American 6.5a 7.8 3.7 8.3 6.6 7.7
American Indian or Alaska Native 7.7 9.8 * * 7.8 9.7
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 3.9 4.3 * * 4.1 4.4
Asian 1.8 2.1 * * 1.9 2.2
Two or More Races 12.2 12.2 * * 12.2 12.5
Hispanic or Latino 4.5 4.2 1.1 1.3 4.8 4.3
TRIMESTER2            
First N/A N/A 4.2 6.6 N/A N/A
Second N/A N/A 2.9 3.7 N/A N/A
Third N/A N/A 1.7 1.3 N/A N/A
90331
Table 7.74A – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy Status: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Substance Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOBACCO PRODUCTS2 18,696b 17,381 417 427 18,197b 16,836
Cigarettes 17,951b 16,619 411 418 17,465b 16,084
Smokeless Tobacco 207 235 3 3 199 226
Cigars 2,051 1,890 32 29 2,010 1,847
Pipe Tobacco 201 223 2 3 198 219
ALCOHOL 31,854 32,205 294 272 31,374 31,786
Binge Alcohol Use3 14,148 14,444 73 116 13,997 14,256
Heavy Alcohol Use3 3,242 3,262 17 21 3,216 3,220
90331
Table 7.74B – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy Status: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Substance Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOBACCO PRODUCTS2 30.1b 28.1 16.8 16.7 30.7b 28.6
Cigarettes 28.9b 26.9 16.5 16.4 29.5b 27.3
Smokeless Tobacco 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.4
Cigars 3.3 3.1 1.3 1.1 3.4 3.1
Pipe Tobacco 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.4
ALCOHOL 51.3 52.1 11.8 10.6 53.0 54.0
Binge Alcohol Use3 22.8 23.4 2.9 4.5 23.6 24.2
Heavy Alcohol Use3 5.2 5.3 0.7 0.8 5.4 5.5
90331
Table 7.75A – Cigarette Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Demographic/Pregnancy Characteristic Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
N/A: Not applicable.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Pregnant females aged 15 to 44 not reporting trimester were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 17,951b 16,619 411 418 17,465b 16,084
AGE            
15-17 1,099b 948 18 18 1,068b 914
18-25 5,666b 5,186 241 208 5,393b 4,935
26-44 11,186a 10,485 152 192 11,004a 10,236
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 16,048b 14,896 372 390 15,608b 14,415
White 13,215b 12,287 293 307 12,872b 11,932
Black or African American 2,003 1,814 50 69 1,938 1,720
American Indian or Alaska Native 133 143 * * 128 139
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 76 * * * 72 *
Asian 359 340 * * 339 324
Two or More Races 263 219 * * 259 207
Hispanic or Latino 1,904 1,723 38 28 1,856 1,669
TRIMESTER2            
First N/A N/A 184 164 N/A N/A
Second N/A N/A 125 138 N/A N/A
Third N/A N/A 91 107 N/A N/A
90331
Table 7.75B – Cigarette Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Demographic/Pregnancy Characteristic Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
N/A: Not applicable.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Pregnant females aged 15 to 44 not reporting trimester were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 28.9b 26.9 16.5 16.4 29.5b 27.3
AGE            
15-17 17.3b 14.9 23.1 20.6 17.1b 14.7
18-25 35.0b 31.8 25.6 22.1 35.6b 32.3
26-44 28.3a 26.8 10.3 12.6 29.1a 27.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 30.8b 29.0 19.2 19.1 31.3b 29.4
White 34.1b 32.3 20.4 21.4 34.7b 32.7
Black or African American 22.9 21.1 14.6 17.2 23.3 21.1
American Indian or Alaska Native 34.9b 49.2 * * 34.7b 49.6
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 28.6 * * * 28.6 *
Asian 11.1 10.3 * * 11.0 10.4
Two or More Races 38.4 30.4 * * 38.8 30.8
Hispanic or Latino 19.0a 16.4 7.0 5.5 19.7a 16.9
TRIMESTER2            
First N/A N/A 23.8 21.2 N/A N/A
Second N/A N/A 14.3 15.2 N/A N/A
Third N/A N/A 11.2 12.5 N/A N/A
90331
Table 7.76A – Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Demographic/Pregnancy Characteristic Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
N/A: Not applicable.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Pregnant females aged 15 to 44 not reporting trimester were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 31,854 32,205 294 272 31,374 31,786
AGE            
15-17 1,680b 1,516 13 14 1,656b 1,487
18-25 9,183 9,383 80 102 9,050 9,229
26-44 20,991 21,306 201 155 20,668 21,070
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 28,077 28,091 276 239 27,635 27,735
White 22,863 22,482 217 158 22,514 22,257
Black or African American 3,605 3,849 40 77 3,533 3,748
American Indian or Alaska Native 136 150 * * 134 149
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 993 1,105 * * 981 1,086
Two or More Races 385 383 * * 383 373
Hispanic or Latino 3,777 4,114 19 33 3,739 4,051
TRIMESTER2            
First N/A N/A 121 160 N/A N/A
Second N/A N/A 79 71 N/A N/A
Third N/A N/A 85a 30 N/A N/A
90331
Table 7.76B – Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Demographic/Pregnancy Characteristic Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
N/A: Not applicable.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Pregnant females aged 15 to 44 not reporting trimester were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 51.3 52.1 11.8 10.6 53.0 54.0
AGE            
15-17 26.4b 23.8 16.4 16.0 26.6b 23.9
18-25 56.7 57.5 8.5 10.9 59.7 60.4
26-44 53.1 54.5 13.7 10.1 54.6a 56.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 53.9 54.8 14.2 11.7 55.4 56.6
White 59.0 59.0 15.2 11.0 60.6 60.9
Black or African American 41.3a 44.7 11.6 19.1 42.5a 46.0
American Indian or Alaska Native 35.7b 51.6 * * 36.5b 53.3
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 30.8 33.4 * * 31.7 35.0
Two or More Races 56.3 53.2 * * 57.4 55.4
Hispanic or Latino 37.7 39.3 3.4 6.4 39.8 41.0
TRIMESTER2            
First N/A N/A 15.7 20.7 N/A N/A
Second N/A N/A 9.0 7.8 N/A N/A
Third N/A N/A 10.4b 3.5 N/A N/A
90331
Table 7.77A – Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Demographic/Pregnancy Characteristic Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
N/A: Not applicable.
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Pregnant females aged 15 to 44 not reporting trimester were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 14,148 14,444 73 116 13,997 14,256
AGE            
15-17 999a 892 7 11 984a 871
18-25 5,343 5,485 39 55 5,276 5,403
26-44 7,806 8,067 27 50 7,737 7,982
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 12,398 12,388 61 99 12,271 12,231
White 10,224 10,217 38 56 10,129 10,132
Black or African American 1,490 1,485 21 40 1,463 1,430
American Indian or Alaska Native 99 100 * * 97 98
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 64 * * * * *
Asian 348 335 * * 347 323
Two or More Races 173 167 * * 171 164
Hispanic or Latino 1,749a 2,056 13 17 1,726a 2,025
TRIMESTER2            
First N/A N/A 36b 79 N/A N/A
Second N/A N/A 16 17 N/A N/A
Third N/A N/A 12 11 N/A N/A
90331
Table 7.77B – Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Demographic/Pregnancy Characteristic Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
N/A: Not applicable.
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Pregnant females aged 15 to 44 not reporting trimester were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 22.8 23.4 2.9 4.5 23.6 24.2
AGE            
15-17 15.7b 14.0 9.1 12.3 15.8b 14.0
18-25 33.0 33.6 4.2 5.9 34.8 35.4
26-44 19.7 20.6 1.8 3.3 20.4 21.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 23.8 24.1 3.1 4.8 24.6 25.0
White 26.4 26.8 2.6 3.9 27.3 27.7
Black or African American 17.1 17.2 6.0 10.0 17.6 17.6
American Indian or Alaska Native 25.9 34.2 * * 26.3 35.2
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 24.3 * * * * *
Asian 10.8 10.1 * * 11.2 10.4
Two or More Races 25.2 23.3 * * 25.6 24.3
Hispanic or Latino 17.5a 19.6 2.3 3.3 18.4a 20.5
TRIMESTER2            
First N/A N/A 4.6b 10.3 N/A N/A
Second N/A N/A 1.8 1.9 N/A N/A
Third N/A N/A 1.5 1.3 N/A N/A
90331
Table 7.78A – Heavy Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Demographic/Pregnancy Characteristic Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
N/A: Not applicable.
NOTE: Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Pregnant females aged 15 to 44 not reporting trimester were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 3,242 3,262 17 21 3,216 3,220
AGE            
15-17 209 196 2 3 204 190
18-25 1,527 1,506 6 10 1,517 1,489
26-44 1,506 1,559 9 9 1,495 1,541
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 2,937 2,922 10 20 2,918 2,884
White 2,566 2,563 8 16 2,550 2,538
Black or African American 250 249 2 3 247 237
American Indian or Alaska Native 21 21 * * 21 21
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 11 7 * * 11 7
Asian 41 41 * * 41 41
Two or More Races 48 40 * * 48 39
Hispanic or Latino 305 340 7 1 298 336
TRIMESTER2            
First N/A N/A 10 18 N/A N/A
Second N/A N/A 7 1 N/A N/A
Third N/A N/A 0 3 N/A N/A
90331
Table 7.78B – Heavy Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 15 to 44, by Pregnancy and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2005-2006 and 2007-2008
Demographic/Pregnancy Characteristic Total1 PREGNANCY STATUS
Pregnant Not Pregnant
2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008 2005-2006 2007-2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
N/A: Not applicable.
NOTE: Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days.
a Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2007-2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 15 to 44, including those with unknown pregnancy status.
