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90330
Table 4.1B – Past Year Initiation of Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, Persons Aged 12 or Older At Risk for Initiation of Illicit Drug Use, and Past Year Illicit Drug Users Aged 12 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic NUMBER OF PAST YEAR INITIATES (1,000s) PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG TOTAL POPULATION PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PERSONS AT RISK FOR INITIATION1 PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PAST YEAR USERS
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. These estimates do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 At Risk for Initiation is defined as persons who did not use the substance(s) in their lifetime or used the substance(s) for the first time in the past year.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 2,670 2,885 1.1 1.2 2.0 2.1 7.5 8.1
AGE                
12-25 2,344 2,466 4.0 4.3 6.7 7.0 15.0 15.7
12-17 1,471 1,492 5.8 6.0 7.3 7.5 31.1 31.6
12-13 244 266 3.0 3.4 3.3 3.8 38.4 40.0
14-15 556 523 6.5 6.2 8.0 7.6 35.9 34.9
16-17 671 702 7.8 8.1 11.4 11.7 26.4 27.4
18-25 874 975 2.7 3.0 5.9 6.4 8.0 8.8
18-20 646 652 4.9 4.9 9.3 9.3 13.6 13.6
21-25 228a 322 1.2a 1.6 2.9a 3.9 3.7a 5.2
26 or Older 326 419 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 1.6 2.1
GENDER                
Male 1,225 1,302 1.0 1.1 2.0 2.2 5.9 6.6
Female 1,445 1,583 1.1 1.2 1.9 2.1 9.8 10.1
GENDER/AGE                
Male 12-17 736 715 5.7 5.6 7.3 7.1 29.5 29.6
Female 12-17 734 776 5.9 6.4 7.4 8.0 33.0 33.7
90330
Table 4.2B – Past Year Initiation of Marijuana Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, Persons Aged 12 or Older At Risk for Initiation of Marijuana Use, and Past Year Marijuana Users Aged 12 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic NUMBER OF PAST YEAR INITIATES (1,000s) PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG TOTAL POPULATION PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PERSONS AT RISK FOR INITIATION1 PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PAST YEAR USERS
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 At Risk for Initiation is defined as persons who did not use the substance(s) in their lifetime or used the substance(s) for the first time in the past year.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 2,090 2,208 0.8 0.9 1.4 1.5 8.3 8.6
AGE                
12-25 1,955 2,049 3.4 3.5 5.0 5.2 16.1 16.6
12-17 1,167 1,241 4.6 5.0 5.2 5.6 37.1 38.3
12-13 91 121 1.1 1.5 1.1 1.6 56.3 61.9
14-15 425 462 5.0 5.5 5.5 6.0 44.6 47.2
16-17 651 658 7.6 7.6 9.9 9.9 32.0 31.9
18-25 789 809 2.4 2.5 4.7 4.7 8.8 8.9
18-20 630 561 4.8 4.2 8.0 7.2 15.7 13.7
21-25 159b 248 0.8b 1.3 1.8a 2.7 3.2b 5.0
26 or Older 134 159 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.2
GENDER                
Male 1,037 1,062 0.9 0.9 1.5 1.6 6.6 7.0
Female 1,053 1,146 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.4 11.1 10.7
GENDER/AGE                
Male 12-17 595 607 4.6 4.8 5.3 5.5 34.0 35.2
Female 12-17 572 634 4.6 5.2 5.2 5.8 40.9 41.9
90330
Table 4.3B – Past Year Initiation of Cigarette Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, Persons Aged 12 or Older At Risk for Initiation of Cigarette Use, and Past Year Cigarette Users Aged 12 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic NUMBER OF PAST YEAR INITIATES (1,000s) PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG TOTAL POPULATION PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PERSONS AT RISK FOR INITIATION1 PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PAST YEAR USERS
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 At Risk for Initiation is defined as persons who did not use the substance(s) in their lifetime or used the substance(s) for the first time in the past year.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 2,231 2,418 0.9 1.0 2.5 2.7 3.2 3.5
AGE                
12-25 2,186 2,330 3.8 4.0 6.6 7.0 11.7 12.6
