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90414
Table 3.1C – Perceived Risk and Availability of Substances, by Age Group: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Risk/Availability Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Aged 12-17
(2007)
Aged 12-17
(2008)
Aged 18-25
(2007)
Aged 18-25
(2008)
Aged 26+
(2007)
Aged 26+
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
2 Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded.
3 Response categories for the Perceived Availability questions include "Probably impossible," "Very difficult," "Fairly difficult," "Fairly easy," and "Very easy." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Fairly easy" or "Very easy."
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK1                
Cigarettes                
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day 806 796 108 101 135 144 786 767
Marijuana                
Smoke Once a Month 941 941 107 112 144 130 904 912
Smoke Once or Twice a Week 916 935 117 109 154 146 893 898
Cocaine                
Use Once a Month 776 822 109 109 145 138 750 800
Use Once or Twice a Week 500 579 95 95 103 102 481 555
Heroin                
Try Once or Twice 627 652 114 106 122 117 592 625
Use Once or Twice a Week 367 409 89 91 72 76 346 393
LSD                
Try Once or Twice 789 781 111 105 152 152 750 755
Use Once or Twice a Week 525 532 96 100 109 109 493 505
Alcohol                
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day 805 853 108 107 148 145 775 828
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week 906 946 112 111 147 152 876 914
PERCEIVED AVAILABILITY2                
Fairly or Very Easy to Obtain3                
Marijuana 896 897 109 110 138 139 858 854
Cocaine 833 816 97 94 150 139 806 798
Crack 809 814 94 96 145 137 777 786
Heroin 696 693 75 75 122 113 667 682
LSD 651 668 74 76 113 115 628 660
Approached in the Past Month by Someone Selling Drugs 414 379 79 78 119 121 374 329
90414
Table 3.1D – Perceived Risk and Availability of Substances, by Age Group: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Risk/Availability Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Aged 12-17
(2007)
Aged 12-17
(2008)
Aged 18-25
(2007)
Aged 18-25
(2008)
Aged 26+
(2007)
Aged 26+
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
2 Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded.
3 Response categories for the Perceived Availability questions include "Probably impossible," "Very difficult," "Fairly difficult," "Fairly easy," and "Very easy." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Fairly easy" or "Very easy."
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK1                
Cigarettes                
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day 0.33 0.32 0.43 0.41 0.41 0.44 0.42 0.40
Marijuana                
Smoke Once a Month 0.39 0.38 0.43 0.45 0.44 0.40 0.49 0.48
Smoke Once or Twice a Week 0.38 0.38 0.47 0.44 0.47 0.44 0.48 0.48
Cocaine                
Use Once a Month 0.32 0.33 0.44 0.45 0.45 0.42 0.40 0.42
Use Once or Twice a Week 0.20 0.24 0.38 0.39 0.32 0.31 0.26 0.29
Heroin                
Try Once or Twice 0.26 0.27 0.46 0.44 0.38 0.36 0.32 0.33
Use Once or Twice a Week 0.15 0.17 0.36 0.37 0.22 0.23 0.19 0.21
LSD                
Try Once or Twice 0.33 0.32 0.47 0.45 0.47 0.47 0.40 0.40
Use Once or Twice a Week 0.22 0.22 0.40 0.42 0.34 0.34 0.26 0.27
Alcohol                
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day 0.33 0.34 0.43 0.43 0.45 0.44 0.41 0.43
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week 0.37 0.38 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.46 0.48
PERCEIVED AVAILABILITY2                
Fairly or Very Easy to Obtain3                
Marijuana 0.38 0.37 0.44 0.45 0.43 0.43 0.48 0.47
Cocaine 0.36 0.35 0.40 0.39 0.47 0.44 0.45 0.44
Crack 0.35 0.35 0.39 0.40 0.46 0.43 0.44 0.44
Heroin 0.30 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.39 0.36 0.38 0.38
LSD 0.28 0.29 0.31 0.32 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.37
Approached in the Past Month by Someone Selling Drugs 0.17 0.15 0.31 0.32 0.36 0.37 0.20 0.17
90414
Table 3.1P – Perceived Risk and Availability of Substances, by Age Group: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Risk/Availability Total
(2007)
Total
(2008)
Aged 12-17
(2007)
Aged 12-17
(2008)
Aged 18-25
(2007)
Aged 18-25
(2008)
Aged 26+
(2007)
Aged 26+
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
2 Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded.
3 Response categories for the Perceived Availability questions include "Probably impossible," "Very difficult," "Fairly difficult," "Fairly easy," and "Very easy." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Fairly easy" or "Very easy."
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
PERCEPTIONS OF GREAT RISK1                
Cigarettes                
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day 0.4841   0.1319   0.0034   0.6766  
Marijuana                
Smoke Once a Month 0.0226   0.2947   0.0020   0.0671  
Smoke Once or Twice a Week 0.0001   0.0099   0.0001   0.0024  
Cocaine                
Use Once a Month 0.0026   0.9329   0.0301   0.0053  
Use Once or Twice a Week 0.1059   0.6463   0.9177   0.0690  
Heroin                
Try Once or Twice 0.8952   0.2605   0.0721   0.8885  
Use Once or Twice a Week 0.2039   0.5506   0.0418   0.2268  
LSD                
Try Once or Twice 0.0023   0.3398   0.0004   0.0163  
Use Once or Twice a Week 0.0038   0.5994   0.0003   0.0270  
Alcohol                
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day 0.1637   0.2153   0.4727   0.0778  
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week 0.0974   0.0884   0.7442   0.0593  
PERCEIVED AVAILABILITY2                
Fairly or Very Easy to Obtain3                
Marijuana 0.0045   0.9189   0.2135   0.0055  
Cocaine 0.0147   0.0000   0.0004   0.1690  
Crack 0.0001   0.0002   0.0000   0.0062  
Heroin 0.2899   0.0139   0.1896   0.5487  
LSD 0.0882   0.2220   0.3988   0.1361  
Approached in the Past Month by Someone Selling Drugs 0.0129   0.0639   0.5420   0.0462  
90414
Table 3.2C – Perceived Great Risk of Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic CIGARETTES ALCOHOL
Smoke One or More Packs
Per Day
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly
Every Day
Have Five or More Drinks
Once or Twice a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 108 101 108 107 112 111
AGE            
12-13 116 113 118 112 91 86
14-15 119 115 112 113 84 86
16-17 118 116 116 114 84 86
GENDER            
Male 80 78 77 74 76 75
Female 69 67 74 70 83 75
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 97 90 95 95 98 97
White 184 182 176 176 116 113
Black or African American 101 103 100 107 78 81
American Indian or Alaska Native 19 15 * 17 11 12
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 57 52 57 56 38 48
Two or More Races 21 26 23 24 19 18
Hispanic or Latino 47 49 48 48 53 55
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 209 197 207 191 147 135
Small Metro 138 146 131 138 90 94
Nonmetro 88 97 81 90 56 67
90414
Table 3.2D – Perceived Great Risk of Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic CIGARETTES ALCOHOL
Smoke One or More Packs
Per Day
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly
Every Day
Have Five or More Drinks
Once or Twice a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.43 0.41 0.43 0.43 0.45 0.45
AGE            
12-13 0.72 0.76 0.71 0.74 0.78 0.80
14-15 0.74 0.69 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.74
16-17 0.68 0.67 0.70 0.71 0.74 0.75
GENDER            
Male 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.59 0.60 0.60
Female 0.57 0.56 0.60 0.58 0.68 0.62
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.48 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49
White 0.52 0.51 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.51
Black or African American 1.08 1.09 1.01 1.07 1.15 1.13
American Indian or Alaska Native 5.25 3.75 * 5.83 5.89 4.65
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 2.42 2.87 2.37 2.63 2.64 2.99
Two or More Races 2.53 2.49 2.64 2.74 2.98 2.55
Hispanic or Latino 1.03 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.16 1.18
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 0.60 0.60 0.61 0.63 0.67 0.65