2 Pregnant females aged 15 to 44 not reporting trimester were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008.
TOTAL 5.2 5.3 0.7 0.8 5.4 5.5
AGE            
15-17 3.3 3.1 2.5 3.0 3.3 3.1
18-25 9.4 9.2 0.7 1.1 10.0 9.8
26-44 3.8 4.0 0.6 0.6 4.0 4.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 5.6 5.7 0.5 1.0 5.9 5.9
White 6.6 6.7 0.6 1.1 6.9 6.9
Black or African American 2.9 2.9 0.4 0.8 3.0 2.9
American Indian or Alaska Native 5.4 7.4 * * 5.6 7.6
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 4.3 2.8 * * 4.4 2.8
Asian 1.3 1.2 * * 1.3 1.3
Two or More Races 7.0 5.5 * * 7.1 5.8
Hispanic or Latino 3.0 3.2 1.3 0.2 3.2 3.4
TRIMESTER2            
First N/A N/A 1.4 2.3 N/A N/A
Second N/A N/A 0.8 0.1 N/A N/A
Third N/A N/A 0.0 0.3 N/A N/A
90331
Table 7.79A – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
3 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS3 4,564 4,508 1,693 1,706 2,871 2,802
Marijuana and Hashish 3,834 3,871 1,453 1,509 2,381 2,362
Cocaine 379 351 121 139 258 212
Crack 34 36 * 6 34 30
Heroin 31 49 5 8 26 41
Hallucinogens 352a 451 87b 176 266 275
LSD 58 88 21a 50 37 38
PCP 8 4 3 * 4 4
Ecstasy 170a 256 42b 99 129 157
Inhalants 104 82 32 23 72 59
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics4,5 1,366 1,305 453 436 913 869
Pain Relievers 1,084 1,027 326 307 759 720
OxyContin® 104 95 35 17 69 78
Tranquilizers 364 375 94 128 270 247
Stimulants5 223 226 107 106 117 120
Methamphetamine5 61 36 6 3 55 33
Sedatives 43a 20 14 7 30 12
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA3 1,856 1,801 607 631 1,249 1,170
90331
Table 7.79B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
3 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS3 21.6 21.2 19.8 20.2 22.8 21.9
Marijuana and Hashish 18.2 18.2 17.0 17.9 18.9 18.5
Cocaine 1.8 1.7 1.4 1.6 2.1 1.7
Crack 0.2 0.2 * 0.1 0.3 0.2
Heroin 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3
Hallucinogens 1.7a 2.1 1.0b 2.1 2.1 2.2
LSD 0.3 0.4 0.3a 0.6 0.3 0.3
PCP 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 0.0 0.0
Ecstasy 0.8a 1.2 0.5b 1.2 1.0 1.2
Inhalants 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.5
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics4,5 6.5 6.1 5.3 5.2 7.3 6.8
Pain Relievers 5.1 4.8 3.8 3.6 6.0 5.6
OxyContin® 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.6
Tranquilizers 1.7 1.8 1.1 1.5 2.2 1.9
Stimulants5 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 0.9 0.9
Methamphetamine5 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.3
Sedatives 0.2a 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA3 8.8 8.5 7.1 7.5 9.9 9.2
90331
Table 7.80A – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Males Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time Male College Students Other Males Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all males aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Males include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
3 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS3 2,847 2,636 939 898 1,908 1,738
Marijuana and Hashish 2,468 2,371 835 811 1,633 1,560
Cocaine 245 196 62 56 184 140
Crack 26 22 * 2 26 20
Heroin 23 29 4 3 19 27
Hallucinogens 247 300 53a 106 194 194
LSD 41 69 11b 41 29 28
PCP 7 1 3 * 4 1
Ecstasy 116 143 24 48 92 95
Inhalants 68 56 23 18 45 38
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics4,5 754 687 216 194 538 492
Pain Relievers 619 556 164 146 455 411
OxyContin® 67 58 23 10 45 48
Tranquilizers 184 198 29 51 155 147
Stimulants5 109 114 47 39 62 75
Methamphetamine5 38 20 4 0 34 20
Sedatives 19 8 7 1 11 7
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA3 1,091 1,003 308 310 783 693
90331
Table 7.80B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Males Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time Male College Students Other Males Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all males aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Males include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
3 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS3 26.3 24.4 23.9 22.2 27.8 25.8
Marijuana and Hashish 22.8 22.0 21.2 20.0 23.8 23.2
Cocaine 2.3 1.8 1.6 1.4 2.7 2.1
Crack 0.2 0.2 * 0.1 0.4 0.3
Heroin 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.4
Hallucinogens 2.3 2.8 1.3a 2.6 2.8 2.9
LSD 0.4 0.6 0.3b 1.0 0.4 0.4
PCP 0.1 0.0 0.1 * 0.1 0.0
Ecstasy 1.1 1.3 0.6 1.2 1.3 1.4
Inhalants 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.6
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics4,5 7.0 6.4 5.5 4.8 7.8 7.3
Pain Relievers 5.7 5.2 4.2 3.6 6.6 6.1
OxyContin® 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.7 0.7
Tranquilizers 1.7 1.8 0.7 1.3 2.3 2.2
Stimulants5 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.9 0.9 1.1
Methamphetamine5 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.3
Sedatives 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA3 10.1 9.3 7.8 7.6 11.4 10.3
90331
Table 7.81A – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time Female College Students Other Females Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Females include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
3 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS3 1,717 1,872 754 808 963 1,064
Marijuana and Hashish 1,366 1,500 618 698 748 802
Cocaine 134 155 59 83 75 73
Crack 8 14 * 3 8 10
Heroin 8 19 1 5 6 14
Hallucinogens 106 151 34a 70 72 81
LSD 18 19 10 9 8 10
PCP 1 3 * * 1 3
Ecstasy 54b 113 18a 51 36 63
Inhalants 36 26 9 5 27 21
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics4,5 612 618 237 242 375 376
Pain Relievers 466 471 162 162 304 309
OxyContin® 37 37 12 7 25 30
Tranquilizers 180 177 64 77 116 100
Stimulants5 114 112 60 68 55 45
Methamphetamine5 23 16 3 3 21 13
Sedatives 24 12 6 6 18 6
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA3 765 798 299 321 466 477
90331
Table 7.81B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time Female College Students Other Females Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Females include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
3 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS3 16.7 17.9 16.4 18.4 16.9 17.6
Marijuana and Hashish 13.3 14.4 13.4 15.9 13.1 13.3
Cocaine 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.9 1.3 1.2
Crack 0.1 0.1 * 0.1 0.1 0.2
Heroin 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2
Hallucinogens 1.0 1.4 0.7a 1.6 1.3 1.3
LSD 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2
PCP 0.0 0.0 * * 0.0 0.1
Ecstasy 0.5b 1.1 0.4a 1.2 0.6 1.0
Inhalants 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.3
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics4,5 5.9 5.9 5.2 5.5 6.6 6.2
Pain Relievers 4.5 4.5 3.5 3.7 5.3 5.1
OxyContin® 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.5
Tranquilizers 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.8 2.0 1.6
Stimulants5 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.0 0.7
Methamphetamine5 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.2
Sedatives 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA3 7.4 7.6 6.5 7.3 8.2 7.9
90331
Table 7.82A – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 4,564 4,508 1,693 1,706 2,871 2,802
AGE            
18 987 996 310 307 677 689
19 978 966 437 451 541 516
20 898 883 363 386 535 497
21 944 830 376 318 568 513
22 757 833 206 244 551 588
GENDER            
Male 2,847 2,636 939 898 1,908 1,738
Female 1,717 1,872 754 808 963 1,064
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 3,956 3,877 1,539 1,501 2,417 2,375
White 3,095 2,965 1,300 1,210 1,795 1,755
Black or African American 592 697 125a 208 467 489
American Indian or Alaska Native * 26 * * * 23
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 133 90 81 49 51 41
Two or More Races 89 74 * * 62 44
Hispanic or Latino 608 632 154 205 454 427
90331
Table 7.82B – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 21.6 21.2 19.8 20.2 22.8 21.9
AGE            
18 20.7 20.3 19.4 17.0 21.4 22.2
19 22.3 22.2 19.9 21.0 24.7 23.4
20 22.0 22.3 19.1 21.7 24.4 22.7
21 23.1 20.9 22.1 20.2 23.9 21.3
22 20.0 20.7 18.2 21.4 20.7 20.4
GENDER            
Male 26.3 24.4 23.9 22.2 27.8 25.8
Female 16.7 17.9 16.4 18.4 16.9 17.6
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 22.7 22.1 20.3 20.1 24.6 23.6
White 23.8 22.9 22.4 21.6 24.9 23.9
Black or African American 19.8 22.1 12.3a 18.5 23.7 24.1
American Indian or Alaska Native * 20.7 * * * 21.8
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 14.2 9.7 13.5 8.2 15.6 12.3
Two or More Races 28.5 24.8 * * 31.6 23.6
Hispanic or Latino 16.5 17.1 16.4 21.1 16.6 15.8
90331
Table 7.83A – Marijuana Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 3,834 3,871 1,453 1,509 2,381 2,362
AGE            
18 814 872 255 280 559 592
19 829 844 375 406 454 438
20 786 750 330 335 456 415
21 773 709 324 279 449 429
22 631 697 168 210 463 487
GENDER            
Male 2,468 2,371 835 811 1,633 1,560
Female 1,366 1,500 618 698 748 802
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 3,327 3,326 1,310 1,328 2,017 1,997
White 2,571 2,532 1,104 1,066 1,467 1,466
Black or African American 526 610 102b 189 423 421
American Indian or Alaska Native * 22 * * * 20
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 106 72 75a 40 31 32
Two or More Races 82 70 * * 58 41
Hispanic or Latino 507 546 143 181 364 365
90331
Table 7.83B – Marijuana Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18.2 18.2 17.0 17.9 18.9 18.5
AGE            
18 17.1 17.8 16.0 15.5 17.7 19.1
19 18.9 19.4 17.1 18.9 20.8 19.9
20 19.2 18.9 17.4 18.8 20.8 19.0
21 18.9 17.8 19.0 17.7 18.9 17.8
22 16.7 17.3 14.9 18.4 17.4 16.9
GENDER            
Male 22.8 22.0 21.2 20.0 23.8 23.2
Female 13.3 14.4 13.4 15.9 13.1 13.3
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 19.1 19.0 17.2 17.8 20.5 19.8
White 19.8 19.5 19.0 19.0 20.4 20.0
Black or African American 17.6 19.3 10.0b 16.8 21.5 20.7
American Indian or Alaska Native * 17.4 * * * 19.0
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 11.4 7.7 12.5a 6.7 9.3 9.6
Two or More Races 26.3 23.5 * * 29.9 21.6
Hispanic or Latino 13.8 14.8 15.3 18.7 13.3 13.4
90331
Table 7.84A – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Substance Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
3 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
4 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOBACCO PRODUCTS3 8,687 8,741 2,777 2,899 5,905 5,840
Cigarettes 7,373 7,485 2,184 2,296 5,184 5,188
Smokeless Tobacco 1,190 1,173 409 353 780 820
Cigars 2,874a 2,615 985 989 1,889b 1,625
Pipe Tobacco 288 359 108 148 180 211
ALCOHOL 12,165 12,084 5,433 5,155 6,721 6,922
Binge Alcohol Use4 8,548 8,291 3,718 3,421 4,824 4,863
Heavy Alcohol Use4 3,096 3,039 1,469 1,377 1,623 1,657
90331
Table 7.84B – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Substance Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
3 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
4 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOBACCO PRODUCTS3 41.1 41.2 32.5 34.3 47.0 45.7
Cigarettes 34.9 35.3 25.6 27.2 41.2 40.6
Smokeless Tobacco 5.6 5.5 4.8 4.2 6.2 6.4
Cigars 13.6a 12.3 11.5 11.7 15.0b 12.7
Pipe Tobacco 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.8 1.4 1.7
ALCOHOL 57.6 56.9 63.7a 61.0 53.5 54.2
Binge Alcohol Use4 40.5 39.1 43.6a 40.5 38.4 38.1
Heavy Alcohol Use4 14.7 14.3 17.2 16.3 12.9 13.0
90331
Table 7.85A – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Males Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Substance Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time Male College Students Other Males Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all males aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Males include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
3 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
4 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOBACCO PRODUCTS3 5,316 5,161 1,607 1,641 3,705 3,519
Cigarettes 4,231 4,150 1,124 1,158 3,104 2,992
Smokeless Tobacco 1,121 1,115 384 343 737 772
Cigars 2,242a 1,979 754 730 1,488b 1,249
Pipe Tobacco 232 248 81 93 151 155
ALCOHOL 6,575 6,429 2,584 2,521 3,982 3,901
Binge Alcohol Use4 5,126 4,888 1,966 1,858 3,156 3,023
Heavy Alcohol Use4 2,105 2,062 897 864 1,203 1,192
90331
Table 7.85B – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Males Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Substance Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time Male College Students Other Males Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all males aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Males include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
3 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
4 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOBACCO PRODUCTS3 49.2 47.8 40.8 40.5 53.9 52.2
Cigarettes 39.1 38.4 28.5 28.6 45.2 44.4
Smokeless Tobacco 10.4 10.3 9.8 8.5 10.7 11.5
Cigars 20.7b 18.3 19.1 18.0 21.7b 18.5
Pipe Tobacco 2.1 2.3 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.3
ALCOHOL 60.8 59.5 65.7 62.2 58.0 57.9
Binge Alcohol Use4 47.4 45.3 49.9a 45.8 46.0 44.9
Heavy Alcohol Use4 19.5 19.1 22.8 21.3 17.5 17.7
90331
Table 7.86A – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Substance Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time Female College Students Other Females Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Females include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
3 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
4 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOBACCO PRODUCTS3 3,372 3,580 1,170 1,258 2,200 2,322
Cigarettes 3,142 3,335 1,060 1,138 2,080 2,196
Smokeless Tobacco 69 58 25 10 43 47
Cigars 632 636 231 259 401 376
Pipe Tobacco 55b 111 27a 56 29 56
ALCOHOL 5,590 5,656 2,849 2,634 2,739a 3,021
Binge Alcohol Use4 3,422 3,404 1,752 1,563 1,668 1,840
Heavy Alcohol Use4 992 977 572 513 419 464
90331
Table 7.86B – Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Females Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Substance Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time Female College Students Other Females Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all females aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Females include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
3 Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