12-17 1,197 1,268 4.7 5.1 5.9 6.2 30.3a 34.1
12-13 162 159 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 49.3 49.5
14-15 443 492 5.2 5.8 6.3 6.9 36.0a 42.6
16-17 592 616 6.9 7.1 10.3 10.3 24.7 27.4
18-25 989 1,062 3.0 3.2 7.9 8.3 6.7 7.2
18-20 784 815 5.9 6.2 12.4 12.9 13.8 14.0
21-25 205 247 1.1 1.3 3.3 3.8 2.3 2.7
26 or Older 45 89 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2
GENDER                
Male 1,100 1,205 0.9 1.0 3.0 3.2 2.9 3.2
Female 1,131 1,213 0.9 0.9 2.2 2.3 3.5 3.7
GENDER/AGE                
Male 12-17 592 592 4.6 4.7 5.7 5.7 28.6 31.5
Female 12-17 606 676 4.9 5.5 6.0 6.7 32.1a 36.6
90330
Table 4.4B – Past Year Initiation of Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, Persons Aged 12 or Older At Risk for Initiation of Alcohol Use, and Past Year Alcohol Users Aged 12 or Older, by Demographic Characteristics: Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic Characteristic NUMBER OF PAST YEAR INITIATES (1,000s) PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG TOTAL POPULATION PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PERSONS AT RISK FOR INITIATION1 PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PAST YEAR USERS
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 At Risk for Initiation is defined as persons who did not use the substance(s) in their lifetime or used the substance(s) for the first time in the past year.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 4,559 4,466 1.8 1.8 9.4 9.1 2.8 2.7
AGE                
12-25 4,446 4,274 7.7 7.4 18.1 17.5 13.3 12.8
12-17 2,689 2,544 10.7 10.2 15.0 14.2 33.6 33.2
12-13 369 330 4.5 4.2 5.0 4.7 46.6 44.9
14-15 1,152 1,066 13.5 12.6 18.3 17.0 42.9 41.2
16-17 1,168 1,147 13.6 13.3 26.9 24.9 25.7 26.4
18-25 1,757 1,730 5.4 5.3 26.6 26.7 6.9 6.7
18-20 1,173 1,182 8.9 8.9 29.4 29.2 12.6 12.8
21-25 584 548 3.0 2.8 22.3 22.6 3.6 3.3
26 or Older 112 193 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.8 0.1 0.1
GENDER                
Male 2,200 2,151 1.8 1.8 11.2 11.0 2.6 2.5
Female 2,359 2,315 1.8 1.8 8.2 7.9 3.0 2.9
GENDER/AGE                
Male 12-17 1,293 1,232 10.0 9.7 14.3 13.5 31.9 32.8
Female 12-17 1,397 1,312 11.3 10.8 15.7 15.0 35.3 33.6
90330
Table 4.5B – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, Persons Aged 12 or Older At Risk for Initiation of Substance Use, and Past Year Substance Users Aged 12 or Older: Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Substance NUMBER OF PAST YEAR INITIATES (1,000s) PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG TOTAL POPULATION PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PERSONS AT RISK FOR INITIATION1 PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PAST YEAR USERS
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 At Risk for Initiation is defined as persons who did not use the substance(s) in their lifetime or used the substance(s) for the first time in the past year.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
3 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS2,3 2,670 2,885 1.1 1.2 2.0 2.1 7.5 8.1
Marijuana and Hashish 2,090 2,208 0.8 0.9 1.4 1.5 8.3 8.6
Cocaine 906a 722 0.4a 0.3 0.4a 0.3 15.8 13.7
Crack 352 205 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 24.3 18.5
Heroin 106 114 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 25.2
Hallucinogens 1,064 1,127 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 28.3 30.7
LSD 270b 394 0.1b 0.2 0.1b 0.2 43.6 49.1
PCP 58 53 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 * *
Ecstasy 781 894 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 36.6 41.8
Inhalants 775 729 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 37.2 35.6
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics3,4 2,532 2,512 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.2 15.7 16.7
Pain Relievers 2,147 2,176 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 17.2 18.3
OxyContin® 554 478 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 39.0 32.8