Small Metro 0.77 0.72 0.77 0.74 0.76 0.78
Nonmetro 0.98 0.88 0.91 1.04 0.91 0.98
90414
Table 3.2P – Perceived Great Risk of Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic CIGARETTES ALCOHOL
Smoke One or More Packs
Per Day
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly
Every Day
Have Five or More Drinks
Once or Twice a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.1319   0.2153   0.0884  
AGE            
12-13 0.3676   0.3750   0.2375  
14-15 0.2660   0.4371   0.0408  
16-17 0.4676   0.5087   0.0192  
GENDER            
Male 0.1825   0.3192   0.4753  
Female 0.4325   0.4107   0.0902  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.1759   0.0568   0.2603  
White 0.0327   0.1016   0.5685  
Black or African American 0.4710   0.0685   0.4614  
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.2973   *   0.4782  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *  
Asian 0.2814   0.3362   0.2600  
Two or More Races 0.1281   0.7553   0.8640  
Hispanic or Latino 0.5076   0.3465   0.1468  
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 0.8267   0.8563   0.7590  
Small Metro 0.1581   0.0837   0.3048  
Nonmetro 0.0916   0.4489   0.0059  
90414
Table 3.3C – Perceived Great Risk of Marijuana and Cocaine Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic MARIJUANA COCAINE
Smoke Once a Month Smoke Once or Twice
a Week
Use Once a Month Use Once or Twice
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 107 112 117 109 109 109 95 95
AGE                
12-13 84 82 112 105 83 83 121 112
14-15 80 78 103 98 96 92 127 124
16-17 69 67 90 85 105 102 129 130
GENDER                
Male 73 73 81 78 74 76 63 68
Female 76 77 81 74 80 77 64 66
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 95 101 102 99 98 97 81 78
White 110 109 157 150 141 138 202 200
Black or African American 63 60 78 71 83 80 105 106
American Indian or Alaska Native * 6 17 8 18 11 20 21
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 37 38 50 49 38 39 59 52
Two or More Races 13 14 18 24 19 19 26 30
Hispanic or Latino 47 52 52 55 52 53 44 49
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 119 115 167 155 157 146 223 209
Small Metro 81 81 113 111 105 102 147 151
Nonmetro 62 66 82 85 75 77 102 110
90414
Table 3.3D – Perceived Great Risk of Marijuana and Cocaine Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic MARIJUANA COCAINE
Smoke Once a Month Smoke Once or Twice
a Week
Use Once a Month Use Once or Twice
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.43 0.45 0.47 0.44 0.44 0.45 0.38 0.39
AGE                
12-13 0.78 0.74 0.73 0.80 0.74 0.77 0.70 0.68
14-15 0.72 0.78 0.79 0.78 0.75 0.78 0.68 0.65
16-17 0.68 0.70 0.74 0.74 0.77 0.76 0.53 0.58
GENDER                
Male 0.57 0.59 0.63 0.62 0.59 0.61 0.50 0.54
Female 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.62 0.66 0.65 0.53 0.55
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.47 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.40 0.39
White 0.52 0.55 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.42 0.43
Black or African American 1.18 1.12 1.25 1.15 1.17 1.08 1.16 0.86
American Indian or Alaska Native * 3.67 5.92 3.59 5.40 4.52 4.81 4.07
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 2.74 2.95 2.68 3.12 2.95 2.81 2.17 2.67
Two or More Races 2.64 2.35 2.93 2.95 2.67 2.73 2.19 2.19
Hispanic or Latino 1.02 1.13 1.13 1.17 1.15 1.14 0.97 1.05
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.61 0.64 0.67 0.66 0.63 0.63 0.56 0.52
Small Metro 0.73 0.75 0.77 0.73 0.83 0.77 0.62 0.66
Nonmetro 0.91 0.98 0.94 1.00 0.99 0.95 0.80 0.85
90414
Table 3.3P – Perceived Great Risk of Marijuana and Cocaine Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic MARIJUANA COCAINE
Smoke Once a Month Smoke Once or Twice
a Week
Use Once a Month Use Once or Twice
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.2947   0.0099   0.9329   0.6463  
AGE                
12-13 0.2028   0.1700   0.4843   0.8595  
14-15 0.2290   0.5889   0.4465   0.8546  
16-17 0.1534   0.0264   0.9565   0.3304  
GENDER                
Male 0.4583   0.1182   0.7755   0.4395  
Female 0.4492   0.0290   0.6977   0.9108  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.3070   0.0105   0.5537   0.8853  
White 0.6721   0.1063   0.7312   0.7273  
Black or African American 0.2359   0.2813   0.8943   0.0583  
American Indian or Alaska Native *   0.0024   0.0961   0.6514  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *   *  
Asian 0.5445   0.1375   0.8871   0.0372  
Two or More Races 0.2938   0.8697   0.2029   0.7279  
Hispanic or Latino 0.7861   0.5680   0.1688   0.3852  
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.0545   0.0162   0.8338   0.3339  
Small Metro 0.6882   0.3543   0.9441   0.4497  
Nonmetro 0.6203   0.3261   0.5918   0.7927  
90414
Table 3.4C – Perceived Great Risk of Heroin and LSD Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic HEROIN LSD
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 114 106 89 91 111 105 96 100
AGE                
12-13 90 85 117 113 84 80 106 105
14-15 103 103 129 128 97 92 120 117
16-17 116 116 135 135 106 103 127 127
GENDER                
Male 79 75 64 63 78 72 67 68
Female 79 77 60 62 77 78 67 70
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 102 95 79 77 97 95 87 89
White 152 150 204 206 137 131 190 185
Black or African American 89 93 104 108 82 85 95 99
American Indian or Alaska Native * 16 20 16 * 13 21 17
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 43 45 59 54 41 39 49 53
Two or More Races 19 22 23 31 17 20 23 26
Hispanic or Latino 53 51 42 47 49 54 45 50
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 175 164 226 217 163 141 208 196
Small Metro 122 116 153 157 106 108 140 147
Nonmetro 81 87 102 112 77 83 95 99
90414
Table 3.4D – Perceived Great Risk of Heroin and LSD Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic HEROIN LSD
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.46 0.44 0.36 0.37 0.47 0.45 0.40 0.42
AGE                
12-13 0.78 0.78 0.71 0.73 0.77 0.80 0.73 0.76
14-15 0.77 0.74 0.66 0.62 0.78 0.77 0.70 0.73
16-17 0.72 0.76 0.45 0.51 0.75 0.76 0.63 0.64
GENDER                
Male 0.64 0.61 0.51 0.51 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.57
Female 0.66 0.65 0.50 0.52 0.66 0.68 0.58 0.61
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.51 0.48 0.39 0.39 0.50 0.50 0.45 0.47
White 0.58 0.55 0.41 0.41 0.56 0.57 0.45 0.50
Black or African American 1.15 1.06 1.02 1.00 1.27 1.15 1.20 1.11
American Indian or Alaska Native * 5.01 3.85 4.42 * 5.33 3.94 4.70
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 2.96 2.84 2.23 3.00 2.90 2.89 2.57 3.21
Two or More Races 2.72 2.77 2.82 2.09 2.77 2.95 2.56 2.73
Hispanic or Latino 1.17 1.10 0.94 1.02 1.14 1.21 1.04 1.13
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.64 0.62 0.51 0.55 0.67 0.62 0.58 0.62
Small Metro 0.86 0.76 0.63 0.58 0.82 0.80 0.71 0.74
Nonmetro 0.96 0.94 0.80 0.80 1.01 1.05 0.93 0.87
90414
Table 3.4P – Perceived Great Risk of Heroin and LSD Use among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic HEROIN LSD
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
Try Once or Twice Use Once or Twice
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perception of Risk questions include "No risk," "Slight risk," "Moderate risk," and "Great risk." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Great risk." Respondents with unknown Perception of Risk data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.2605   0.5506   0.3398   0.5994  
AGE                
12-13 0.4925   0.6786   0.6323   0.6121  
14-15 0.1428   0.9581   0.4346   0.3312  
16-17 0.5520   0.9565   0.1294   0.7604  
GENDER                
Male 0.2974   0.5899   0.4482   0.8558  
Female 0.5937   0.7537   0.5273   0.5786  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.5097   0.8820   0.3286   0.4864  
White 0.6866   0.8966   0.2297   0.2314  
Black or African American 0.2979   0.3743   0.2933   0.2769  
American Indian or Alaska Native *   0.6502   *   0.0643  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *   *  
Asian 0.7595   0.0203   0.3325   0.7136  
Two or More Races 0.5418   0.3372   0.3360   0.4982  
Hispanic or Latino 0.2781   0.1180   0.8438   0.7080  