4 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days; all heavy alcohol users are also binge alcohol users.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOBACCO PRODUCTS3 32.7 34.3 25.5a 28.6 38.6 38.4
Cigarettes 30.5 32.0 23.1a 25.9 36.5 36.4
Smokeless Tobacco 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.8 0.8
Cigars 6.1 6.1 5.0 5.9 7.0 6.2
Pipe Tobacco 0.5b 1.1 0.6a 1.3 0.5 0.9
ALCOHOL 54.3 54.2 62.0 60.0 48.0 50.0
Binge Alcohol Use4 33.2 32.6 38.1 35.6 29.3 30.5
Heavy Alcohol Use4 9.6 9.4 12.4 11.7 7.4 7.7
90331
Table 7.87A – Cigarette Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 7,373 7,485 2,184 2,296 5,184 5,188
AGE            
18 1,414 1,478 390 375 1,024 1,103
19 1,455 1,491 525 572 930 918
20 1,457 1,462 468 490 989 973
21 1,518 1,534 476 492 1,041 1,042
22 1,529 1,520 325 367 1,200 1,152
GENDER            
Male 4,231 4,150 1,124 1,158 3,104 2,992
Female 3,142 3,335 1,060 1,138 2,080 2,196
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 6,312 6,347 1,986 2,010 4,324 4,337
White 5,176 5,212 1,682 1,717 3,493 3,495
Black or African American 712 753 129 167 583 586
American Indian or Alaska Native * * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 223 174 137 93 86 81
Two or More Races 124 109 * * 96 84
Hispanic or Latino 1,061 1,138 198a 285 859 851
90331
Table 7.87B – Cigarette Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 34.9 35.3 25.6 27.2 41.2 40.6
AGE            
18 29.7 30.2 24.4 20.8 32.4 35.6
19 33.2 34.3 23.9 26.6 42.5 41.7
20 35.7 36.9 24.6 27.5 45.2 44.6
21 37.1 38.5 27.9 31.2 43.7 43.3
22 40.3 37.7 28.7 32.3 45.2b 39.9
GENDER            
Male 39.1 38.4 28.5 28.6 45.2 44.4
Female 30.5 32.0 23.1a 25.9 36.5 36.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 36.2 36.2 26.2 26.9 44.0 43.1
White 39.8 40.2 29.0 30.6 48.5 47.6
Black or African American 23.8 23.9 12.6 14.8 29.6 28.9
American Indian or Alaska Native * * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 24.0 18.8 22.8 15.6 26.2 24.4
Two or More Races 39.7 36.4 * * 49.3 44.5
Hispanic or Latino 28.8 30.9 21.1a 29.5 31.3 31.4
90331
Table 7.88A – Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 12,165 12,084 5,433 5,155 6,721 6,922
AGE            
18 1,993 2,035 770 830 1,218 1,205
19 2,354 2,199 1,272 1,179 1,083 1,018
20 2,362 2,200 1,257 1,089 1,105 1,111
21 2,933 2,810 1,322 1,205 1,610 1,605
22 2,522b 2,840 812 851 1,706b 1,983
GENDER            
Male 6,575 6,429 2,584 2,521 3,982 3,901
Female 5,590 5,656 2,849 2,634 2,739a 3,021
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 10,387 10,305 4,875 4,634 5,506 5,664
White 8,361 8,216 4,035 3,735 4,324 4,475
Black or African American 1,339 1,387 446 541 888 846
American Indian or Alaska Native * * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 412 421 302 276 110 145
Two or More Races 182 178 * * 118 110
Hispanic or Latino 1,778 1,779 558 521 1,215 1,257
90331
Table 7.88B – Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 57.6 56.9 63.7a 61.0 53.5 54.2
AGE            
18 41.8 41.5 48.1 46.0 38.5 38.9
19 53.7 50.5 57.9 54.8 49.6 46.3
20 57.8 55.5 66.2a 61.2 50.5 50.9
21 71.8 70.6 77.6 76.5 67.6 66.7
22 66.5a 70.4 71.8 74.7 64.2a 68.7
GENDER            
Male 60.8 59.5 65.7 62.2 58.0 57.9
Female 54.3 54.2 62.0 60.0 48.0 50.0
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 59.6 58.7 64.2 62.0 56.0 56.3
White 64.3 63.4 69.6 66.6 60.1 60.9
Black or African American 44.7 43.9 43.7 48.1 45.1 41.6
American Indian or Alaska Native * * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 44.3 45.3 50.2 46.2 33.6 43.6
Two or More Races 58.0 59.4 * * 60.4 58.4
Hispanic or Latino 48.3 48.3 59.6 53.8 44.3 46.4
90331
Table 7.89A – Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 8,548 8,291 3,718 3,421 4,824 4,863
AGE            
18 1,378 1,381 539 522 839 858
19 1,702 1,544 899 808 802 735
20 1,645 1,523 835 724 810 799
21 2,047 1,950 894 823 1,152 1,128
22 1,776 1,893 551 544 1,220 1,343
GENDER            
Male 5,126 4,888 1,966 1,858 3,156 3,023
Female 3,422 3,404 1,752 1,563 1,668 1,840
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 7,269 7,028 3,382 3,099 3,886 3,923
White 6,160 5,888 2,955 2,656 3,203 3,226
Black or African American 665 729 186 238 479 490
American Indian or Alaska Native * * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 247 226 174 148 72 78
Two or More Races 125 103 * * 80 59
Hispanic or Latino 1,279 1,264 336 322 938 941
90331
Table 7.89B – Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 40.5 39.1 43.6a 40.5 38.4 38.1
AGE            
18 28.9 28.2 33.7 29.0 26.6 27.7
19 38.8 35.5 40.9 37.6 36.7 33.4
20 40.3 38.4 44.0 40.7 37.0 36.6
21 50.1 49.0 52.4 52.2 48.4 46.9
22 46.9 46.9 48.8 47.8 46.0 46.5
GENDER            
Male 47.4 45.3 49.9a 45.8 46.0 44.9
Female 33.2 32.6 38.1 35.6 29.3 30.5
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 41.7 40.0 44.5a 41.4 39.5 39.0
White 47.4 45.4 51.0a 47.4 44.5 43.9
Black or African American 22.2 23.1 18.2 21.2 24.3 24.1
American Indian or Alaska Native * * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 26.5 24.3 29.0 24.8 22.0 23.4
Two or More Races 40.1 34.6 * * 40.9 31.4
Hispanic or Latino 34.7 34.3 35.9 33.3 34.2 34.7
90331
Table 7.90A – Heavy Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 3,096 3,039 1,469 1,377 1,623 1,657
AGE            
18 457 444 223 200 234 244
19 618 570 342 326 276 244
20 647 609 340 325 307 284
21 733 690 359 326 374 365
22 641 726 205 200 432 520
GENDER            
Male 2,105 2,062 897 864 1,203 1,192
Female 992 977 572 513 419 464
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 2,725 2,656 1,349 1,268 1,376 1,382
White 2,466 2,329 1,250 1,137 1,216 1,187
Black or African American 149 207 36a 73 114 134
American Indian or Alaska Native 9 12 * * * 10
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 54 58 36 45 18 13
Two or More Races 39 38 * 10 16 28
Hispanic or Latino 371 384 121 109 246 275
90331
Table 7.90B – Heavy Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Heavy Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 14.7 14.3 17.2 16.3 12.9 13.0
AGE            
18 9.6 9.1 14.0 11.1 7.4 7.9
19 14.1 13.1 15.6 15.1 12.6 11.1
20 15.8 15.4 17.9 18.3 14.0 13.0
21 17.9 17.3 21.1 20.7 15.7 15.1
22 16.9 18.0 18.1 17.6 16.3 18.0
GENDER            
Male 19.5 19.1 22.8 21.3 17.5 17.7
Female 9.6 9.4 12.4 11.7 7.4 7.7
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 15.6 15.1 17.8 17.0 14.0 13.7
White 19.0 18.0 21.6 20.3 16.9 16.2
Black or African American 5.0 6.6 3.5 6.5 5.8 6.6
American Indian or Alaska Native 8.6 9.4 * * * 9.1
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 5.8 6.3 6.0 7.5 5.4 4.0
Two or More Races 12.6 12.8 * 9.3 8.2 14.8
Hispanic or Latino 10.1 10.4 12.9 11.2 9.0 10.1
90402
Table 7.91A – Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 1,843 1,857 540 615 1,304 1,241
AGE            
18 381 455 81 125 300 330
19 420 474 142 191 278 284
20 377 357 122 144 255 212
21 382b 257 126a 74 257a 183
22 284 315 69 81 214 233
GENDER            
Male 1,230 1,086 324 319 905a 767
Female 614a 771 216a 297 398 474
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 1,594 1,524 489 527 1,104 997
White 1,233 1,215 415 441 818 773
Black or African American 243 228 38 62 205 166
American Indian or Alaska Native * * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 53a 20 27 12 26 8
Two or More Races 43 30 8 8 35 21
Hispanic or Latino 250 333 50 88 200 245
90402
Table 7.91B – Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 8.7 8.7 6.3 7.3 10.4 9.7
AGE            
18 8.0 9.3 5.1 7.0 9.5 10.6
19 9.6 10.9 6.4 8.9 12.7 12.9
20 9.2 9.0 6.4 8.1 11.7 9.7
21 9.4b 6.4 7.4a 4.7 10.8a 7.6
22 7.5 7.8 6.1 7.1 8.1 8.1
GENDER            
Male 11.4 10.1 8.2 7.9 13.2a 11.4
Female 6.0a 7.4 4.7a 6.7 7.0 7.8
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 9.1 8.7 6.4 7.0 11.2 9.9
White 9.5 9.4 7.2 7.9 11.4 10.5
Black or African American 8.1 7.2 3.7 5.5 10.4 8.2
American Indian or Alaska Native * * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 5.7a 2.2 4.5 2.0 7.8 2.4
Two or More Races 13.8 9.9 7.1 7.3 17.9 11.4
Hispanic or Latino 6.8a 9.0 5.4 9.1 7.3 9.0
90402
Table 7.92A – Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 3,647 3,601 1,548 1,535 2,099 2,066
AGE            
18 596a 717 220 255 376 462
19 756 742 389 369 366 373
20 722 689 337 345 385 344
21 839a 701 379 318 460 383
22 734 752 223 247 511 504
GENDER            
Male 2,275 2,181 817 830 1,458 1,351
Female 1,371 1,421 731 705 641 715
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 3,169 3,057 1,401 1,367 1,768 1,689
White 2,683 2,540 1,220 1,170 1,463 1,369
Black or African American 303 319 95 107 208 213
American Indian or Alaska Native * 24 * * 11 *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 94 104 58 61 36 43
Two or More Races 59 50 * * 38 27
Hispanic or Latino 478 545 147 168 331 377
90402
Table 7.92B – Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 17.3 17.0 18.1 18.2 16.7 16.2
AGE            
18 12.5 14.6 13.7 14.2 11.9a 14.9
19 17.2 17.0 17.7 17.2 16.8 16.9
20 17.7 17.4 17.8 19.4 17.6 15.7
21 20.5a 17.6 22.2 20.2 19.3 15.9
22 19.4 18.6 19.7 21.7 19.3 17.4
GENDER            
Male 21.0 20.2 20.8 20.5 21.2 20.1
Female 13.3 13.6 15.9 16.0 11.2 11.8
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 18.2 17.4 18.4 18.3 18.0 16.8
White 20.6 19.6 21.0 20.9 20.3 18.6
Black or African American 10.1 10.1 9.3 9.5 10.6 10.5
American Indian or Alaska Native * 19.0 * * 13.1 *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 10.1 11.2 9.7 10.2 10.9 13.0
Two or More Races 18.7 16.8 * * 19.5 14.2
Hispanic or Latino 13.0 14.8 15.7 17.3 12.1 13.9
90402
Table 7.93A – Illicit Drug or Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 4,521 4,448 1,779 1,809 2,741 2,639
AGE            
18 780 908 256 309 524 599
19 954 953 454 448 501 505
20 909 860 394 416 515 444
21 1,004a 825 428 349 575 476
22 873 902 247 287 626 615
GENDER            
Male 2,830 2,669 954 978 1,875 1,691
Female 1,691 1,779 825 831 866 947
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 3,907 3,749 1,610 1,599 2,297 2,150
White 3,220 3,086 1,388 1,360 1,832 1,726
Black or African American 444 419 117 137 327 282
American Indian or Alaska Native * * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 122 116 71 66 51 50
Two or More Races 75 71 * * 50 42
Hispanic or Latino 613 699 170 210 444 489
90402
Table 7.93B – Illicit Drug or Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS
Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 21.4 20.9 20.9 21.4 21.8 20.7
AGE            
18 16.4 18.5 16.0 17.2 16.6 19.3
19 21.8 21.9 20.6 20.8 22.9 22.9
20 22.2 21.7 20.8 23.4 23.5 20.3
21 24.6a 20.7 25.1 22.1 24.2a 19.8
22 23.0 22.4 21.9 25.2 23.6 21.3
GENDER            
Male 26.2 24.7 24.2 24.1 27.3 25.1
Female 16.4 17.0 18.0 18.9 15.2 15.7
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 22.4 21.4 21.2 21.4 23.4a 21.4
White 24.8 23.8 23.9 24.3 25.4 23.5
Black or African American 14.8 13.3 11.4 12.1 16.6 13.9
American Indian or Alaska Native * * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 13.2 12.5 11.8 11.1 15.6 15.0
Two or More Races 24.1 23.7 * * 25.5 22.4
Hispanic or Latino 16.6 19.0 18.1 21.7 16.2 18.0
90428
Table 7.94A – Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Serious Mental Illness (SMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder that met criteria in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and resulted in functional impairment that substantially interfered with or limited one or more major life activities. NSDUH respondents' SMI status is determined based on their responses to questions on distress (K6 scale) and impairment (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule [WHODAS] for half the sample, and Sheehan Disability Scale [SDS] for the other half). Regression models, based on clinical interviews conducted on a subset (n = 1,502) of NSDUH respondents, specify the distress and impairment levels predictive of having SMI. For details, see Section B.4.6 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
TOTAL 1,583 559 1,024
AGE      
18 325 126 199
19 327 138 189
20 333 119 214
21 290 97 193
22 309 79 230
GENDER      
Male 540 174 366
Female 1,043 385 658
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE      
Not Hispanic or Latino 1,318 493 825
White 1,035 383 652
Black or African American 177 59 117
American Indian or Alaska Native 7 * 4
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * *
Asian 53 35 18
Two or More Races 43 * 30
Hispanic or Latino 265 66 199
90428
Table 7.94B – Serious Mental Illness in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Serious Mental Illness (SMI) is defined as having a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder that met criteria in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and resulted in functional impairment that substantially interfered with or limited one or more major life activities. NSDUH respondents' SMI status is determined based on their responses to questions on distress (K6 scale) and impairment (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule [WHODAS] for half the sample, and Sheehan Disability Scale [SDS] for the other half). Regression models, based on clinical interviews conducted on a subset (n = 1,502) of NSDUH respondents, specify the distress and impairment levels predictive of having SMI. For details, see Section B.4.6 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
TOTAL 7.5 6.6 8.0
AGE      
18 6.6 7.0 6.4
19 7.5 6.4 8.6
20 8.4 6.7 9.8
21 7.3 6.2 8.0
22 7.7 6.9 7.9
GENDER      
Male 5.0 4.3 5.4
Female 10.0 8.8 10.9
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE      
Not Hispanic or Latino 7.5 6.6 8.2
White 8.0 6.8 8.9
Black or African American 5.6 5.3 5.8
American Indian or Alaska Native 5.3 * 3.5
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * *
Asian 5.7 5.8 5.3
Two or More Races 14.4 * 16.2
Hispanic or Latino 7.2 6.9 7.3
90721
Table 7.95A – Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Major Depressive Episode (MDE) is defined as in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
NOTE: Estimates in this table are based on a subsample of respondents aged 18 or older. See Section B.4.7 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown data for the Past Year MDE measure were excluded.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008 (subsample).