Tranquilizers 1,232 1,127 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 23.3 22.1
Stimulants3 642 599 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 23.4 24.3
Sedatives 198 181 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 23.0 29.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA2,3 2,563 2,693 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.5 12.1 13.5
CIGARETTES 2,231 2,418 0.9 1.0 2.5 2.7 3.2 3.5
Daily Cigarette Use5 984 942 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6 -- --
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 1,297 1,398 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 11.8 11.9
CIGARS 3,076 2,884 1.2 1.2 1.9 1.8 11.6 11.1
ALCOHOL 4,559 4,466 1.8 1.8 9.4 9.1 2.8 2.7
90330
Table 4.6B – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, Persons Aged 12 to 17 At Risk for Initiation of Substance Use, and Past Year Substance Users Aged 12 to 17: Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Substance NUMBER OF PAST YEAR INITIATES (1,000s) PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG TOTAL POPULATION PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PERSONS AT RISK FOR INITIATION1 PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PAST YEAR USERS
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 At Risk for Initiation is defined as persons who did not use the substance(s) in their lifetime or used the substance(s) for the first time in the past year.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
3 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS2,3 1,471 1,492 5.8 6.0 7.3 7.5 31.1 31.6
Marijuana and Hashish 1,167 1,241 4.6 5.0 5.2 5.6 37.1 38.3
Cocaine 252 197 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.8 65.9 64.6
Crack 52b 17 0.2b 0.1 0.2b 0.1 * *
Heroin 16 31 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 * *
Hallucinogens 397 470 1.6 1.9 1.6 1.9 63.2 68.1
LSD 96a 146 0.4a 0.6 0.4a 0.6 76.7 79.9
PCP 38 38 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 * *
Ecstasy 243 250 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 74.0 70.8
Inhalants 498 489 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 50.1 49.9
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics3,4 853 887 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.9 42.0a 46.5
Pain Relievers 750 817 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.5 44.6b 50.8
OxyContin® 152 154 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 65.2 68.8
Tranquilizers 268 282 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 53.0 58.6
Stimulants3 226 196 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 55.6 55.8
Sedatives 67 69 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 * *
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA2,3 1,063 1,145 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3 36.5a 40.2
CIGARETTES 1,197 1,268 4.7 5.1 5.9 6.2 30.3a 34.1
Daily Cigarette Use5 332 274 1.3 1.1 1.4 1.1 -- --
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 619 603 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.5 47.7 50.1
CIGARS 1,144 1,108 4.5 4.5 5.0 4.8 48.4a 52.6
ALCOHOL 2,689 2,544 10.7 10.2 15.0 14.2 33.6 33.2
90330
Table 4.7B – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use among Persons Aged 18 to 25, Persons Aged 18 to 25 At Risk for Initiation of Substance Use, and Past Year Substance Users Aged 18 to 25: Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Substance NUMBER OF PAST YEAR INITIATES (1,000s) PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG TOTAL POPULATION PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PERSONS AT RISK FOR INITIATION1 PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PAST YEAR USERS
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 At Risk for Initiation is defined as persons who did not use the substance(s) in their lifetime or used the substance(s) for the first time in the past year.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