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.6247   0.9661   0.4800   0.3759  
Small Metro 0.5676   0.7662   0.4447   0.8700  
Nonmetro 0.2116   0.2614   0.9212   0.8286  
90414
Table 3.5C – Perceived That Obtaining Specific Illicit Drugs Would Be Fairly or Very Easy among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/
Geographic Characteristic
Marijuana
(2007)
Marijuana
(2008)
Cocaine
(2007)
Cocaine
(2008)
Crack
(2007)
Crack
(2008)
Heroin
(2007)
Heroin
(2008)
LSD
(2007)
LSD
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perceived Availability questions include "Probably impossible," "Very difficult," "Fairly difficult," "Fairly easy," and "Very easy." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Fairly easy" or "Very easy." Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 109 110 97 94 94 96 75 75 74 76
AGE                    
12-13 57 58 44 41 46 46 35 36 30 31
14-15 98 100 65 64 72 68 50 49 48 48
16-17 120 120 79 71 76 69 55 51 61 61
GENDER                    
Male 78 77 63 61 62 60 47 47 47 50
Female 73 77 74 71 75 74 59 56 57 56
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 98 98 83 80 80 83 67 66 65 67
White 143 144 83 79 84 81 58 57 63 66
Black or African American 77 78 51 51 54 54 40 39 33 35
American Indian or Alaska Native * 12 * 6 * 6 * 4 6 4
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * * * *
Asian 32 36 19 21 24 22 15 19 18 19
Two or More Races 17 22 13 14 11 14 8 11 9 9
Hispanic or Latino 51 52 48 48 47 46 36 37 33 37
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 158 154 99 89 100 95 67 69 68 71
Small Metro 103 106 63 64 64 63 43 43 46 48
Nonmetro 68 66 42 40 45 42 32 27 29 29
90414
Table 3.5D – Perceived That Obtaining Specific Illicit Drugs Would Be Fairly or Very Easy among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/
Geographic Characteristic
Marijuana
(2007)
Marijuana
(2008)
Cocaine
(2007)
Cocaine
(2008)
Crack
(2007)
Crack
(2008)
Heroin
(2007)
Heroin
(2008)
LSD
(2007)
LSD
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perceived Availability questions include "Probably impossible," "Very difficult," "Fairly difficult," "Fairly easy," and "Very easy." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Fairly easy" or "Very easy." Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.44 0.45 0.40 0.39 0.39 0.40 0.31 0.32 0.31 0.32
AGE                    
12-13 0.64 0.70 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.60 0.43 0.48 0.39 0.43
14-15 0.78 0.79 0.66 0.67 0.71 0.70 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.54
16-17 0.67 0.71 0.76 0.69 0.75 0.66 0.60 0.55 0.67 0.62
GENDER                    
Male 0.62 0.63 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.42
Female 0.61 0.65 0.63 0.60 0.63 0.63 0.50 0.49 0.50 0.49
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.49 0.50 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.43 0.34 0.35 0.34 0.36
White 0.57 0.57 0.48 0.47 0.47 0.48 0.37 0.37 0.40 0.41
Black or African American 1.10 1.16 0.99 1.09 0.98 1.09 0.89 0.93 0.78 0.88
American Indian or Alaska Native * 4.62 * 4.16 * 4.35 * 2.97 3.68 3.16
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * * * *
Asian 2.50 2.92 1.80 2.02 2.16 2.10 1.45 1.87 1.78 1.89
Two or More Races 3.17 2.66 2.84 2.45 2.43 2.51 1.91 2.06 2.09 1.87
Hispanic or Latino 1.13 1.14 1.08 1.05 1.06 1.02 0.80 0.82 0.77 0.83
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 0.64 0.67 0.59 0.59 0.57 0.59 0.45 0.48 0.45 0.49
Small Metro 0.75 0.76 0.66 0.71 0.67 0.69 0.57 0.55 0.58 0.58
Nonmetro 0.98 0.97 0.82 0.80 0.85 0.81 0.70 0.61 0.67 0.65
90414
Table 3.5P – Perceived That Obtaining Specific Illicit Drugs Would Be Fairly or Very Easy among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/
Geographic Characteristic
Marijuana
(2007)
Marijuana
(2008)
Cocaine
(2007)
Cocaine
(2008)
Crack
(2007)
Crack
(2008)
Heroin
(2007)
Heroin
(2008)
LSD
(2007)
LSD
(2008)
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Perceived Availability questions include "Probably impossible," "Very difficult," "Fairly difficult," "Fairly easy," and "Very easy." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Fairly easy" or "Very easy." Respondents with unknown Perceived Availability data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.9189   0.0000   0.0002   0.0139   0.2220  
AGE                    
12-13 0.9063   0.2049   0.9744   0.6497   0.6192  
14-15 0.2344   0.2459   0.3529   0.6560   0.3116  
16-17 0.0157   0.0000   0.0000   0.0001   0.0095  
GENDER                    
Male 0.7996   0.0176   0.0218   0.2741   0.6665  
Female 0.6895   0.0006   0.0045   0.0213   0.2087  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.6790   0.0001   0.0012   0.0234   0.1639  
White 0.2337   0.0003   0.0083   0.1543   0.2618  
Black or African American 0.3345   0.1180   0.1159   0.0128   0.3464  
American Indian or Alaska Native *   *   *   *   0.9761  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *   *   *  
Asian 0.9665   0.5561   0.4125   0.6842   0.7633  
Two or More Races 0.3083   0.4277   0.9629   0.5995   0.2692  
Hispanic or Latino 0.3008   0.0551   0.0706   0.3662   0.9441  
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 0.2070   0.0018   0.0144   0.1836   0.6091  
Small Metro 0.8234   0.0257   0.0113   0.0566   0.5019  
Nonmetro 0.0372   0.0909   0.1593   0.2593   0.2168  
90414
Table 3.6C – Youths Feel That Parents Would Strongly Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Perceptions of Parents' Feelings include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove." Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Parents' Feelings data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 61 57 64 64 56 56 66 69
AGE                
12-13 142 132 142 133 143 133 138 132
14-15 142 140 141 139 142 141 140 136
16-17 135 135 134 130 137 132 132 132
GENDER                
Male 45 41 47 46 40 40 50 49
Female 40 38 44 42 39 37 44 47
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 53 49 59 58 50 50 58 60
White 221 223 220 214 223 223 218 220
Black or African American 124 124 122 122 124 123 122 121
American Indian or Alaska Native 21 22 * 22 * 22 20 19
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 66 64 66 62 66 63 66 62
Two or More Races 27 32 28 32 28 33 28 31
Hispanic or Latino 28 29 28 28 25 28 35 37
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 261 242 256 235 260 242 252 235
Small Metro 163 175 164 171 167 176 159 171
Nonmetro 113 123 114 123 116 125 108 121
90414
Table 3.6D – Youths Feel That Parents Would Strongly Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Perceptions of Parents' Feelings include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove." Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Parents' Feelings data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.25 0.23 0.26 0.26 0.22 0.23 0.27 0.28
AGE                
12-13 0.31 0.32 0.30 0.35 0.25 0.31 0.35 0.40
14-15 0.39 0.39 0.45 0.43 0.39 0.37 0.45 0.48
16-17 0.52 0.46 0.52 0.52 0.46 0.45 0.53 0.52
GENDER                
Male 0.35 0.33 0.37 0.37 0.32 0.32 0.39 0.39
Female 0.33 0.32 0.36 0.35 0.32 0.31 0.36 0.39
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.26 0.25 0.29 0.29 0.25 0.25 0.28 0.30
White 0.30 0.29 0.34 0.34 0.29 0.28 0.33 0.34
Black or African American 0.67 0.65 0.64 0.64 0.57 0.61 0.76 0.73
American Indian or Alaska Native 3.45 2.96 * 2.19 * 2.74 3.57 3.03
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 0.84 1.70 0.92 2.05 1.27 2.06 1.18 2.24
Two or More Races 1.97 1.55 1.48 1.92 1.23 1.51 1.52 1.84
Hispanic or Latino 0.62 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.56 0.61 0.77 0.80
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.33 0.33 0.37 0.37 0.33 0.33 0.39 0.43
Small Metro 0.45 0.41 0.47 0.48 0.40 0.41 0.47 0.46
Nonmetro 0.60 0.59 0.52 0.52 0.47 0.49 0.62 0.61
90414
Table 3.6P – Youths Feel That Parents Would Strongly Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Perceptions of Parents' Feelings include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove." Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Parents' Feelings data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.3938   0.5138   0.6226   0.8075  
AGE                
12-13 0.9649   0.7408   0.3959   0.5654  
14-15 0.8326   0.6891   0.2327   0.5330  