TOTAL 1,862 680 1,182
AGE      
18 420 173 247
19 378 156 222
20 311 121 190
21 372 104 268
22 381 126 255
GENDER      
Male 562 160 402
Female 1,300 520 780
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE      
Not Hispanic or Latino 1,556 591 964
White 1,177 442 735
Black or African American 226 66 160
American Indian or Alaska Native 10 * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * *
Asian 49 46 *
Two or More Races * * *
Hispanic or Latino 306 89 217
90721
Table 7.95B – Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 to 22, by College Enrollment Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 Full-Time College Students Other Persons Aged 18-222
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Major Depressive Episode (MDE) is defined as in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms.
NOTE: Estimates in this table are based on a subsample of respondents aged 18 or older. See Section B.4.7 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Respondents with unknown data for the Past Year MDE measure were excluded.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 22, including those with unknown enrollment status.
2 Other Persons include respondents aged 18 to 22 not enrolled in school, enrolled in college part time, enrolled in other grades either full or part time, or enrolled with no other information available.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008 (subsample).
TOTAL 8.9 8.3 9.3
AGE      
18 8.6 9.5 8.1
19 8.9 7.5 10.1
20 8.2 7.5 8.7
21 9.5 6.8 11.3
22 9.4 11.0 8.8
GENDER      
Male 5.3 4.0 6.0
Female 12.7 12.3 13.0
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE      
Not Hispanic or Latino 9.0 8.1 9.6
White 9.2 8.0 10.2
Black or African American 7.3 6.5 7.7
American Indian or Alaska Native 4.9 * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * *
Asian 5.8 8.0 *
Two or More Races * * *
Hispanic or Latino 8.6 9.8 8.2
90330
Table 7.96A – Drove Under the Influence of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year, by Detailed Age Category: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Age Category Illicit Drug
(2007)
Illicit Drug
(2008)
Alcohol
(2007)
Alcohol
(2008)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2007)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 9,923 10,012 31,358 30,863 33,575 33,174
12 3 5 3 6 3 7
13 6 1 12a 1 13b 1
14 27 20 31 23 38 26
15 71 63 80 67 104 87
16 203 179 202 191 277 253
17 373 375 464 436 578 548
18 502 535 657 606 789 794
19 615 617 842 803 973 968
20 633 619 919 794 1,044 922
21 626 518 1,097 982 1,185 1,089
22 522 505 1,051 1,158 1,168 1,219
23 464 432 1,049 1,073 1,131 1,184
24 404 455 987 1,006 1,051 1,102
25 329 376 851 922 904 997
26-29 1,179 1,395 3,291a 3,963 3,564a 4,220
30-34 956 972 3,406 3,321 3,594 3,510
35-39 753 834 3,389 3,117 3,542 3,259
40-44 805 711 3,326 3,029 3,527 3,202
45-49 703 708 3,199 3,304 3,310 3,504
50-54 375 312 2,902 2,501 2,991 2,602
55-59 228 232 1,883 1,759 2,002 1,816
60-64 61 95 844 1,063 889 1,076
65 or Older 86 50 873 738 897 788
90330
Table 7.96B – Drove Under the Influence of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year, by Detailed Age Category: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Age Category Illicit Drug
(2007)
Illicit Drug
(2008)
Alcohol
(2007)
Alcohol
(2008)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2007)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 4.0 4.0 12.7 12.4 13.5 13.3
12 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2
13 0.1 0.0 0.3a 0.0 0.3b 0.0
14 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.6
15 1.6 1.4 1.8 1.5 2.4 2.0
16 4.6 4.1 4.5 4.4 6.2 5.8
17 9.0 8.7 11.2 10.1 14.0 12.7
18 10.5 10.9 13.8 12.4 16.5 16.2
19 14.0 14.2 19.2 18.4 22.2 22.2
20 15.5 15.6 22.5 20.0 25.5 23.2
21 15.3 13.0 26.8 24.6 29.0 27.3
22 13.8 12.5 27.7 28.7 30.8 30.2
23 11.7 10.6 26.5 26.3 28.6 29.0
24 10.3 11.8 25.1 26.1 26.7 28.6
25 8.8 10.0 22.9 24.4 24.3 26.4
26-29 7.2 8.2 20.1a 23.2 21.7a 24.7
30-34 5.1 5.2 18.0 17.9 19.0 18.9
35-39 3.6 4.1 16.1 15.4 16.8 16.1
40-44 3.8 3.3 15.7 14.1 16.6 14.9
45-49 3.1 3.1 14.2 14.7 14.7 15.6
50-54 1.7 1.4 13.4 11.4 13.8 11.8
55-59 1.2 1.3 10.2 9.9 10.9 10.2
60-64 0.5 0.6 6.3 7.0 6.7 7.1
65 or Older 0.2 0.1 2.4 2.0 2.5 2.1
90330
Table 7.97A – Drove Under the Influence of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Illicit Drug
(2007)
Illicit Drug
(2008)
Alcohol
(2007)
Alcohol
(2008)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2007)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 9,923 10,012 31,358 30,863 33,575 33,174
AGE            
12-17 683 643 792 725 1,013 922
18-25 4,095 4,058 7,454 7,343 8,245 8,275
26 or Older 5,145 5,311 23,113 22,796 24,317 23,977
GENDER            
Male 6,885 6,623 19,938 19,349 21,391 20,758
Female 3,038 3,388 11,420 11,515 12,185 12,416
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 8,957 8,959 28,488 27,623 30,569 29,720
White 7,358 7,465 24,631 23,917 26,309 25,611
Black or African American 1,223 1,171 2,584 2,611 2,921 2,926
American Indian or Alaska Native 59 40 153a 64 157a 78
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 22 12 69 50 70 52
Asian 113 115 686 650 708 672
Two or More Races 182 157 365 331 403 381
Hispanic or Latino 967 1,052 2,870 3,241 3,006 3,453
90330
Table 7.97B – Drove Under the Influence of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Illicit Drug
(2007)
Illicit Drug
(2008)
Alcohol
(2007)
Alcohol
(2008)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2007)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 4.0 4.0 12.7 12.4 13.5 13.3
AGE            
12-17 2.7 2.6 3.1 2.9 4.0 3.7
18-25 12.5 12.3 22.8 22.3 25.2 25.1
26 or Older 2.7 2.8 12.2 11.9 12.8 12.5
GENDER            
Male 5.7 5.5 16.6 16.0 17.8 17.1
Female 2.4 2.6 9.0 9.0 9.6 9.7
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 4.2 4.2 13.3 12.9 14.3 13.8
White 4.4 4.4 14.6 14.1 15.6 15.1
Black or African American 4.2 4.0 8.8 8.8 10.0 9.9
American Indian or Alaska Native 4.6 3.7 12.1a 5.9 12.4 7.2
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 3.1 1.3 9.8 5.5 9.9 5.8
Asian 1.1 1.1 6.5 6.0 6.7 6.2
Two or More Races 6.6 5.2 13.3 11.0 14.7 12.6
Hispanic or Latino 2.8 3.0 8.4 9.2 8.8 9.8
90330
Table 7.98A – Drove Under the Influence of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Illicit Drug
(2007)
Illicit Drug
(2008)
Alcohol
(2007)
Alcohol
(2008)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2007)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 The Other Employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 9,240 9,368 30,567 30,138 32,562 32,252
GENDER            
Male 6,486 6,262 19,495 18,992 20,820 20,280
Female 2,754 3,106 11,072 11,146 11,743 11,971
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 8,356 8,407 27,808 27,005 29,681 28,926
White 6,837 6,998 24,022 23,378 25,522 24,925
Black or African American 1,173 1,119 2,549 2,560 2,861 2,858
American Indian or Alaska Native 54 35 146a 59 149a 72
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 21 11 * 49 * 51
Asian 103 107 670 644 691 663
Two or More Races 169 138 353 314 390 357
Hispanic or Latino 885 961 2,758 3,134 2,882 3,326
EDUCATION            
< High School 1,449a 1,190 2,827a 2,316 3,224a 2,697
High School Graduate 2,955 3,268 7,700a 8,567 8,449a 9,287
Some College 3,152 2,949 9,478 8,923 10,093 9,558
College Graduate 1,684 1,962 10,562 10,332 10,796 10,709
CURRENT EMPLOYMENT            
Full-Time 5,671 5,510 21,910 21,518 23,033 22,524
Part-Time 1,627 1,733 4,149 4,167 4,479 4,584
Unemployed 618b 858 1,196 1,187 1,315 1,435
Other1 1,325 1,268 3,311 3,267 3,735 3,709
90330
Table 7.98B – Drove Under the Influence of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Illicit Drug
(2007)
Illicit Drug
(2008)
Alcohol
(2007)
Alcohol
(2008)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2007)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 The Other Employment category includes retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, students, or other persons not in the labor force.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 4.2 4.2 13.7 13.4 14.6 14.3
GENDER            
Male 6.0 5.8 18.2 17.5 19.4 18.7
Female 2.4 2.7 9.6 9.6 10.2 10.3
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 4.3 4.3 14.4 13.9 15.4 14.9
White 4.4 4.5 15.6 15.1 16.6 16.1
Black or African American 4.6 4.3 10.0 9.9 11.3 11.1
American Indian or Alaska Native 4.9 3.7 13.3a 6.3 13.5 7.6
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 3.2 1.4 * 6.1 * 6.4
Asian 1.1 1.1 7.0 6.6 7.2 6.8
Two or More Races 7.3 5.5 15.2 12.5 16.8 14.2
Hispanic or Latino 3.0 3.2 9.3 10.3 9.7 11.0
EDUCATION            
< High School 4.0 3.4 7.8 6.6 8.9 7.7
High School Graduate 4.3 4.7 11.3 12.2 12.4 13.2
Some College 5.5 5.2 16.5 15.6 17.6 16.7
College Graduate 2.8 3.1 17.4 16.5 17.8 17.1
CURRENT EMPLOYMENT            
Full-Time 4.7 4.5 18.0 17.6 19.0 18.4
Part-Time 5.5 5.7 14.1 13.8 15.2 15.2
Unemployed 8.7 9.5 16.8a 13.2 18.5 16.0
Other1 2.1 2.0 5.1 5.1 5.8 5.8
120411
Table 7.99A (REVISED) – Drove Under the Influence of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Geographic Characteristic Illicit Drug
(2007)
Illicit Drug
(2008)
Alcohol
(2007)
Alcohol
(2008)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2007)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: This table was revised in May 2012 due to updates (for details, see the introduction to these 2008 detailed tables).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 9,267 9,392 30,675 30,337 32,678 32,454
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION            
Northeast 1,533 1,783 5,116 5,706 5,397a 6,092
New England 551 579 1,774 1,848 1,844 1,970
Middle Atlantic 982 1,204 3,341 3,858 3,554a 4,123
Midwest 2,269 2,088 8,543 8,240 9,070 8,743
East North Central 1,600 1,611 5,936 5,453 6,320 5,822
West North Central 670a 478 2,607 2,787 2,751 2,921
South 3,265 3,227 10,048 9,861 10,803 10,506
South Atlantic 1,729 1,826 5,289 5,193 5,710 5,552
East South Central 573 487 1,329 1,309 1,451 1,461
West South Central 963 914 3,430 3,360 3,643 3,493
West 2,199 2,293 6,968 6,530 7,408 7,113
Mountain 683 672 2,226 1,915 2,390 2,062
Pacific 1,516 1,622 4,742 4,615 5,017 5,051
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 4,834 5,380 16,444 17,276 17,420 18,479
Small Metro 3,052 2,868 9,772 9,058 10,394 9,672
250K - 1 Mil. Pop. 2,085 1,884 6,534 6,065 6,950 6,449
< 250K Pop. 967 985 3,238 2,992 3,444 3,223
Nonmetro 1,382 1,144 4,460 4,003 4,864 4,304
Urbanized 653 489 2,103 1,792 2,265 1,895
Less Urbanized 631 585 2,039 1,838 2,240 2,008
Completely Rural 97 70 317 374 359 400
120411
Table 7.99B (REVISED) – Drove Under the Influence of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Geographic Characteristic Illicit Drug