3 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS2,3 874 975 2.7 3.0 5.9 6.4 8.0 8.8
Marijuana and Hashish 789 809 2.4 2.5 4.7 4.7 8.8 8.9
Cocaine 542a 423 1.7a 1.3 1.9a 1.5 26.0 23.3
Crack 88 88 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 35.4 41.3
Heroin 70 56 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 * 38.4
Hallucinogens 539 574 1.6 1.7 2.0 2.1 26.3 27.2
LSD 171a 230 0.5a 0.7 0.6 0.7 45.6 45.7
PCP 20 16 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 * *
Ecstasy 414a 521 1.3a 1.6 1.4a 1.8 35.9 40.5
Inhalants 201 218 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 38.1 40.9
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics3,4 930 947 2.8 2.9 3.9 3.9 19.1 19.6
Pain Relievers 851 835 2.6 2.5 3.3 3.2 21.4 21.2
OxyContin® 215 226 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 38.0 37.9
Tranquilizers 447 455 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 26.3 25.9
Stimulants3 278 278 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 26.3 26.3
Sedatives 51 56 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 29.6 *
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA2,3 953 973 2.9 3.0 4.5 4.5 15.0 15.6
CIGARETTES 989 1,062 3.0 3.2 7.9 8.3 6.7 7.2
Daily Cigarette Use5 568 548 1.7 1.7 2.5 2.3 -- --
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 597 577 1.8 1.8 2.2 2.2 20.4 19.6
CIGARS 1,376 1,261 4.2 3.8 6.8 6.1 17.8 16.8
ALCOHOL 1,757 1,730 5.4 5.3 26.6 26.7 6.9 6.7
90330
Table 4.8B – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use among Persons Aged 26 or Older, Persons Aged 26 or Older At Risk for Initiation of Substance Use, and Past Year Substance Users Aged 26 or Older: Numbers in Thousands and Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Substance NUMBER OF PAST YEAR INITIATES (1,000s) PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG TOTAL POPULATION PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PERSONS AT RISK FOR INITIATION1 PERCENTAGE OF PAST YEAR INITIATES AMONG PAST YEAR USERS
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
-- Not available.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 At Risk for Initiation is defined as persons who did not use the substance(s) in their lifetime or used the substance(s) for the first time in the past year.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
3 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
4 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
5 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS2,3 326 419 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 1.6 2.1
Marijuana and Hashish 134 159 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.2
Cocaine 112 101 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 3.4 3.2
Crack 212 100 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 * 11.6
Heroin 20 28 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 * *
Hallucinogens 128 84 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 11.8 9.6
LSD * 18 * 0.0 * 0.0 * *
PCP * * * * * * * *
Ecstasy 124 124 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 * *
Inhalants 76 23 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 * *
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics3,4 750 678 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 8.1 8.1
Pain Relievers 547 524 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 8.0 8.3
OxyContin® 187 98 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 * 15.4
Tranquilizers 516 390 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 16.8 13.6
Stimulants3 138 125 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 10.8 11.8
Sedatives 80 56 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 * *
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA2,3 548 575 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 4.6 5.3
CIGARETTES 45 89 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2
Daily Cigarette Use5 84 119 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 -- --
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 80a 217 0.0a 0.1 0.1a 0.1 1.2 2.9