16-17 0.1134   0.4400   0.3424   0.1323  
GENDER                
Male 0.2370   0.4341   0.3281   0.7117  
Female 0.9884   0.8869   0.7577   0.9659  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.2568   0.4175   0.6992   0.4727  
White 0.0861   0.3689   0.8639   0.1677  
Black or African American 0.8332   0.5627   0.5532   0.9500  
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.5567   *   *   0.3622  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *   *  
Asian 0.4309   0.2713   0.4379   0.2861  
Two or More Races 0.8874   0.3713   0.6786   0.3093  
Hispanic or Latino 0.7793   0.8866   0.7544   0.5000  
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.3824   0.8365   0.6798   0.4685  
Small Metro 0.3093   0.4996   0.5618   0.2720  
Nonmetro 0.4212   0.1821   0.1591   0.4770  
90414
Table 3.7C – Youths Feel That Close Friends Would Strongly Disapprove or Somewhat Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Perceptions of Close Friends' Feelings include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove" or "Somewhat disapprove." Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Close Friends' Feelings data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 72 73 84 87 84 81 78 76
AGE                
12-13 141 132 143 132 142 132 140 130
14-15 135 138 130 135 133 137 132 135
16-17 127 128 119 116 122 118 125 127
GENDER                
Male 54 55 63 63 64 60 59 58
Female 46 47 56 55 53 53 54 49
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 67 65 77 77 77 73 71 66
White 213 215 202 200 204 205 204 208
Black or African American 120 119 116 114 116 112 118 115
American Indian or Alaska Native * 17 20 17 20 17 * 17
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 66 63 63 61 63 61 65 61
Two or More Races 28 31 28 30 28 30 28 30
Hispanic or Latino 30 35 36 40 34 38 33 39
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 248 236 237 218 241 222 240 229
Small Metro 158 168 151 161 153 162 154 164
Nonmetro 109 116 107 117 109 117 105 112
90414
Table 3.7D – Youths Feel That Close Friends Would Strongly Disapprove or Somewhat Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Perceptions of Close Friends' Feelings include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove" or "Somewhat disapprove." Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Close Friends' Feelings data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.29 0.30 0.34 0.35 0.34 0.33 0.32 0.31
AGE                
12-13 0.36 0.38 0.35 0.37 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.39
14-15 0.48 0.54 0.57 0.59 0.56 0.57 0.58 0.56
16-17 0.57 0.55 0.67 0.66 0.69 0.64 0.63 0.60
GENDER                
Male 0.42 0.44 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.48 0.47 0.46
Female 0.37 0.39 0.46 0.46 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.40
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.33 0.33 0.38 0.39 0.38 0.36 0.35 0.33
White 0.38 0.36 0.43 0.45 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.38
Black or African American 0.79 0.80 0.98 0.94 0.92 0.91 0.84 0.79
American Indian or Alaska Native * 3.66 4.43 3.79 4.36 3.82 * 3.80
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 1.21 1.78 1.32 1.85 1.71 1.82 1.29 1.88
Two or More Races 1.50 1.68 1.89 2.06 1.60 2.05 1.66 2.07
Hispanic or Latino 0.66 0.76 0.80 0.87 0.75 0.82 0.73 0.84
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.40 0.41 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.48 0.45 0.44
Small Metro 0.51 0.49 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.55 0.50
Nonmetro 0.64 0.73 0.66 0.76 0.66 0.69 0.75 0.72
90414
Table 3.7P – Youths Feel That Close Friends Would Strongly Disapprove or Somewhat Disapprove of Youth's Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Perceptions of Close Friends' Feelings include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove" or "Somewhat disapprove." Respondents with unknown Perceptions of Close Friends' Feelings data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.4240   0.5692   0.5865   0.2468  
AGE                
12-13 0.4319   0.3469   0.7915   0.8525  
14-15 0.1180   0.6434   0.7402   0.7376  
16-17 0.3331   0.5803   0.8895   0.0953  
GENDER                
Male 0.2648   0.5554   0.6511   0.7948  
Female 0.9373   0.8418   0.7668   0.1542  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.6164   0.3697   0.5130   0.2411  
White 0.2294   0.7351   0.4312   0.0171  
Black or African American 0.0465   0.0802   0.0567   0.5774  
American Indian or Alaska Native *   0.2224   0.2786   *  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *   *  
Asian 0.1447   0.6399   0.5920   0.0576  
Two or More Races 0.4109   0.2434   0.0849   0.5703  
Hispanic or Latino 0.4406   0.6154   0.9437   0.8136  
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.2542   0.3606   0.3944   0.8751  
Small Metro 0.1374   0.5648   0.5495   0.0469  
Nonmetro 0.0941   0.6632   0.6085   0.9290  
90414
Table 3.8C – Youths Strongly Disapprove or Somewhat Disapprove of Peers' Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Feelings about Peers include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove" or "Somewhat disapprove." Respondents with unknown Feelings about Peers data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 68 68 85 85 86 84 78 76
AGE                
12-13 143 132 142 132 142 132 142 131
14-15 139 139 134 130 133 132 134 136
16-17 131 132 119 117 123 118 130 129
GENDER                
Male 51 50 64 60 66 61 61 57
Female 44 44 56 58 53 57 50 47
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 60 59 79 77 78 75 69 65
White 216 218 204 201 207 203 213 212
Black or African American 123 121 119 113 117 110 120 115
American Indian or Alaska Native 21 21 20 21 20 21 * 18
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 64 62 62 61 62 61 64 62
Two or More Races 27 31 25 29 28 30 28 31
Hispanic or Latino 29 32 36 40 38 42 36 37
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 257 237 237 217 240 218 249 232
Small Metro 162 170 152 157 153 159 157 165
Nonmetro 109 120 110 114 111 115 106 117
90414
Table 3.8D – Youths Strongly Disapprove or Somewhat Disapprove of Peers' Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Feelings about Peers include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove" or "Somewhat disapprove." Respondents with unknown Feelings about Peers data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.27 0.28 0.34 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.31 0.31
AGE                
12-13 0.35 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.41 0.38 0.39 0.40
14-15 0.47 0.49 0.59 0.56 0.58 0.56 0.56 0.50
16-17 0.53 0.52 0.68 0.69 0.68 0.70 0.59 0.61
GENDER                
Male 0.40 0.40 0.51 0.48 0.52 0.49 0.48 0.45
Female 0.36 0.37 0.46 0.48 0.43 0.47 0.40 0.39
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.30 0.30 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.34 0.32
White 0.32 0.34 0.46 0.46 0.44 0.43 0.40 0.37
Black or African American 0.77 0.68 0.86 0.80 0.87 0.81 0.76 0.79
American Indian or Alaska Native 1.97 3.07 4.56 3.94 4.45 4.14 * 4.78
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 1.46 2.20 1.67 2.31 1.56 2.31 1.28 1.38
Two or More Races 2.27 1.86 2.07 2.20 2.00 2.11 1.78 1.76
Hispanic or Latino 0.64 0.69 0.79 0.87 0.84 0.91 0.78 0.81
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.39 0.39 0.50 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.45 0.44
Small Metro 0.49 0.45 0.59 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.53 0.50
Nonmetro 0.60 0.64 0.66 0.72 0.69 0.70 0.68 0.72
90414
Table 3.8P – Youths Strongly Disapprove or Somewhat Disapprove of Peers' Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIOR
Smoking One or More
Packs of Cigarettes
Per Day
Trying Marijuana or
Hashish Once or Twice
Using Marijuana or
Hashish Once a Month
or More
Having One or Two
Drinks of an Alcoholic
Beverage Nearly Every
Day
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Youth's Feelings about Peers include "Neither approve nor disapprove," "Somewhat disapprove," and "Strongly disapprove." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Strongly disapprove" or "Somewhat disapprove." Respondents with unknown Feelings about Peers data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.7736   0.4410   0.6371   0.3394  