(2007)
Illicit Drug
(2008)
Alcohol
(2007)
Alcohol
(2008)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2007)
Illicit Drug
or Alcohol
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: This table was revised in May 2012 due to updates (for details, see the introduction to these 2008 detailed tables).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 4.2 4.2 13.8 13.5 14.7 14.4
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION            
Northeast 3.7 4.3 12.4 13.7 13.0a 14.6
New England 5.1 5.3 16.3 16.9 17.0 18.0
Middle Atlantic 3.2 3.9 10.9 12.5 11.6a 13.4
Midwest 4.6 4.2 17.4 16.7 18.4 17.7
East North Central 4.7 4.7 17.3 15.8 18.4 16.9
West North Central 4.5a 3.2 17.6 18.7 18.6 19.6
South 4.0 3.9 12.4 12.0 13.4 12.8
South Atlantic 4.0 4.2 12.3 12.0 13.3 12.8
East South Central 4.3 3.6 10.0 9.8 10.9 10.9
West South Central 3.9 3.6 13.9 13.4 14.8 13.9
West 4.3 4.4 13.6 12.6 14.5 13.7
Mountain 4.4 4.3 14.4 12.1 15.5 13.1
Pacific 4.2 4.5 13.3 12.8 14.0 14.0
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 4.1 4.5 13.8 14.4 14.6 15.4
Small Metro 4.6 4.2 14.6a 13.3 15.6a 14.2
250K - 1 Mil. Pop. 4.7 4.2 14.7 13.4 15.6 14.3
< 250K Pop. 4.4 4.3 14.6 13.0 15.6 14.0
Nonmetro 3.7a 3.1 12.1 10.8 13.2a 11.6
Urbanized 4.3a 3.2 13.9 11.7 15.0a 12.3
Less Urbanized 3.6 3.2 11.6 10.2 12.7 11.1
Completely Rural 2.3 1.9 7.6 10.2 8.6 11.0
90401
Table 7.100A – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Probation Status: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 PROBATION STATUS DURING THE PAST YEAR
On Probation Not on Probation
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown probation status.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS2 17,448 17,773 1,439 1,244 15,971 16,456
Marijuana and Hashish 12,762 13,546 1,038 1,019 11,706 12,478
Cocaine 1,972 1,757 243 227 1,727 1,510
Crack 594a 352 92 75 502a 277
Heroin 150 199 34 31 112 168
Hallucinogens 821 818 96 140 725 671
LSD 115 104 11 18 104 86
PCP 32 * 4 7 28 *
Ecstasy 438 450 61 86 377 363
Inhalants 321 372 43 31 277 341
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics3,4 6,066 5,514 588 522 5,458 4,978
Pain Relievers 4,505 4,180 391 389 4,113 3,779
OxyContin® 322 386 45 74 276 311
Tranquilizers 1,652 1,650 135 205 1,500 1,444
Stimulants4 926 791 144 74 780 715
Methamphetamine4 496a 285 89a 22 405 262
Sedatives 312 199 26 16 285 183
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA2
8,089 7,474 776 730 7,290 6,708
90401
Table 7.100B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Probation Status: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 PROBATION STATUS DURING THE PAST YEAR
On Probation Not on Probation
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown probation status.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS2 7.8 7.9 28.4 23.9 7.4 7.5
Marijuana and Hashish 5.7 6.0 20.5 19.6 5.4 5.7
Cocaine 0.9 0.8 4.8 4.4 0.8 0.7
Crack 0.3a 0.2 1.8 1.4 0.2b 0.1
Heroin 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.6 0.1 0.1
Hallucinogens 0.4 0.4 1.9 2.7 0.3 0.3
LSD 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0
PCP 0.0 * 0.1 0.1 0.0 *
Ecstasy 0.2 0.2 1.2 1.7 0.2 0.2
Inhalants 0.1 0.2 0.9 0.6 0.1 0.2
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics3,4 2.7 2.5 11.6 10.0 2.5 2.3
Pain Relievers 2.0 1.9 7.7 7.5 1.9 1.7
OxyContin® 0.1 0.2 0.9 1.4 0.1 0.1
Tranquilizers 0.7 0.7 2.7 3.9 0.7 0.7
Stimulants4 0.4 0.4 2.8 1.4 0.4 0.3
Methamphetamine4 0.2a 0.1 1.7a 0.4 0.2 0.1
Sedatives 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA2
3.6 3.3 15.3 14.0 3.4 3.1
90401
Table 7.101A – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 49, by Probation Status: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 PROBATION STATUS DURING THE PAST YEAR
On Probation Not on Probation
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 49, including those with unknown probation status.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS2 14,966 15,109 1,375 1,169 13,553 13,887
Marijuana and Hashish 11,382 11,719 1,024 966 10,341 10,705
Cocaine 1,737 1,550 243 227 1,492 1,322
Crack 506a 308 92 75 414a 233
Heroin 121 163 34 31 83 132
Hallucinogens 810 808 96 132 714 668
LSD 115 104 11 18 104 86
PCP 32 10 4 7 28 *
Ecstasy 438 441 61 79 377 361
Inhalants 262 309 18 31 244 278
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics3,4 4,897 4,703 539 455 4,338 4,234
Pain Relievers 3,734 3,561 365 376 3,367 3,173
OxyContin® 270 360 45 74 223 285
Tranquilizers 1,321 1,493 111 151 1,193 1,340
Stimulants4 822 739 144 74 676 662
Methamphetamine4 410a 248 89a 22 319 225
Sedatives 208 161 26 16 181 145
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA2
6,695 6,405 726 656 5,945 5,733
90401
Table 7.101B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 49, by Probation Status: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 PROBATION STATUS DURING THE PAST YEAR
On Probation Not on Probation
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 to 49, including those with unknown probation status.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS2 11.3 11.4 30.2 26.3 10.6 10.8
Marijuana and Hashish 8.6 8.8 22.5 21.8 8.1 8.4
Cocaine 1.3 1.2 5.3 5.1 1.2 1.0
Crack 0.4a 0.2 2.0 1.7 0.3a 0.2
Heroin 0.1 0.1 0.8 0.7 0.1 0.1
Hallucinogens 0.6 0.6 2.1 3.0 0.6 0.5
LSD 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.1
PCP 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 *
Ecstasy 0.3 0.3 1.3 1.8 0.3 0.3
Inhalants 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.2 0.2
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics3,4 3.7 3.5 11.8 10.3 3.4 3.3
Pain Relievers 2.8 2.7 8.0 8.5 2.6 2.5
OxyContin® 0.2 0.3 1.0 1.7 0.2 0.2
Tranquilizers 1.0 1.1 2.4 3.4 0.9 1.0
Stimulants4 0.6 0.6 3.2 1.7 0.5 0.5
Methamphetamine4 0.3a 0.2 2.0a 0.5 0.2 0.2
Sedatives 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.4 0.1 0.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA2
5.0 4.8 16.0 14.8 4.6 4.5
90401
Table 7.102A – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Probation Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 PROBATION STATUS DURING THE PAST YEAR
On Probation Not on Probation
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown probation status.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 17,448 17,773 1,439 1,244 15,971 16,456
AGE            
18-49 14,966 15,109 1,375 1,169 13,553 13,887
18-25 6,464 6,465 713a 589 5,739 5,865
26-34 3,864 3,996 332 454 3,523 3,538
35-49 4,638 4,648 330b 126 4,291 4,484
GENDER/AGE            
Male 18 or Older 11,217 10,785 1,116 924 10,084 9,822
Male 18-49 9,596 9,151 1,052 859 8,527 8,253
Female 18 or Older 6,231a 6,988 323 320 5,888a 6,635
Female 18-49 5,369a 5,958 323 310 5,026a 5,634
90401
Table 7.102B – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Probation Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 PROBATION STATUS DURING THE PAST YEAR
On Probation Not on Probation
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown probation status.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 7.8 7.9 28.4 23.9 7.4 7.5
AGE            
18-49 11.3 11.4 30.2 26.3 10.6 10.8
18-25 19.7 19.6 39.7 35.1 18.6 18.8
26-34 10.9 11.2 27.0 30.7 10.4 10.4
35-49 7.2 7.2 21.6b 9.8 6.8 7.1
GENDER/AGE            
Male 18 or Older 10.4 9.9 30.9 25.5 9.7 9.4
Male 18-49 14.5 13.9 32.2 28.1 13.6 13.2
Female 18 or Older 5.4a 6.0 22.2 20.2 5.2a 5.8
Female 18-49 8.0a 8.9 25.2 22.5 7.7a 8.6
90401
Table 7.103A – Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Probation Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 PROBATION STATUS DURING THE PAST YEAR
On Probation Not on Probation
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown probation status.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 5,758 5,841 862 730 4,882 5,108
AGE            
18-49 5,228 5,490 810 720 4,404 4,767
18-25 2,592 2,563 437a 325 2,149 2,235
26-34 1,236 1,502 178 274 1,050 1,228
35-49 1,400 1,425 195 121 1,205 1,304
GENDER/AGE            
Male 18 or Older 3,952 3,550 666 501 3,273 3,047
Male 18-49 3,575 3,342 614 501 2,948 2,839
Female 18 or Older 1,806b 2,291 197 229 1,610b 2,060
Female 18-49 1,652b 2,148 197 219 1,456b 1,928
90401
Table 7.103B – Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Probation Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 PROBATION STATUS DURING THE PAST YEAR
On Probation Not on Probation
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown probation status.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 2.6 2.6 17.0 14.0 2.2 2.3
AGE            
18-49 3.9 4.1 17.8 16.2 3.4 3.7
18-25 7.9 7.8 24.4a 19.4 7.0 7.2
26-34 3.5 4.2 14.5 18.5 3.1 3.6
35-49 2.2 2.2 12.7 9.4 1.9 2.1
GENDER/AGE            
Male 18 or Older 3.7 3.3 18.4 13.8 3.2 2.9
Male 18-49 5.4 5.1 18.8 16.4 4.7 4.5
Female 18 or Older 1.6b 2.0 13.5 14.5 1.4b 1.8
Female 18-49 2.5b 3.2 15.3 15.9 2.2b 3.0
90401
Table 7.104A – Illicit Drug or Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Probation Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 PROBATION STATUS DURING THE PAST YEAR
On Probation Not on Probation
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown probation status.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 20,373 20,334 1,896 1,774 18,429 18,478
AGE            
18-49 17,044 17,343 1,711 1,661 15,286 15,620
18-25 6,769 6,845 822 714 5,934 6,122
26-34 4,434a 5,001 407a 647 3,997 4,346
35-49 5,842 5,497 481a 300 5,356 5,152
GENDER/AGE            
Male 18 or Older 14,004 13,057 1,542 1,299 12,422 11,719
Male 18-49 11,611 11,055 1,369 1,219 10,202 9,797
Female 18 or Older 6,370b 7,276 354 474 6,007a 6,760
Female 18-49 5,434b 6,288 342 442 5,084b 5,823
90401
Table 7.104B – Illicit Drug or Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Probation Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 PROBATION STATUS DURING THE PAST YEAR
On Probation Not on Probation
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown probation status.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 9.2 9.0 37.4 34.0 8.5 8.4
AGE            
18-49 12.8 13.1 37.6 37.4 11.9 12.2
18-25 20.7 20.8 45.8 42.6 19.2 19.6
26-34 12.6 14.0 33.2 43.7 11.8 12.7
35-49 9.0 8.6 31.5 23.4 8.5 8.2
GENDER/AGE            
Male 18 or Older 13.0a 12.0 42.7 35.8 12.0 11.2
Male 18-49 17.6 16.8 41.9 39.8 16.3 15.6
Female 18 or Older 5.5b 6.3 24.3 30.0 5.3a 5.9
Female 18-49 8.1b 9.4 26.6 32.1 7.8b 8.9
90401
Table 7.105A – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Parole/Supervised Release Status: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 PAROLE/SUPERVISED RELEASE DURING THE PAST YEAR2
Yes No
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown parole/supervised release status.