CIGARS 556 515 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.4 3.4 3.1
ALCOHOL 112 193 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.8 0.1 0.1
90330
Table 4.9A – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Gender: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Substance Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Male
(2007)
Male
(2008)
Female
(2007)
Female
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
2 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1,2 2,670 2,885 1,225 1,302 1,445 1,583
Marijuana and Hashish 2,090 2,208 1,037 1,062 1,053 1,146
Cocaine 906a 722 538a 413 368 308
Crack 352 205 253 113 99 92
Heroin 106 114 72 78 34 36
Hallucinogens 1,064 1,127 609 682 454 445
LSD 270b 394 182b 283 89 111
PCP 58 53 37 26 22 28
Ecstasy 781 894 446 486 336 409
Inhalants 775 729 429 400 346 330
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 2,532 2,512 1,133 1,051 1,399 1,461
Pain Relievers 2,147 2,176 1,032 985 1,115 1,191
OxyContin® 554 478 259 257 295 221
Tranquilizers 1,232 1,127 495 456 736 671
Stimulants2 642 599 218 254 423 345
Sedatives 198 181 79 51 120 130
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA1,2 2,563 2,693 1,222 1,261 1,341 1,432
CIGARETTES 2,231 2,418 1,100 1,205 1,131 1,213
Daily Cigarette Use4 984 942 525 475 459 466
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 1,297 1,398 962 1,013 335 384
CIGARS 3,076 2,884 1,673 1,579 1,404 1,305
ALCOHOL 4,559 4,466 2,200 2,151 2,359 2,315
90330
Table 4.10A – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older Who Initiated Use Prior to the Age of 18, by Gender: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Substance Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Male
(2007)
Male
(2008)
Female
(2007)
Female
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
2 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1,2 1,604 1,635 807 796 797 839
Marijuana and Hashish 1,300 1,366 669 671 631 695
Cocaine 304 239 146 139 157a 100
Crack 59b 23 26a 9 32a 14
Heroin 19 34 11 19 7 15
Hallucinogens 475 522 252 304 223 218
LSD 111a 168 68a 107 43 60
PCP 41 39 27 17 14 22
Ecstasy 303 281 146 137 157 144
Inhalants 514 514 267 246 247 268
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 985 989 480 466 505 523
Pain Relievers 871 910 415 434 456 477
OxyContin® 178 171 79 98 99 74
Tranquilizers 327 332 151 159 176 173
Stimulants2 259 230 105 93 154 136
Sedatives 69 79 20 34 49 45
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA1,2 1,196 1,248 615 627 581 622
CIGARETTES 1,333 1,421 665 674 668 747
Daily Cigarette Use4 400 350 214 189 186 162
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 681 662 528 510 153 153
CIGARS 1,320 1,313 820 768 500 546
ALCOHOL 2,947 2,804 1,430 1,364 1,517 1,440
90330
Table 4.11A – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older Who Initiated Use Prior to the Age of 21, by Gender: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Substance Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Male
(2007)
Male
(2008)
Female
(2007)
Female
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
2 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1,2 2,159 2,200 1,056 1,071 1,103 1,130
Marijuana and Hashish 1,822 1,843 907 908 915 935
Cocaine 625b 464 359 273 267a 191
Crack 105 72 53 41 52 31
Heroin 54 70 32 46 22 24
Hallucinogens 795 863 458 512 337 351
LSD 222b 315 145b 218 78 97
PCP 54 50 33 22 21 27
Ecstasy 533 587 289 312 244 275
Inhalants 640 656 352 345 288 312
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 1,499 1,477 741 709 758 768
Pain Relievers 1,331 1,333 682 648 650 685
OxyContin® 271 277 125 156 146 121
Tranquilizers 539 559 244 288 295 270
Stimulants2 427 376 171 172 257 203
Sedatives 88 102 32 40 56 62
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA1,2 1,753 1,788 929 914 825 874
CIGARETTES 2,030 2,122 1,021 1,069 1,009 1,053
Daily Cigarette Use4 778 714 429 385 348 329
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 1,090 1,016 841 769 249 247