AGE                
12-13 0.3803   0.9065   0.6280   0.8644  
14-15 0.5062   0.7077   0.4534   0.1935  
16-17 0.3377   0.3866   0.2865   0.4795  
GENDER                
Male 0.9897   0.8940   0.6324   0.3346  
Female 0.6542   0.2035   0.1966   0.7064  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.8000   0.9681   0.9940   0.1108  
White 0.7611   0.6875   0.5599   0.0202  
Black or African American 0.5695   0.5050   0.5188   0.5755  
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.3191   0.8365   0.9167   *  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *   *  
Asian 0.5265   0.7889   0.5777   0.3820  
Two or More Races 0.6866   0.9147   0.7228   0.4326  
Hispanic or Latino 0.9030   0.0770   0.3325   0.3904  
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.5562   0.3474   0.6447   0.8863  
Small Metro 0.4554   0.7792   0.7760   0.2253  
Nonmetro 0.5673   0.6084   0.4361   0.4638  
90414
Table 3.9C – Participation in a Prevention Program or Group in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PREVENTION PROGRAM OR GROUP1
Problem-Solving, Communication,
or Self-Esteem Group
Violence Prevention Program Pregnancy or Sexually
Transmitted Disease Prevention
Program
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 94 95 85 76 75 70
AGE            
12-13 67 65 63 55 42 37
14-15 59 63 50 47 50 51
16-17 57 56 42 36 41 41
GENDER            
Male 64 66 57 50 49 46
Female 70 66 60 54 56 52
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 82 83 74 65 64 62
White 80 82 59 56 51 49
Black or African American 53 48 51 44 45 39
American Indian or Alaska Native 6 7 4 4 5 5
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 29 27 23 18 19 25
Two or More Races 12 18 11 11 7 9
Hispanic or Latino 43 44 38 38 40 33
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 93 91 76 70 68 62
Small Metro 64 64 51 42 44 37
Nonmetro 39 42 32 34 30 33
90414
Table 3.9D – Participation in a Prevention Program or Group in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PREVENTION PROGRAM OR GROUP1
Problem-Solving, Communication,
or Self-Esteem Group
Violence Prevention Program Pregnancy or Sexually
Transmitted Disease Prevention
Program
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.38 0.39 0.34 0.31 0.30 0.28
AGE            
12-13 0.70 0.71 0.66 0.60 0.49 0.45
14-15 0.62 0.66 0.56 0.52 0.55 0.55
16-17 0.61 0.59 0.48 0.41 0.46 0.45
GENDER            
Male 0.51 0.53 0.45 0.40 0.38 0.36
Female 0.58 0.55 0.49 0.44 0.46 0.43
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.41 0.42 0.36 0.33 0.31 0.31
White 0.45 0.47 0.37 0.34 0.31 0.32
Black or African American 1.03 1.02 1.05 0.96 0.91 0.84
American Indian or Alaska Native 3.70 4.22 2.79 2.90 2.92 3.28
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 2.49 2.59 2.14 1.79 1.74 2.38
Two or More Races 2.72 2.82 2.10 2.04 1.59 1.75
Hispanic or Latino 0.94 0.96 0.82 0.81 0.88 0.70
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 0.56 0.57 0.49 0.48 0.44 0.41
Small Metro 0.70 0.66 0.60 0.48 0.53 0.45
Nonmetro 0.77 0.82 0.63 0.69 0.64 0.71
90414
Table 3.9P – Participation in a Prevention Program or Group in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PREVENTION PROGRAM OR GROUP1
Problem-Solving, Communication,
or Self-Esteem Group
Violence Prevention Program Pregnancy or Sexually
Transmitted Disease Prevention
Program
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.1286   0.0000   0.0598  
AGE            
12-13 0.0832   0.0001   0.0033  
14-15 0.8145   0.1417   0.7474  
16-17 0.2802   0.0185   0.2201  
GENDER            
Male 0.4564   0.0001   0.1004  
Female 0.1600   0.0029   0.2675  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.1751   0.0000   0.1328  
White 0.6117   0.0108   0.5188  
Black or African American 0.0344   0.0023   0.0106  
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.1633   0.8849   0.3736  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *  
Asian 0.6385   0.2597   0.5046  
Two or More Races 0.8870   0.3595   0.7889  
Hispanic or Latino 0.4986   0.0193   0.2467  
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 0.2579   0.0000   0.2105  
Small Metro 0.3409   0.0020   0.0944  
Nonmetro 0.6738   0.5316   0.8405  
90414
Table 3.10C – Participation in a Substance Use Program or Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Message in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE PROGRAM OR PREVENTION MESSAGE1
Participated in Alcohol,
Tobacco, or Drug
Prevention Program
Outside of School
Participated in Program
to Help Deal with Drug
or Alcohol Use
Saw or Heard Alcohol or
Drug Prevention Message
from Sources Outside
School
Talked to Parents about
Dangers of Tobacco,
Alcohol, or Drug Use
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 74 72 48 45 99 87 115 110
AGE                
12-13 48 46 33 28 122 110 111 101
14-15 42 46 27 27 131 128 110 109
16-17 42 40 25 26 134 128 108 105
GENDER                
Male 54 48 35 32 70 63 82 76
Female 50 50 33 32 65 61 79 76
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 65 63 42 37 86 77 100 95
White 53 53 31 27 195 200 163 165
Black or African American 35 39 26 23 107 110 83 82
American Indian or Alaska Native * 7 5 2 20 * 18 12
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 23 26 12 14 57 59 43 42
Two or More Races 10 10 5 5 23 31 19 26
Hispanic or Latino 35 32 23 25 45 45 53 53
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 61 62 39 39 233 212 179 168
Small Metro 46 44 27 24 153 146 133 128
Nonmetro 30 33 16 16 95 108 82 83
90414
Table 3.10D – Participation in a Substance Use Program or Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Message in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE PROGRAM OR PREVENTION MESSAGE1
Participated in Alcohol,
Tobacco, or Drug
Prevention Program
Outside of School
Participated in Program
to Help Deal with Drug
or Alcohol Use
Saw or Heard Alcohol or
Drug Prevention Message
from Sources Outside
School
Talked to Parents about
Dangers of Tobacco,
Alcohol, or Drug Use
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.30 0.29 0.19 0.18 0.40 0.35 0.46 0.45
AGE                
12-13 0.55 0.54 0.39 0.35 0.69 0.67 0.79 0.75
14-15 0.47 0.51 0.32 0.31 0.65 0.61 0.79 0.77
16-17 0.46 0.44 0.29 0.30 0.65 0.57 0.75 0.76
GENDER                
Male 0.43 0.38 0.28 0.26 0.55 0.50 0.65 0.61
Female 0.41 0.42 0.27 0.27 0.53 0.51 0.65 0.63
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.32 0.32 0.21 0.19 0.43 0.39 0.49 0.48
White 0.33 0.32 0.20 0.18 0.46 0.45 0.52 0.54
Black or African American 0.80 0.86 0.63 0.56 1.07 0.98 1.16 1.11
American Indian or Alaska Native * 3.74 3.17 1.64 4.90 * 5.81 4.02
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 2.09 2.46 1.20 1.47 2.23 2.20 2.99 2.71
Two or More Races 2.27 1.79 1.18 1.05 2.37 2.11 2.96 2.75
Hispanic or Latino 0.76 0.69 0.51 0.54 0.99 0.97 1.17 1.14
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.41 0.41 0.27 0.27 0.57 0.52 0.62 0.64
Small Metro 0.54 0.51 0.35 0.31 0.69 0.60 0.85 0.78
Nonmetro 0.62 0.67 0.37 0.38 0.86 0.76 1.01 0.94
90414
Table 3.10P – Participation in a Substance Use Program or Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Message in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE PROGRAM OR PREVENTION MESSAGE1
Participated in Alcohol,
Tobacco, or Drug
Prevention Program
Outside of School
Participated in Program
to Help Deal with Drug
or Alcohol Use
Saw or Heard Alcohol or
Drug Prevention Message
from Sources Outside
School
Talked to Parents about
Dangers of Tobacco,
Alcohol, or Drug Use
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.5157   0.1726   0.7811   0.1627  
AGE                
12-13 0.0829   0.0694   0.9337   0.5636  
14-15 0.4979   0.4903   0.3696   0.8621  
16-17 0.8686   0.2943   0.5904   0.0582  
GENDER                
Male 0.4283   0.0981   0.8292   0.8894  
Female 0.8942   0.7756   0.8531   0.0336  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.9654   0.2077   0.8938   0.9338  
White 0.7432   0.3956   0.4840   0.6422  
Black or African American 0.8846   0.3052   0.3024   0.5852  
American Indian or Alaska Native *   0.2787   *   0.0728  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *   *  
Asian 0.8714   0.9704   0.9716   0.8967  
Two or More Races 0.8946   0.9483   0.3689   0.2886  