2 Respondents were asked if they were on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison during the past year.
3 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS3 17,448 17,773 389 295 17,015 17,410
Marijuana and Hashish 12,762 13,546 239 220 12,501 13,281
Cocaine 1,972 1,757 63 69 1,900 1,668
Crack 594a 352 48 29 546a 323
Heroin 150 199 9 2 137 198
Hallucinogens 821 818 23 42 798 769
LSD 115 104 3 * 112 104
PCP 32 * 2 0 30 *
Ecstasy 438 450 14 17 425 431
Inhalants 321 372 3 4 318 367
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics4,5 6,066 5,514 190a 85 5,855 5,419
Pain Relievers 4,505 4,180 126a 53 4,376 4,118
OxyContin® 322 386 3 2 318 383
Tranquilizers 1,652 1,650 57 35 1,579 1,616
Stimulants5 926 791 46 20 878 770
Methamphetamine5 496a 285 29 13 465a 270
Sedatives 312 199 12 5 299 194
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA3
8,089 7,474 209 167 7,848 7,277
90401
Table 7.105B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Parole/Supervised Release Status: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 PAROLE/SUPERVISED RELEASE DURING THE PAST YEAR2
Yes No
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown parole/supervised release status.
2 Respondents were asked if they were on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison during the past year.
3 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS3 7.8 7.9 24.1 18.3 7.7 7.8
Marijuana and Hashish 5.7 6.0 14.8 13.6 5.7 6.0
Cocaine 0.9 0.8 3.9 4.3 0.9 0.7
Crack 0.3a 0.2 3.0 1.8 0.2a 0.1
Heroin 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.1
Hallucinogens 0.4 0.4 1.4 2.6 0.4 0.3
LSD 0.1 0.0 0.2 * 0.1 0.0
PCP 0.0 * 0.1 0.0 0.0 *
Ecstasy 0.2 0.2 0.8 1.1 0.2 0.2
Inhalants 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics4,5 2.7 2.5 11.8a 5.3 2.7 2.4
Pain Relievers 2.0 1.9 7.8a 3.3 2.0 1.8
OxyContin® 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2
Tranquilizers 0.7 0.7 3.5 2.1 0.7 0.7
Stimulants5 0.4 0.4 2.9 1.2 0.4 0.3
Methamphetamine5 0.2a 0.1 1.8 0.8 0.2a 0.1
Sedatives 0.1 0.1 0.8 0.3 0.1 0.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA3
3.6 3.3 13.0 10.4 3.6 3.3
90401
Table 7.106A – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 49, by Parole/Supervised Release Status: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 PAROLE/SUPERVISED RELEASE DURING THE PAST YEAR2
Yes No
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for persons aged 18 to 49, including those with unknown parole/supervised release status.
2 Respondents were asked if they were on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison during the past year.
3 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS3 14,966 15,109 365 259 14,557 14,802
Marijuana and Hashish 11,382 11,719 239 191 11,120 11,482
Cocaine 1,737 1,550 63 69 1,665 1,479
Crack 506a 308 48 29 457a 279
Heroin 121 163 9 2 108 161
Hallucinogens 810 808 23 35 788 767
LSD 115 104 3 * 112 104
PCP 32 10 2 0 30 10
Ecstasy 438 441 14 10 425 429
Inhalants 262 309 3 4 259 305
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics4,5 4,897 4,703 166a 75 4,710 4,618
Pain Relievers 3,734 3,561 126a 53 3,606 3,499
OxyContin® 270 360 3 2 265 357
Tranquilizers 1,321 1,493 32 24 1,271 1,468
Stimulants5 822 739 46 20 774 717
Methamphetamine5 410a 248 * 13 379 233
Sedatives 208 161 12 * 195 156
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA3
6,695 6,405 185 149 6,478 6,244
90401
Table 7.106B – Types of Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 to 49, by Parole/Supervised Release Status: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Drug Total1 PAROLE/SUPERVISED RELEASE DURING THE PAST YEAR2
Yes No
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for persons aged 18 to 49, including those with unknown parole/supervised release status.
2 Respondents were asked if they were on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison during the past year.
3 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. The estimates for Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine incorporated in these summary estimates do not include data from the methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Estimates of Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics, Stimulants, and Methamphetamine in the designated rows include data from methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006 and are not comparable with estimates presented in NSDUH reports prior to the 2007 National Findings report. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS3 11.3 11.4 26.6 19.0 11.1 11.3
Marijuana and Hashish 8.6 8.8 17.4 14.0 8.5 8.8
Cocaine 1.3 1.2 4.6 5.1 1.3 1.1
Crack 0.4a 0.2 3.5 2.1 0.3a 0.2
Heroin 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.1
Hallucinogens 0.6 0.6 1.6 2.6 0.6 0.6
LSD 0.1 0.1 0.2 * 0.1 0.1
PCP 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ecstasy 0.3 0.3 1.0 0.7 0.3 0.3
Inhalants 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics4,5 3.7 3.5 12.1a 5.5 3.6 3.5
Pain Relievers 2.8 2.7 9.2a 3.9 2.7 2.7
OxyContin® 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3
Tranquilizers 1.0 1.1 2.4 1.8 1.0 1.1
Stimulants5 0.6 0.6 3.4 1.5 0.6 0.5
Methamphetamine5 0.3a 0.2 * 1.0 0.3 0.2
Sedatives 0.2 0.1 0.9 * 0.1 0.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN
MARIJUANA3
5.0 4.8 13.5 11.0 4.9 4.8
90401
Table 7.107A – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Parole/Supervised Release Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 PAROLE/SUPERVISED RELEASE DURING THE PAST YEAR2
Yes No
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown parole/supervised release status.
2 Respondents were asked if they were on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison during the past year.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 17,448 17,773 389 295 17,015 17,410
AGE            
18-49 14,966 15,109 365 259 14,557 14,802
18-25 6,464 6,465 159 117 6,293 6,341
26-34 3,864 3,996 * * 3,759 3,872
35-49 4,638 4,648 * * 4,504 4,589
GENDER/AGE            
Male 18 or Older 11,217 10,785 351 235 10,843 10,514
Male 18-49 9,596 9,151 327a 210 9,246 8,906
Female 18 or Older 6,231a 6,988 37 * 6,173a 6,897
Female 18-49 5,369a 5,958 37 * 5,311a 5,896
90401
Table 7.107B – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Parole/Supervised Release Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 PAROLE/SUPERVISED RELEASE DURING THE PAST YEAR2
Yes No
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown parole/supervised release status.
2 Respondents were asked if they were on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison during the past year.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 7.8 7.9 24.1 18.3 7.7 7.8
AGE            
18-49 11.3 11.4 26.6 19.0 11.1 11.3
18-25 19.7 19.6 36.6 29.7 19.5 19.5
26-34 10.9 11.2 * * 10.8 11.0
35-49 7.2 7.2 * * 7.0 7.2
GENDER/AGE            
Male 18 or Older 10.4 9.9 27.6 18.5 10.2 9.8
Male 18-49 14.5 13.9 28.8 19.3 14.3 13.8
Female 18 or Older 5.4a 6.0 11.0 * 5.4 5.9
Female 18-49 8.0a 8.9 16.0 * 8.0a 8.9
90401
Table 7.108A – Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Parole/Supervised Release Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 PAROLE/SUPERVISED RELEASE DURING THE PAST YEAR2
Yes No
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown parole/supervised release status.
2 Respondents were asked if they were on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison during the past year.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 5,758 5,841 250 233 5,495 5,607
AGE            
18-49 5,228 5,490 223 222 4,992 5,266
18-25 2,592 2,563 119 97 2,468 2,465
26-34 1,236 1,502 * * 1,179 1,400
35-49 1,400 1,425 * * 1,345 1,401
GENDER/AGE            
Male 18 or Older 3,952 3,550 221 186 3,719 3,362
Male 18-49 3,575 3,342 194 186 3,369 3,154
Female 18 or Older 1,806b 2,291 29 * 1,777b 2,244
Female 18-49 1,652b 2,148 29 * 1,623b 2,112
90401
Table 7.108B – Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Parole/Supervised Release Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 PAROLE/SUPERVISED RELEASE DURING THE PAST YEAR2
Yes No
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown parole/supervised release status.
2 Respondents were asked if they were on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison during the past year.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 2.6 2.6 15.5 14.4 2.5 2.5
AGE            
18-49 3.9 4.1 16.3 16.3 3.8 4.0
18-25 7.9 7.8 27.4 24.7 7.7 7.6
26-34 3.5 4.2 * * 3.4 4.0
35-49 2.2 2.2 * * 2.1 2.2
GENDER/AGE            
Male 18 or Older 3.7 3.3 17.4 14.7 3.5 3.1
Male 18-49 5.4 5.1 17.1 17.1 5.2 4.9
Female 18 or Older 1.6b 2.0 8.7 * 1.5b 1.9
Female 18-49 2.5b 3.2 12.5 * 2.4b 3.2
90401
Table 7.109A – Illicit Drug or Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Parole/Supervised Release Status and Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 PAROLE/SUPERVISED RELEASE DURING THE PAST YEAR2
Yes No
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown parole/supervised release status.
2 Respondents were asked if they were on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison during the past year.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 20,373 20,334 600 447 19,733 19,814
AGE            
18-49 17,044 17,343 545 407 16,460 16,883
18-25 6,769 6,845 224 181 6,535 6,657
26-34 4,434a 5,001 * * 4,269 4,847
35-49 5,842 5,497 * * 5,656 5,379
GENDER/AGE            
Male 18 or Older 14,004 13,057 521 356 13,445 12,664
Male 18-49 11,611 11,055 466 348 11,108 10,671
Female 18 or Older 6,370b 7,276 * * 6,288b 7,149
Female 18-49 5,434b 6,288 * * 5,352b 6,212
90401
Table 7.109B – Illicit Drug or Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Parole/Supervised Release Status and Demographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic Total1 PAROLE/SUPERVISED RELEASE DURING THE PAST YEAR2
Yes No
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates in the Total column are for all persons aged 18 or older, including those with unknown parole/supervised release status.
2 Respondents were asked if they were on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison during the past year.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18 OR OLDER 9.2 9.0 37.2 27.8 8.9 8.9
AGE            
18-49 12.8 13.1 39.7 29.9 12.5 12.9
18-25 20.7 20.8 51.4 45.8 20.3 20.5
26-34 12.6 14.0 * * 12.3 13.8
35-49 9.0 8.6 * * 8.8 8.5
GENDER/AGE            
Male 18 or Older 13.0a 12.0 41.0a 28.0 12.7 11.8
Male 18-49 17.6 16.8 41.0 32.0 17.2 16.5
Female 18 or Older 5.5b 6.3 * * 5.5a 6.2
Female 18-49 8.1b 9.4 * * 8.0b 9.3
120411
Table 7.110A (REVISED) – No Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic/Geographic Characteristic NO PAST MONTH USE
Illicit Drugs or Alcohol1 Illicit Drugs1 Alcohol
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported
NOTE: This table was revised in May 2012 due to updates (for details, see the introduction to these 2008 detailed tables).