CIGARS 2,206 2,097 1,341 1,247 865 850
ALCOHOL 3,915 3,777 1,908 1,881 2,007 1,896
90330
Table 4.12A – Past Year Initiation of Substance Use among Persons Aged 12 to 49, by Gender: Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Substance Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Male
(2007)
Male
(2008)
Female
(2007)
Female
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
2 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1,2 2,595 2,816 1,212 1,298 1,383 1,518
Marijuana and Hashish 2,077 2,204 1,024 1,058 1,053 1,146
Cocaine 906a 722 538a 413 368 308
Crack 288 205 189 113 99 92
Heroin 106 114 72 78 34 36
Hallucinogens 1,054 1,127 609 682 445 445
LSD 270b 394 182b 283 89 111
PCP 58 53 37 26 22 28
Ecstasy 781 885 446 486 336 399
Inhalants 774 727 428 397 346 330
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 2,381 2,410 1,083 1,036 1,298 1,374
Pain Relievers 2,052 2,087 981 983 1,071 1,104
OxyContin® 523 476 259 256 264 219
Tranquilizers 1,164 1,092 484 441 680 651
Stimulants2 642 599 218 254 423 345
Sedatives 198 161 79 51 120 109
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA1,2 2,477 2,604 1,222 1,244 1,255 1,360
CIGARETTES 2,231 2,418 1,100 1,205 1,131 1,213
Daily Cigarette Use4 984 937 525 471 459 466
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 1,288 1,343 962 1,005 326 338
CIGARS 3,034a 2,768 1,673 1,544 1,362 1,224
ALCOHOL 4,546 4,404 2,188 2,151 2,359 2,252
90330
Table 4.13B – Mean Age at First Use among Past Year Initiates of Substance Use Aged 12 or Older, by Gender: 2007 and 2008
Substance Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Male
(2007)
Male
(2008)
Female
(2007)
Female
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
2 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1,2 19.2 19.8 17.5 18.0 20.6 21.3
Marijuana and Hashish 17.8 17.9 17.6 17.4 18.0 18.3
Cocaine 20.2 19.8 20.9 19.4 19.2 20.4
Crack 33.8 27.2 37.4a 27.0 24.6 27.5
Heroin 21.8 23.4 21.1 25.7 23.3 18.5
Hallucinogens 19.4 18.6 19.4 18.7 19.5 18.4
LSD 18.3 18.4 18.6 18.8 17.6 17.2
PCP 16.4 15.8 16.0 15.8 17.2 15.8
Ecstasy 20.2 20.6 20.9 20.6 19.4 20.5
Inhalants 17.2 16.0 17.5 16.8 16.8a 15.1
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 23.8 23.5 21.7 20.9 25.6 25.4
Pain Relievers 22.6 22.7 21.6 20.9 23.6 24.2
OxyContin® 25.8 22.0 24.6 21.9 26.8 22.0
Tranquilizers 26.3 25.7 24.1 22.3 27.9 27.9
Stimulants2 21.9 21.3 19.0 19.9 23.3 22.3
Sedatives 24.2 25.8 23.5 20.5 24.8 27.8
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA1,2 21.4 21.7 19.1 19.8 23.4 23.4
CIGARETTES 16.9 17.4 16.7a 17.3 17.1 17.4
Daily Cigarette Use4 19.2 20.2 19.2 19.6 19.3 20.9
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 18.2 20.2 17.4a 19.2 20.6 22.8
CIGARS 21.1 21.5 19.2 20.0 23.3 23.2
ALCOHOL 17.0 17.7 17.0 16.9 16.9 18.4
90330
Table 4.14B – Mean Age at First Use among Past Year Initiates of Substance Use Aged 12 or Older Who Initiated Use Prior to the Age of 18, by Gender: 2007 and 2008
Substance Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Male
(2007)
Male
(2008)
Female
(2007)
Female
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
2 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1,2 14.9 14.9 14.9 15.0 14.9 14.8
Marijuana and Hashish 15.3 15.2 15.3 15.2 15.3 15.1
Cocaine 15.9 15.9 16.1 16.0 15.6 15.7
Crack 15.5 16.1 16.0 16.1 15.0a 16.1
Heroin 15.3 15.6 15.7 16.0 * 15.1
Hallucinogens 15.5 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.3 15.2
LSD 15.5 15.8 15.6 16.0 15.4 15.3
PCP 15.0 14.4 14.8 13.6 15.5 15.0
Ecstasy 15.7 15.7 15.8a 16.2 15.6 15.3
Inhalants 14.2 13.9 14.2 13.9 14.1 13.9
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 15.2 15.2 15.4 15.5 15.0 15.0
Pain Relievers 15.2 15.2 15.4 15.5 15.0 14.9
OxyContin® 15.6 15.5 16.0 15.6 15.3 15.3
Tranquilizers 15.4 15.6 15.6 15.7 15.3 15.5
Stimulants2 15.3 15.4 15.3a 15.9 15.3 15.1
Sedatives 15.0 15.0 15.1 15.1 15.0 14.9
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA1,2 14.9 14.9 15.0 15.1 14.8 14.7