Hispanic or Latino 0.2035   0.4974   0.7182   0.0050  
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.7275   0.1441   0.7376   0.1288  
Small Metro 0.1579   0.4824   0.8101   0.5958  
Nonmetro 0.6038   0.6845   0.6803   0.1665  
90414
Table 3.11C – Participated in a Physical Delinquent Behavior in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Got into a Serious Fight
at School or Work
Took Part in a
Group-Against-Group Fight
Attacked Someone with the Intent
to Seriously Hurt Them
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as having participated if they indicated taking part in the particular behavior at least one time. Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 96 90 80 79 57 57
AGE            
12-13 62 58 48 45 32 30
14-15 66 65 53 52 35 37
16-17 64 56 52 49 35 37
GENDER            
Male 68 68 60 57 45 43
Female 63 60 52 52 34 36
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 84 76 72 68 52 50
White 77 73 64 59 42 38
Black or African American 59 50 45 41 35 32
American Indian or Alaska Native 11 8 8 6 2 6
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 25 21 20 24 14 11
Two or More Races 17 14 15 11 9 9
Hispanic or Latino 44 45 38 39 24 28
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 98 84 72 70 51 45
Small Metro 60 59 47 45 30 34
Nonmetro 43 46 36 36 21 26
90414
Table 3.11D – Participated in a Physical Delinquent Behavior in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Got into a Serious Fight
at School or Work
Took Part in a
Group-Against-Group Fight
Attacked Someone with the Intent
to Seriously Hurt Them
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as having participated if they indicated taking part in the particular behavior at least one time. Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.38 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.23 0.23
AGE            
12-13 0.66 0.65 0.53 0.53 0.37 0.37
14-15 0.64 0.66 0.57 0.55 0.39 0.41
16-17 0.64 0.59 0.56 0.52 0.39 0.41
GENDER            
Male 0.53 0.54 0.47 0.45 0.35 0.34
Female 0.51 0.49 0.42 0.43 0.27 0.30
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.41 0.38 0.35 0.34 0.25 0.25
White 0.43 0.41 0.38 0.37 0.26 0.25
Black or African American 1.08 1.00 0.92 0.91 0.73 0.76
American Indian or Alaska Native 5.09 3.42 4.51 3.52 1.23 3.35
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 2.28 1.98 1.87 2.21 1.40 1.15
Two or More Races 3.10 2.42 2.98 1.97 1.83 1.73
Hispanic or Latino 0.94 0.97 0.82 0.83 0.51 0.59
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 0.56 0.55 0.46 0.46 0.34 0.32
Small Metro 0.63 0.59 0.54 0.51 0.40 0.41
Nonmetro 0.82 0.81 0.74 0.70 0.47 0.55
90414
Table 3.11P – Participated in a Physical Delinquent Behavior in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Got into a Serious Fight
at School or Work
Took Part in a
Group-Against-Group Fight
Attacked Someone with the Intent
to Seriously Hurt Them
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as having participated if they indicated taking part in the particular behavior at least one time. Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.0631   0.0418   0.9810  
AGE            
12-13 0.9452   0.7201   0.9033  
14-15 0.3188   0.4479   0.5705  
16-17 0.0293   0.0156   0.5717  
GENDER            
Male 0.0819   0.0385   0.2818  
Female 0.3821   0.4405   0.1782  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.0286   0.0100   0.6882  
White 0.3950   0.0103   0.9559  
Black or African American 0.0288   0.3316   0.4073  
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.3729   0.9673   0.0095  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *  
Asian 0.6525   0.7498   0.3332  
Two or More Races 0.0862   0.2873   0.9481  
Hispanic or Latino 0.9674   0.6231   0.4677  
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 0.1154   0.2812   0.2553  
Small Metro 0.2720   0.0335   0.6471  
Nonmetro 0.8496   0.7249   0.0967  
90414
Table 3.12C – Participated in a Nonphysical Delinquent Behavior in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Carried a Handgun Sold Illegal Drugs Stole or Tried to Steal Anything
Worth More Than $50
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as having participated if they indicated taking part in the particular behavior at least one time. Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 40 38 36 39 46 44
AGE            
12-13 16 16 8 9 17 17
14-15 26 29 21 24 28 27
16-17 28 23 27 28 35 33
GENDER            
Male 36 35 32 32 40 35
Female 17 16 17 22 25 28
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 35 35 33 34 41 38
White 31 30 28 28 32 31
Black or African American 17 17 16 16 22 23
American Indian or Alaska Native 3 2 5 1 5 *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 11 13 7 12 14 11
Two or More Races 6 4 2 6 6 8
Hispanic or Latino 17 18 15 19 21 22
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 28 29 29 32 40 37
Small Metro 26 21 19 21 25 24
Nonmetro 18 18 11 13 13 17
90414
Table 3.12D – Participated in a Nonphysical Delinquent Behavior in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Carried a Handgun Sold Illegal Drugs Stole or Tried to Steal Anything
Worth More Than $50
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as having participated if they indicated taking part in the particular behavior at least one time. Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.16 0.16 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.18
AGE            
12-13 0.20 0.21 0.10 0.12 0.21 0.22
14-15 0.29 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.32
16-17 0.31 0.27 0.32 0.32 0.38 0.37
GENDER            
Male 0.28 0.28 0.25 0.25 0.31 0.28
Female 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.18 0.20 0.23
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.17 0.20 0.19
White 0.19 0.20 0.18 0.18 0.21 0.20
Black or African American 0.43 0.43 0.40 0.42 0.53 0.58
American Indian or Alaska Native 1.84 1.31 2.68 0.76 2.80 *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 1.07 1.28 0.65 1.24 1.39 1.10
Two or More Races 1.28 0.89 0.60 1.20 1.31 1.53
Hispanic or Latino 0.37 0.37 0.32 0.40 0.46 0.47
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.23 0.27 0.27
Small Metro 0.34 0.27 0.26 0.28 0.33 0.30
Nonmetro 0.40 0.39 0.26 0.30 0.31 0.37
90414
Table 3.12P – Participated in a Nonphysical Delinquent Behavior in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR
Carried a Handgun Sold Illegal Drugs Stole or Tried to Steal Anything
Worth More Than $50
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as having participated if they indicated taking part in the particular behavior at least one time. Respondents with unknown Delinquent Behavior data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.5469   0.4937   0.1429  
AGE            
12-13 0.6235   0.9350   0.5455  
14-15 0.8385   0.8104   0.3903  
16-17 0.1063   0.6543   0.4508  
GENDER            
Male 0.4168   0.9788   0.4699  
Female 0.7104   0.1872   0.1521  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.8055   0.7745   0.3277  
White 0.9481   0.7640   0.4392  
Black or African American 0.8651   0.4223   0.4080  
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.9847   0.2638   *  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *  
Asian 0.9768   0.7996   0.6906  
Two or More Races 0.5157   0.1916   0.8619  
Hispanic or Latino 0.3972   0.3407   0.2348  
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 0.6027   0.9536   0.2500  
Small Metro 0.0721   0.3453   0.9455  
Nonmetro 0.9898   0.4937   0.0829  
90414
Table 3.13C – Selected Risk and Protective Factors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic RISK FACTORS1 PROTECTIVE FACTORS1
Youth Moved 2 or
More Times in the
Past 5 Years
Youth Argued with
at Least One Parent
10 or More Times
in the Past Year
Youth Was
Approached by
Someone Selling
Drugs in the
Past Month
Youth Had Someone
to Talk to about
Problems2
Youth Attended 25
or More Religious
Services in the Past
Year3
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Respondents were able to select multiple categories of persons that they would talk to about a serious problem, including the choice of "nobody." Respondents who reported both a person that they would talk to and that they had nobody to talk to were excluded from the analysis.