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Number 26-10a (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
2 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
3 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 20,147 20,313 22,826b 22,580 21,201 21,221
RACE2            
American Indian or Alaska Native 231 247 276 278 250 269
Asian or Pacific Islander 1,022 1,008 1,073 1,056 1,052 1,033
Asian Only 922 906 968 950 948 923
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * * * * * *
Black or African American 3,344 3,336 3,621 3,593 3,591a 3,510
White 15,121 15,271 17,386b 17,172 15,861 15,932
Two or More Races 430 450 469 482 447 478
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Hispanic or Latino 3,787 3,851 4,287 4,302 3,957 4,023
Not Hispanic or Latino 16,361 16,462 18,539b 18,278 17,244 17,198
Black or African American 3,215 3,229 3,486 3,474 3,460 3,392
White 11,710 11,746 13,514 13,234 12,296 12,259
GENDER            
Male 10,257 10,415 11,595 11,502 10,834 10,881
Female 9,891 9,898 11,231a 11,078 10,367 10,340
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty Threshold)3            
Less Than 100% 3,753 3,618 4,159 3,875 4,017 3,815
100-199% 4,295 4,534 4,750 4,994 4,553 4,751
200% or More 12,099 12,161 13,917 13,711 12,630 12,655
REGION            
Northeast 3,505 3,475 4,048b 3,915 3,651 3,642
Midwest 4,436 4,468 5,078a 5,008 4,670 4,663
South 7,384a 7,526 8,278 8,331 7,791 7,835
West 4,822 4,844 5,422 5,326 5,089 5,081
120411
Table 7.110B (REVISED) – No Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic/Geographic Characteristic NO PAST MONTH USE
Illicit Drugs or Alcohol1 Illicit Drugs1 Alcohol
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: This table was revised in May 2012 due to updates (for details, see the introduction to these 2008 detailed tables).
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Number 26-10a (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
2 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
3 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 79.8b 81.6 90.4 90.7 84.0b 85.3
RACE2            
American Indian or Alaska Native 72.6 76.7 86.8 86.0 78.5 83.3
Asian or Pacific Islander 89.2 91.8 93.7 96.1 91.8 94.0
Asian Only 89.4 92.6 93.8a 97.1 91.9 94.3
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * * * * * *
Black or African American 83.6 85.1 90.5 91.7 89.8 89.5
White 78.5b 80.4 90.3 90.4 82.3b 83.9
Two or More Races 83.9 81.6 91.5 87.3 87.3 86.6
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Hispanic or Latino 81.1 81.5 91.9 91.1 84.8 85.2
Not Hispanic or Latino 79.5b 81.6 90.1 90.6 83.8b 85.3
Black or African American 83.5 85.5 90.5 91.9 89.9 89.8
White 77.8b 80.0 89.8 90.1 81.7b 83.5
GENDER            
Male 79.6b 82.0 89.9 90.5 84.0a 85.6
Female 80.1 81.2 90.9 90.9 83.9 84.9
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty Threshold)3            
Less Than 100% 81.3a 84.1 90.1 90.1 87.0 88.7
100-199% 81.1 82.5 89.6 90.8 85.9 86.4
200% or More 79.0a 80.6 90.8 90.8 82.4a 83.8
REGION            
Northeast 78.6 79.4 90.8 89.5 81.9 83.3
Midwest 79.0a 81.1 90.4 90.9 83.2 84.6
South 80.9b 83.2 90.7a 92.1 85.3 86.6
West 79.9 81.3 89.8 89.4 84.3 85.3
120411
Table 7.111A (REVISED) – Illicit Drug Use, Marijuana Use, and Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic/Geographic Characteristic PAST MONTH USE
Illicit Drug Use1 Marijuana Use Binge Alcohol Use2
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: This table was revised in May 2012 due to updates (for details, see the introduction to these 2008 detailed tables).
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Numbers 26-10b and 26-11d (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
2 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
3 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
4 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 2,415 2,312 1,693 1,668 2,457b 2,208
RACE3            
American Indian or Alaska Native 42 45 28 36 53 35
Asian or Pacific Islander 73 43 48 20 55 28
Asian Only 64a 28 44a 10 53 19
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * * 4 * 2 *
Black or African American 379 327 234 238 174 165
White 1,878 1,827 1,350 1,320 2,142b 1,931
Two or More Races 43a 70 34 55 33 49
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Hispanic or Latino 380 422 267 289 436 420
Not Hispanic or Latino 2,035 1,890 1,426 1,379 2,022b 1,788
Black or African American 364 305 222 219 164 153
White 1,537 1,453 1,110 1,065 1,744a 1,548
GENDER            
Male 1,296 1,205 973 929 1,372b 1,140
Female 1,119 1,107 721 739 1,086 1,068
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty Threshold)4            
Less Than 100% 459 424 301 308 383a 293
100-199% 549 505 370 355 451 460
200% or More 1,407 1,383 1,022 1,005 1,624a 1,455
REGION            
Northeast 410 459 328 367 462 444
Midwest 537 501 388 362 603a 519
South 851a 719 565a 476 825 726
West 617 633 412 462 567 519
120411
Table 7.111B (REVISED) – Illicit Drug Use, Marijuana Use, and Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic/Geographic Characteristic PAST MONTH USE
Illicit Drug Use1 Marijuana Use Binge Alcohol Use2
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: This table was revised in May 2012 due to updates (for details, see the introduction to these 2008 detailed tables).
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Numbers 26-10b and 26-11d (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
2 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
3 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
4 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 9.6 9.3 6.7 6.7 9.7a 8.9
RACE3            
American Indian or Alaska Native 13.2 14.0 8.6 11.1 16.6 10.8
Asian or Pacific Islander 6.3 3.9 4.2 1.8 4.8 2.5
Asian Only 6.2a 2.9 4.3a 1.0 5.1 2.0
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * * 3.8 * 1.9 *
Black or African American 9.5 8.3 5.8 6.1 4.4 4.2
White 9.7 9.6 7.0 6.9 11.1a 10.2
Two or More Races 8.5 12.7 6.5 9.9 6.5 8.9
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Hispanic or Latino 8.1 8.9 5.7 6.1 9.3 8.9
Not Hispanic or Latino 9.9 9.4 6.9 6.8 9.8a 8.9
Black or African American 9.5 8.1 5.8 5.8 4.3 4.0
White 10.2 9.9 7.4 7.3 11.6a 10.5
GENDER            
Male 10.1 9.5 7.5 7.3 10.6b 9.0
Female 9.1 9.1 5.8 6.1 8.8 8.8
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty Threshold)4            
Less Than 100% 9.9 9.9 6.5 7.2 8.3 6.8
100-199% 10.4 9.2 7.0 6.5 8.5 8.4
200% or More 9.2 9.2 6.7 6.7 10.6a 9.6
REGION            
Northeast 9.2 10.5 7.4 8.4 10.4 10.2
Midwest 9.6 9.1 6.9 6.6 10.7a 9.4
South 9.3a 7.9 6.2 5.3 9.0 8.0
West 10.2 10.6 6.8 7.8 9.4 8.7
90408
Table 7.112A – Illicit Drug Use, Marijuana Use, and Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic PAST MONTH USE
Illicit Drug Use1 Marijuana Use Binge Alcohol Use2
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Numbers 26-10c and 26-11c (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
2 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
3 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
4 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 17,448 17,773 12,762 13,546 55,331 55,907
RACE3            
American Indian or Alaska Native 181 155 111 116 585 578
Asian or Pacific Islander 458 424 260 258 1,562 1,501
Asian Only 384 362 235 210 1,299 1,271
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only 75 62 25 48 263 *
Black or African American 2,479 2,726 1,948 2,278 5,559 6,015
White 14,029 14,080 10,178 10,540 46,914 47,127
Two or More Races 300 388 265 353 710 685
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Hispanic or Latino 1,879 1,763 1,280 1,195 7,576a 8,554
Not Hispanic or Latino 15,569 16,010 11,483 12,351 47,755 47,354
Black or African American 2,414 2,663 1,896 2,224 5,425 5,880
White 12,304 12,482 8,998 9,471 39,916 39,142
GENDER            
Male 11,217 10,785 8,646 8,643 36,762 37,161
Female 6,231a 6,988 4,116b 4,903 18,569 18,747
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty
Threshold)4
           
Less Than 100% 2,868 2,914 2,015 2,138 6,510 6,320
100-199% 3,420 3,704 2,571 2,849 8,981 9,582
200% or More 10,960 10,944 7,990 8,380 39,331 39,558
EDUCATION            
< High School 3,393a 2,837 2,481 2,125 8,414 8,172
High School Graduate 5,860 6,007 4,336 4,646 17,732 18,408
Some College/College Graduate 8,195 8,930 5,945a 6,775 29,185 29,328
90408
Table 7.112B – Illicit Drug Use, Marijuana Use, and Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic PAST MONTH USE
Illicit Drug Use1 Marijuana Use Binge Alcohol Use2
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Numbers 26-10c and 26-11c (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
2 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
3 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
4 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 7.8 7.9 5.7 6.0 24.9 24.9
RACE3            
American Indian or Alaska Native 8.8 7.5 5.4 5.6 28.6 27.8
Asian or Pacific Islander 4.4 4.0 2.5 2.4 14.9 14.0
Asian Only 4.0 3.7 2.4 2.1 13.4 12.9
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only 8.8 7.1 2.9 5.5 31.1 *
Black or African American 9.5 10.3 7.5 8.6 21.4 22.7
White 7.7 7.7 5.6 5.8 25.9 25.8
Two or More Races 11.0 13.8 9.7 12.6 25.9 24.5
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Hispanic or Latino 6.4 5.8 4.3 3.9 25.6 28.2
Not Hispanic or Latino 8.1 8.2 5.9 6.3 24.7 24.3
Black or African American 9.5 10.3 7.5 8.6 21.4 22.8
White 8.0 8.1 5.8 6.1 25.9 25.3
GENDER            
Male 10.4 9.9 8.1 8.0 34.2 34.2
Female 5.4a 6.0 3.6b 4.2 16.1 16.1
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty
Threshold)4
           
Less Than 100% 11.2 11.5 7.9 8.5 25.5 25.0
100-199% 8.6 8.9 6.4 6.9 22.5 23.1
200% or More 7.0 7.0 5.1 5.3 25.2 25.2
EDUCATION            
< High School 9.3a 8.1 6.8 6.1 23.2 23.3
High School Graduate 8.6 8.6 6.4 6.6 26.0 26.2
Some College/College Graduate 6.9 7.5 5.0a 5.7 24.7 24.5
120411
Table 7.113A (REVISED) – Inhalant Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic/Geographic Characteristic Inhalant Use
(2007)
Inhalant Use
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: This table was revised in May 2012 due to updates (for details, see the introduction to these 2008 detailed tables).
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Number 26-15 (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
2 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 995 986
RACE1    
American Indian or Alaska Native 14 19
Asian or Pacific Islander 23 41
Asian Only 21 36
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only 1 5
Black or African American 97 88
White 841 817
Two or More Races 20 22
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE    
Hispanic or Latino 189 235
Not Hispanic or Latino 806 751
Black or African American 94 84
White 665 600
GENDER    
Male 501 470
Female 494 516
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty Threshold)2    
Less Than 100% 191 168
100-199% 180a 253
200% or More 624 566
REGION    
Northeast 150 151
Midwest 226 208
South 350 308
West 268 319
120411
Table 7.113B (REVISED) – Inhalant Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic/Geographic Characteristic Inhalant Use
(2007)
Inhalant Use
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: This table was revised in May 2012 due to updates (for details, see the introduction to these 2008 detailed tables).
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Number 26-15 (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
2 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 3.9 4.0
RACE1    
American Indian or Alaska Native 4.5 5.7
Asian or Pacific Islander 2.0 3.7
Asian Only 2.1 3.7
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only 1.2 4.3
Black or African American 2.4 2.2
White 4.4 4.3
Two or More Races 3.8 4.0
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE    
Hispanic or Latino 4.0 5.0
Not Hispanic or Latino 3.9 3.7
Black or African American 2.4 2.2
White 4.4 4.1
GENDER    
Male 3.9 3.7
Female 4.0 4.2
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty Threshold)2    
Less Than 100% 4.1 3.9
100-199% 3.4a 4.6
200% or More 4.1 3.7
REGION    
Northeast 3.4 3.5
Midwest 4.0 3.8
South 3.8 3.4
West 4.4 5.4
120411
Table 7.114A (REVISED) – Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month, Using Cocaine Once a Month, or Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Geographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic/Geographic Characteristic PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK
Smoke Marijuana Once a Month Use Cocaine Once a Month Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: This table was revised in May 2012 due to updates (for details, see the introduction to these 2008 detailed tables).