CIGARETTES 15.0 15.1 15.0a 15.3 15.0 15.0
Daily Cigarette Use4 15.6 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.5 15.4
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 15.3 15.2 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.0
CIGARS 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.5 15.5 15.4
ALCOHOL 14.9 14.9 15.0 15.0 14.9 14.8
90330
Table 4.15B – Mean Age at First Use among Past Year Initiates of Substance Use Aged 12 or Older Who Initiated Use Prior to the Age of 21, by Gender: 2007 and 2008
Substance Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Male
(2007)
Male
(2008)
Female
(2007)
Female
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
2 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1,2 15.9 15.9 15.8 15.9 15.9 15.8
Marijuana and Hashish 16.2 16.1 16.1 16.1 16.4a 16.0
Cocaine 17.4 17.3 17.7 17.4 17.0 17.2
Crack 17.0a 17.8 17.5 18.1 16.5 17.4
Heroin 17.9 17.1 18.2 17.5 17.4 16.3
Hallucinogens 16.8 16.8 17.0 16.9 16.5 16.6
LSD 17.2 17.2 17.4 17.4 16.9 16.6
PCP 16.0 15.4 15.5 14.8 17.0 15.8
Ecstasy 17.1 17.3 17.3 17.6 16.8 17.0
Inhalants 15.1 15.0 15.3 15.3 14.8 14.6
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 16.4 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.3 16.2
Pain Relievers 16.4 16.3 16.7 16.6 16.2 16.1
OxyContin® 16.8 16.7 17.1 16.7 16.5 16.7
Tranquilizers 16.8 17.0 16.9 17.1 16.8 16.8
Stimulants2 16.7 16.7 16.6 17.1 16.8 16.3
Sedatives 15.9 15.9 16.5 15.6 15.5 16.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA1,2 16.1 16.0 16.2 16.2 16.0 15.8
CIGARETTES 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.5 16.2 16.0
Daily Cigarette Use4 17.0 17.2 17.1 17.2 16.9 17.1
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 16.6 16.4 16.5 16.4 16.7 16.4
CIGARS 16.7 16.6 16.6 16.7 16.8a 16.5
ALCOHOL 15.8 15.9 15.9 16.0 15.8 15.7
90330
Table 4.16B – Mean Age at First Use among Past Year Initiates of Substance Use Aged 12 to 49, by Gender: 2007 and 2008
Substance Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Male
(2007)
Male
(2008)
Female
(2007)
Female
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Past Year Initiates are defined as persons who used the substance(s) for the first time in the 12 months prior to date of interview.
a Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between estimate and 2008 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.01 level.
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically. Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically.
2 Estimates in these designated rows do not include data from methamphetamine initiation items added in 2007 or methamphetamine use items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Nonmedical use of prescription-type psychotherapeutics includes the nonmedical use of pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives and does not include over-the-counter drugs.
4 Daily Cigarette Use is defined as ever smoking every day for at least 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
ILLICIT DRUGS1,2 18.0 18.8 17.1 17.8 18.8 19.7
Marijuana and Hashish 17.6 17.8 17.1 17.2 18.0 18.3
Cocaine 20.2 19.8 20.9 19.4 19.2 20.4
Crack 29.6 27.2 32.3 27.0 24.6 27.5
Heroin 21.8 23.4 21.1 25.7 23.3 18.5
Hallucinogens 19.1 18.6 19.4 18.7 18.8 18.4
LSD 18.3 18.4 18.6 18.8 17.6 17.2
PCP 16.4 15.8 16.0 15.8 17.2 15.8
Ecstasy 20.2 20.3 20.9 20.6 19.4 19.9
Inhalants 17.1a 15.9 17.4 16.6 16.8a 15.1
Nonmedical Use of Psychotherapeutics2,3 21.8 22.0 20.4 20.3 23.0 23.3
Pain Relievers 21.2 21.2 20.2 20.8 22.2 21.5
OxyContin® 24.0 21.8 24.6 21.8 23.4 21.8
Tranquilizers 24.5 24.4 23.5 21.1 25.3 26.6
Stimulants2 21.9 21.3 19.0 19.9 23.3 22.3
Sedatives 24.2 21.6 23.5 20.5 24.8 22.1
ILLICIT DRUGS OTHER THAN MARIJUANA1,2 20.0 20.4 19.1 19.3 20.9 21.4
CIGARETTES 16.9 17.4 16.7a 17.3 17.1 17.4
Daily Cigarette Use4 19.2 20.1 19.2 19.3 19.3 20.9
SMOKELESS TOBACCO 18.0 18.9 17.4a 18.8 19.7 19.0
CIGARS 20.5 20.0 19.2 19.1 22.2 21.0
ALCOHOL 16.8 17.0 16.7 16.9 16.9 17.1

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