3 Special occasions, such as weddings, funerals, or other special events, were not to have been considered in the number of times attended religious services.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 116 107 101 95 79 78 43 44 115 117
AGE                    
12-13 72 69 52 53 29 27 143 134 75 73
14-15 71 73 67 68 51 50 145 144 79 76
16-17 69 61 69 68 67 63 143 139 77 77
GENDER                    
Male 81 70 61 60 64 56 30 33 77 75
Female 73 72 73 70 47 53 29 27 76 76
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 99 90 88 86 69 65 36 37 103 104
White 84 81 98 99 65 60 225 228 125 119
Black or African American 69 63 35 32 43 42 130 128 55 57
American Indian or Alaska Native 10 11 * 4 10 7 21 * * 5
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * * * *
Asian 32 26 24 33 15 12 65 62 39 31
Two or More Races 16 18 11 15 13 13 29 34 16 15
Hispanic or Latino 55 54 43 44 38 39 24 23 44 47
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 126 99 101 100 75 72 265 246 122 122
Small Metro 73 76 61 72 50 47 172 179 92 88
Nonmetro 47 49 41 44 30 26 116 129 58 60
90414
Table 3.13D – Selected Risk and Protective Factors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic RISK FACTORS1 PROTECTIVE FACTORS1
Youth Moved 2 or
More Times in the
Past 5 Years
Youth Argued with
at Least One Parent
10 or More Times
in the Past Year
Youth Was
Approached by
Someone Selling
Drugs in the
Past Month
Youth Had Someone
to Talk to about
Problems2
Youth Attended 25
or More Religious
Services in the Past
Year3
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Respondents were able to select multiple categories of persons that they would talk to about a serious problem, including the choice of "nobody." Respondents who reported both a person that they would talk to and that they had nobody to talk to were excluded from the analysis.
3 Special occasions, such as weddings, funerals, or other special events, were not to have been considered in the number of times attended religious services.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.47 0.44 0.41 0.39 0.31 0.32 0.17 0.18 0.47 0.48
AGE                    
12-13 0.75 0.75 0.57 0.62 0.34 0.34 0.26 0.31 0.72 0.78
14-15 0.71 0.73 0.72 0.68 0.53 0.55 0.28 0.34 0.74 0.73
16-17 0.71 0.64 0.68 0.66 0.65 0.63 0.35 0.29 0.74 0.73
GENDER                    
Male 0.64 0.57 0.48 0.48 0.50 0.44 0.24 0.27 0.61 0.60
Female 0.61 0.61 0.60 0.58 0.38 0.43 0.24 0.22 0.63 0.64
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.49 0.46 0.43 0.43 0.34 0.32 0.18 0.19 0.51 0.53
White 0.50 0.48 0.51 0.49 0.37 0.36 0.18 0.19 0.61 0.60
Black or African American 1.22 1.32 0.81 0.76 0.91 0.95 0.51 0.47 1.06 1.15
American Indian or Alaska Native 5.47 5.55 * 3.71 4.71 3.45 1.43 * * 4.32
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * * * *
Asian 2.84 2.50 2.09 3.00 1.36 1.16 1.29 1.49 3.12 2.85
Two or More Races 2.88 2.93 2.49 2.50 2.67 2.26 0.65 1.01 3.21 2.61
Hispanic or Latino 1.22 1.19 0.94 0.94 0.81 0.83 0.52 0.50 0.98 1.03
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 0.71 0.62 0.59 0.57 0.45 0.47 0.25 0.27 0.68 0.70
Small Metro 0.80 0.81 0.67 0.71 0.59 0.54 0.30 0.29 0.87 0.82
Nonmetro 0.93 0.91 0.78 0.85 0.65 0.56 0.35 0.39 0.99 1.03
90414
Table 3.13P – Selected Risk and Protective Factors among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic RISK FACTORS1 PROTECTIVE FACTORS1
Youth Moved 2 or
More Times in the
Past 5 Years
Youth Argued with
at Least One Parent
10 or More Times
in the Past Year
Youth Was
Approached by
Someone Selling
Drugs in the
Past Month
Youth Had Someone
to Talk to about
Problems2
Youth Attended 25
or More Religious
Services in the Past
Year3
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Respondents were able to select multiple categories of persons that they would talk to about a serious problem, including the choice of "nobody." Respondents who reported both a person that they would talk to and that they had nobody to talk to were excluded from the analysis.
3 Special occasions, such as weddings, funerals, or other special events, were not to have been considered in the number of times attended religious services.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.1571   0.0106   0.0639   0.6337   0.6047  
AGE                    
12-13 0.7570   0.0772   0.5010   0.2304   0.1549  
14-15 0.2823   0.0656   0.9147   0.2030   0.5642  
16-17 0.2917   0.4223   0.0037   0.1347   0.3674  
GENDER                    
Male 0.1361   0.1788   0.0057   0.1641   0.6437  
Female 0.6058   0.0211   0.7125   0.3740   0.7330  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                    
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.1246   0.0608   0.1716   0.8486   0.7015  
White 0.2709   0.0813   0.4152   0.8293   0.6936  
Black or African American 0.0398   0.7657   0.3775   0.5925   0.4401  
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.1061   *   0.6096   *   *  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *   *   *  
Asian 0.9280   0.1971   0.4189   0.7313   0.7292  
Two or More Races 0.7197   0.9198   0.9015   0.3786   0.4249  
Hispanic or Latino 0.8046   0.0404   0.1449   0.5700   0.4765  
COUNTY TYPE                    
Large Metro 0.1322   0.1365   0.7484   0.3821   0.3580  
Small Metro 0.6031   0.0049   0.2311   0.9432   0.9688  
Nonmetro 0.9337   0.9128   0.0043   0.5636   0.4426  
90414
Table 3.14C – Youths Agreed or Strongly Agreed with Statements about Religious Beliefs among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STATEMENTS ABOUT RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
Religious Beliefs Are a Very
Important Part of Youth's Life
Religious Beliefs Influence Youth's
Decision Making in Life
It Is Important for Friends to
Share Religious Beliefs
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Religious Beliefs include "Strongly disagree," "Disagree," "Agree," and "Strongly agree." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Agree" or "Strongly agree." Respondents with unknown Religious Beliefs data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 97 102 102 104 114 112
AGE            
12-13 130 122 125 114 82 78
14-15 128 125 119 118 82 76
16-17 119 118 110 111 77 72
GENDER            
Male 71 70 75 72 80 77
Female 66 68 70 72 76 76
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 87 89 91 94 102 101
White 186 185 171 172 114 114
Black or African American 116 114 106 107 73 67
American Indian or Alaska Native 21 15 19 14 12 9
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 58 52 55 50 35 34
Two or More Races 23 25 22 26 18 15
Hispanic or Latino 44 45 47 48 50 49
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 223 207 198 192 126 115
Small Metro 148 152 138 136 94 88
Nonmetro 104 114 96 108 66 69
90414
Table 3.14D – Youths Agreed or Strongly Agreed with Statements about Religious Beliefs among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STATEMENTS ABOUT RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
Religious Beliefs Are a Very
Important Part of Youth's Life
Religious Beliefs Influence Youth's
Decision Making in Life
It Is Important for Friends to
Share Religious Beliefs
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Religious Beliefs include "Strongly disagree," "Disagree," "Agree," and "Strongly agree." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Agree" or "Strongly agree." Respondents with unknown Religious Beliefs data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.39 0.42 0.42 0.43 0.47 0.46
AGE            
12-13 0.57 0.61 0.64 0.67 0.75 0.80
14-15 0.68 0.67 0.75 0.70 0.78 0.72
16-17 0.71 0.71 0.73 0.75 0.72 0.70
GENDER            
Male 0.57 0.56 0.60 0.58 0.64 0.62
Female 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.60 0.64 0.64