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Numbers 26-17b, 26-17c, and 26-17a (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
2 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 8,549a 8,206 12,234 12,061 9,797 9,879
RACE1            
American Indian or Alaska Native 109 85 154 145 127 125
Asian or Pacific Islander 431 429 486 483 534 570
Asian Only 380 384 424 417 478 506
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * 45 * * * 64
Black or African American 1,363 1,279 2,136 2,136 1,965 1,984
White 6,478 6,256 9,200 9,041 6,961 6,983
Two or More Races 169 157 259 256 210 218
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Hispanic or Latino 1,587 1,602 2,068a 2,217 1,863a 2,015
Not Hispanic or Latino 6,962b 6,604 10,166a 9,843 7,933 7,865
Black or African American 1,317 1,224 2,067 2,049 1,897 1,923
White 5,053 4,797 7,331 7,038 5,299 5,145
GENDER            
Male 4,094 3,925 6,226 6,117 4,597 4,589
Female 4,456 4,281 6,007 5,943 5,200 5,290
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty Threshold)2            
Less Than 100% 1,625 1,507 2,231 2,156 1,915 1,853
100-199% 1,801 1,834 2,613 2,662 2,187 2,294
200% or More 5,123 4,865 7,389 7,243 5,695 5,732
REGION            
Northeast 1,391 1,293 2,051 2,024 1,696 1,585
Midwest 1,973 1,896 2,724 2,654 2,028 2,054
South 3,276 3,308 4,654 4,615 3,765 3,822
West 1,908b 1,708 2,805 2,768 2,308 2,417
120411
Table 7.114B (REVISED) – Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month, Using Cocaine Once a Month, or Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Geographic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic/Geographic Characteristic PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK
Smoke Marijuana Once a Month Use Cocaine Once a Month Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: This table was revised in May 2012 due to updates (for details, see the introduction to these 2008 detailed tables).
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Numbers 26-17b 26-17c, and 26-17a (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
2 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 34.4 33.4 49.6 49.4 39.3 40.0
RACE1            
American Indian or Alaska Native 35.4a 27.2 50.4 46.0 41.3 39.4
Asian or Pacific Islander 38.3 39.8 43.6 44.8 47.6 52.1
Asian Only 37.5 40.1 42.5 43.5 47.3 51.9
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * 37.5 * * * 53.7
Black or African American 34.7 33.0 54.9 55.6 50.1 51.1
White 34.1 33.3 48.7 48.5 36.5 37.0
Two or More Races 33.3 28.8 51.6 47.2 41.3 40.0
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Hispanic or Latino 34.8 34.4 45.7 47.8 40.7 43.0
Not Hispanic or Latino 34.3 33.2 50.4 49.7 39.0 39.3
Black or African American 34.8 32.8 55.2 55.3 50.2 51.3
White 34.0 33.1 49.6 48.8 35.5 35.3
GENDER            
Male 32.3 31.3 49.6 49.1 36.2 36.4
Female 36.6 35.6 49.5 49.6 42.5 43.8
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty Threshold)2            
Less Than 100% 36.0 35.6 49.8 51.4 42.2 43.8
100-199% 34.5 33.8 50.6 49.5 41.9 42.1
200% or More 33.9 32.6 49.1 48.7 37.5 38.2
REGION            
Northeast 31.7 30.0 47.0 47.3 38.4 36.5
Midwest 35.6 34.9 49.4 49.2 36.5 37.6
South 36.4 36.9 52.1 51.8 41.7 42.7
West 32.2a 29.1 47.7 47.3 38.8 40.8
90408
Table 7.115A – Received Illicit Drug or Alcohol Treatment at a Specialty Facility in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older Who Needed Treatment for the Respective Substance in the Past Year, by Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic SUBSTANCE FOR WHICH TREATMENT WAS RECEIVED AT A SPECIALTY FACILITY
Illicit Drugs Alcohol Either Illicit Drugs or Alcohol1
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol problem if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependent on illicit drugs or alcohol; (2) abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol; or (3) received treatment for illicit drug or alcohol use at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient], or mental health center). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Numbers 26-18 and 26-21 (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates include persons who received treatment specifically for illicit drugs or alcohol, as well as persons who received treatment but did not specify for what substance(s).
2 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
3 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 1,343 1,209 1,567 1,560 2,412 2,287
RACE2            
American Indian or Alaska Native * * * 21 * 30
Asian or Pacific Islander * * 1 * * *
Asian Only * * 0 * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * * * * * *
Black or African American 249 163 283 277 501 374
White 1,024 987 1,200 1,205 1,773 1,798
Two or More Races * * * 20 * 43
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Hispanic or Latino 91 130 130 103 177 182
Not Hispanic or Latino 1,253 1,079 1,437 1,457 2,235 2,105
Black or African American 245 162 279 273 494 369
White 943 867 1,093 1,115 1,626 1,633
GENDER            
Male 917 712 1,142 1,079 1,703 1,490
Female 427 497 425 481 709 797
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty
Threshold)3
           
Less Than 100% 387 384 448 342 670 580
100-199% 272 333 300 332 497 543
200% or More 682 490 817 883 1,240 1,159
AGE GROUP            
12-17 111 111 82 77 150 143
18 or Older 1,232 1,098 1,485 1,483 2,262 2,143
90408
Table 7.115B – Received Illicit Drug or Alcohol Treatment at a Specialty Facility in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older Who Needed Treatment for the Respective Substance in the Past Year, by Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic SUBSTANCE FOR WHICH TREATMENT WAS RECEIVED AT A SPECIALTY FACILITY
Illicit Drugs Alcohol Either Illicit Drugs or Alcohol1
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol problem if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependent on illicit drugs or alcohol; (2) abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol; or (3) received treatment for illicit drug or alcohol use at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient], or mental health center). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Numbers 26-18 and 26-21 (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Estimates include persons who received treatment specifically for illicit drugs or alcohol, as well as persons who received treatment but did not specify for what substance(s).
2 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
3 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 17.8 16.0 8.1 8.2 10.4 9.9
RACE2            
American Indian or Alaska Native * * * 9.1 * 10.4
Asian or Pacific Islander * * 0.2 * * *
Asian Only * * 0.1 * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * * * * * *
Black or African American 20.8 13.8 13.8 12.8 18.1 13.0
White 17.3 16.4 7.4 7.6 9.3 9.5
Two or More Races * * * 8.1 * 12.7
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Hispanic or Latino 9.6 12.0 5.3 3.6 6.0 5.4
Not Hispanic or Latino 19.0 16.6 8.5 9.1 11.0 10.7
Black or African American 20.9 14.1 13.7 12.9 18.2 13.2
White 18.7 17.2 7.9 8.5 9.9 10.3
GENDER            
Male 18.4 16.2 8.7 8.9 10.9 10.3
Female 16.8 15.7 6.9 7.1 9.3 9.3
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty
Threshold)3
           
Less Than 100% 22.6 23.2 16.6 13.6 18.5 16.8
100-199% 17.9 19.1 8.9 10.0 11.9 12.6
200% or More 16.1 12.0 6.3 6.8 8.2 7.7
AGE GROUP            
12-17 9.9 9.3 5.9 6.2 7.6 7.4
18 or Older 19.2 17.2 8.3 8.4 10.7 10.2
90414
Table 7.116A – Past Year Initiates of Cigarette Use among Persons Aged 12 to 25 at Risk for Initiation of Cigarette Use, by Age Group and Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic Aged 12-17
(2007)
Aged 12-17
(2008)
Aged 18-25
(2007)
Aged 18-25
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates of Cigarette Use are defined as persons who used cigarettes for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview. At Risk for Initiation of Cigarette Use is defined as persons who did not use cigarettes in their lifetime or used cigarettes for the first time in the past year.
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Numbers 27-3a and 27-3b (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
2 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 1,197 1,268 989 1,062
RACE1        
American Indian or Alaska Native 12 19 8 *
Asian or Pacific Islander 24 33 68 46
Asian Only 20 31 68 43
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * 2 * *
Black or African American 128 146 133 125
White 1,015 1,042 761 860
Two or More Races 18 27 18 14
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Hispanic or Latino 213 243 173 217
Not Hispanic or Latino 984 1,025 816 845
Black or African American 121 138 127 122
White 819 819 601 657
GENDER        
Male 592 592 497 584
Female 606 676 492 478
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty Threshold)2        
Less Than 100% 193 175 230 212
100-199% 233 261 180 218
200% or More 771 832 510 528
90414
Table 7.116B – Past Year Initiates of Cigarette Use among Persons Aged 12 to 25 at Risk for Initiation of Cigarette Use, by Age Group and Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics: Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic Aged 12-17
(2007)
Aged 12-17
(2008)
Aged 18-25
(2007)
Aged 18-25
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates of Cigarette Use are defined as persons who used cigarettes for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview. At Risk for Initiation of Cigarette Use is defined as persons who did not use cigarettes in their lifetime or used cigarettes for the first time in the past year.
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Numbers 27-3a and 27-3b (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
2 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 5.9 6.2 7.9 8.3
RACE1        
American Indian or Alaska Native 4.9 7.8 7.2 *
Asian or Pacific Islander 2.4 3.3 8.2 4.9
Asian Only 2.2 3.4 8.9 4.8
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * 2.4 * *
Black or African American 3.7 4.4 5.5 4.7
White 6.6 6.7 8.5 9.6
Two or More Races 4.6 6.1 9.9 8.0
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE        
Hispanic or Latino 5.4 6.2 6.9 9.1
Not Hispanic or Latino 5.9 6.2 8.1 8.1
Black or African American 3.7 4.3 5.5 4.7
White 6.9 6.9 9.0 9.7
GENDER        
Male 5.7 5.7 8.7 9.7
Female 6.0 6.7 7.2 7.0
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty Threshold)2        
Less Than 100% 5.3 5.2 7.7 7.4
100-199% 5.6 6.0 6.8 7.5
200% or More 6.1 6.5 8.1 8.2
90408
Table 7.117B – Mean Age at First Use among Past Year Initiates of Substance Use Aged 12 or Older Who Initiated Use Prior to the Age of 18, by Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics: 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic MEAN AGE
Alcohol Marijuana Cigarettes
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Numbers 26-9a, 26-9b, and 27-4a (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
2 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 14.9 14.9 15.3 15.2 15.0 15.1
RACE1            
American Indian or Alaska Native 14.8a 14.1 14.8 14.7 14.4 14.4
Asian or Pacific Islander 14.8 15.3 15.3 16.0 15.7 15.6
Asian Only 14.9 15.4 15.4a 16.3 15.7 15.7
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only 14.4 14.2 * * * *
Black or African American 15.0 14.9 15.2 15.0 15.0 15.1
White 14.9 14.9 15.3 15.2 15.0 15.1
Two or More Races 14.8 14.9 14.8 15.1 14.1 14.4
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Hispanic or Latino 14.9 14.7 15.3 15.0 15.0 15.0
Not Hispanic or Latino 14.9 15.0 15.3 15.2 15.0 15.2
Black or African American 14.9 14.9 15.1 15.0 15.0 15.2
White 14.9 15.0 15.3 15.3 15.0 15.2
GENDER            
Male 15.0 15.0 15.3 15.2 15.0a 15.3
Female 14.9 14.8 15.3 15.1 15.0 15.0
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty Threshold)2            
Less Than 100% 14.9 14.8 14.9 14.8 14.8 14.9
100-199% 14.8 14.8 15.1a 14.7 14.8 14.9
200% or More 14.9 15.0 15.4 15.4 15.1 15.2
90414
Table 7.118B – Mean Age at First Cigarette Use among Past Year Initiates of Cigarette Use Aged 18 to 25, by Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics: 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Socioeconomic Characteristic 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates of Cigarette Use are defined as persons who used cigarettes for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
NOTE: Estimates shown on this table correspond to Healthy People 2010 Objective Number 27-4b (http://www.healthypeople.gov/).
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 These racial categories do not distinguish among ethnic origin (i.e., Hispanic or Latino origin), so they include respondents who are either Hispanic or not Hispanic.
2 Estimates are based on a definition of Poverty Level that incorporates information on family income, size, and composition and is calculated as a percentage of the U.S. Census Bureau's poverty thresholds.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 18.9 18.9
RACE1    
American Indian or Alaska Native 18.3 18.3
Asian or Pacific Islander 18.9 19.6
Asian Only 18.9 19.7
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Only * *
Black or African American 19.3 19.0
White 18.8 18.9
Two or More Races 18.6 19.1
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE    
Hispanic or Latino 18.8 19.0
Not Hispanic or Latino 18.9 18.9
Black or African American 19.3 19.0
White 18.8 18.9
GENDER    
Male 18.8 18.9
Female 19.0 19.0
POVERTY LEVEL (% of Census Bureau Poverty Threshold)2    
Less Than 100% 18.9 19.1
100-199% 18.9 19.4
200% or More 18.9 18.8

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