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.43 0.45 0.45 0.47 0.51 0.51
White 0.51 0.53 0.54 0.56 0.57 0.60
Black or African American 0.87 0.75 0.93 0.93 1.19 1.16
American Indian or Alaska Native 3.03 4.60 4.00 4.66 5.59 3.65
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * *
Asian 1.96 2.62 2.21 2.57 2.82 2.91
Two or More Races 2.62 2.77 2.82 2.79 3.31 2.58
Hispanic or Latino 0.98 0.99 1.04 1.03 1.12 1.08
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 0.59 0.62 0.62 0.64 0.67 0.65
Small Metro 0.65 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.85 0.84
Nonmetro 0.85 0.78 0.92 0.87 1.05 1.02
90414
Table 3.14P – Youths Agreed or Strongly Agreed with Statements about Religious Beliefs among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STATEMENTS ABOUT RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
Religious Beliefs Are a Very
Important Part of Youth's Life
Religious Beliefs Influence Youth's
Decision Making in Life
It Is Important for Friends to
Share Religious Beliefs
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the questions on Religious Beliefs include "Strongly disagree," "Disagree," "Agree," and "Strongly agree." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Agree" or "Strongly agree." Respondents with unknown Religious Beliefs data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.0532   0.3199   0.0381  
AGE            
12-13 0.6277   0.3363   0.4729  
14-15 0.3889   0.9958   0.9245  
16-17 0.0915   0.5755   0.0080  
GENDER            
Male 0.8482   0.7684   0.5938  
Female 0.0086   0.0817   0.0124  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE            
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.0055   0.0449   0.0496  
White 0.0015   0.0250   0.5750  
Black or African American 0.0522   0.3910   0.1049  
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.1425   0.2992   0.1146  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *  
Asian 0.0322   0.0786   0.2851  
Two or More Races 0.7485   0.9502   0.0114  
Hispanic or Latino 0.3046   0.0924   0.5640  
COUNTY TYPE            
Large Metro 0.2332   0.3498   0.1069  
Small Metro 0.0109   0.1721   0.2098  
Nonmetro 0.4644   0.2579   0.5498  
90414
Table 3.15C – Parents Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific Behaviors in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT
Parents Made Youth Do
Chores around the House
Parents Limited Amount
of Time Youth
Watched TV
Parents Let Youth
Know He or She Had
Done a Good Job
Parents Let Youth Know
They Were Proud of
Something He or She
Had Done
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Parental Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Always" or "Sometimes." Respondents with unknown Parental Involvement data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 72 74 119 114 80 82 81 84
AGE                
12-13 137 129 104 100 139 131 139 130
14-15 137 141 88 84 135 135 138 135
16-17 135 132 72 73 132 131 131 129
GENDER                
Male 49 50 84 78 56 53 56 56
Female 53 54 81 78 58 59 59 58
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 64 62 106 99 68 70 72 72
White 209 211 122 126 208 213 212 214
Black or African American 129 125 69 66 124 120 124 119
American Indian or Alaska Native 22 20 * 13 21 16 21 *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 62 61 44 46 59 54 60 53
Two or More Races 26 32 16 16 24 32 27 31
Hispanic or Latino 33 38 52 57 39 38 38 42
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 247 231 143 142 242 229 245 223
Small Metro 163 168 82 99 160 162 164 163
Nonmetro 111 123 64 59 110 120 110 118
90414
Table 3.15D – Parents Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific Behaviors in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT
Parents Made Youth Do
Chores around the House
Parents Limited Amount
of Time Youth
Watched TV
Parents Let Youth
Know He or She Had
Done a Good Job
Parents Let Youth Know
They Were Proud of
Something He or She
Had Done
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Parental Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Always" or "Sometimes." Respondents with unknown Parental Involvement data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.29 0.30 0.47 0.46 0.32 0.33 0.32 0.34
AGE                
12-13 0.49 0.50 0.79 0.79 0.45 0.48 0.44 0.49
14-15 0.51 0.49 0.75 0.74 0.59 0.54 0.58 0.61
16-17 0.49 0.51 0.73 0.69 0.55 0.61 0.56 0.60
GENDER                
Male 0.39 0.39 0.66 0.62 0.43 0.42 0.44 0.44
Female 0.43 0.44 0.66 0.64 0.47 0.48 0.48 0.48
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.31 0.31 0.52 0.50 0.33 0.35 0.35 0.36
White 0.36 0.37 0.58 0.57 0.38 0.36 0.38 0.39
Black or African American 0.61 0.65 1.16 1.21 0.82 0.72 0.90 0.78
American Indian or Alaska Native 2.18 1.73 * 4.89 3.28 4.21 3.75 *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 1.97 2.08 2.83 3.15 2.14 2.86 2.19 2.99
Two or More Races 1.98 1.59 2.80 2.47 2.21 1.64 2.12 2.02
Hispanic or Latino 0.71 0.80 1.14 1.22 0.83 0.81 0.83 0.90
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.43 0.44 0.66 0.69 0.47 0.50 0.46 0.51
Small Metro 0.50 0.50 0.82 0.79 0.53 0.52 0.60 0.52
Nonmetro 0.60 0.62 1.02 0.95 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.74
90414
Table 3.15P – Parents Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific Behaviors in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT
Parents Made Youth Do
Chores around the House
Parents Limited Amount
of Time Youth
Watched TV
Parents Let Youth
Know He or She Had
Done a Good Job
Parents Let Youth Know
They Were Proud of
Something He or She
Had Done
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Response categories for the Parental Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Always" or "Sometimes." Respondents with unknown Parental Involvement data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.8512   0.7877   0.8034   0.4876  
AGE                
12-13 0.5847   0.3652   0.6412   0.3441  
14-15 0.9446   0.6480   0.4608   0.8373  
16-17 0.8563   0.7941   0.6052   0.9870  
GENDER                
Male 0.2845   0.5298   0.7890   0.6827  
Female 0.4380   0.7853   0.5515   0.5641  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.6201   0.3839   0.9411   0.8815  
White 0.8344   0.2074   0.8790   0.5839  
Black or African American 0.6445   0.3869   0.9714   0.6300  
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.9340   *   0.0475   *  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *   *  
Asian 0.3688   0.1593   0.2253   0.2894  
Two or More Races 0.1353   0.4610   0.0169   0.7991  
Hispanic or Latino 0.6288   0.2245   0.7564   0.1030  
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.6672   0.2892   0.6098   0.2173  
Small Metro 0.3984   0.0248   0.9858   0.1695  
Nonmetro 0.7964   1.0000   0.6412   0.2073  
90414
Table 3.16C – Measures of Student Characteristics in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS1
Participated in One or
Fewer Activities2
Drug or Alcohol Prevention
Messages Were Seen or
Heard in School3
Youth Liked a Lot or
Kind of Liked Going to
School4
Grade Average for Last
Completed Period Was "D"
or Lower5
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 The number of activities participated in is based on four questions: participation in school-based activities, community-based activities, church or faith-based activities, and other activities. For each question, the response categories include "None," "One," "Two," and "3 or more." Respondents were excluded from the analysis if they had unknown data for at least three of the questions and if their known responses did not place them in the recoded "Two or more" category.
3 Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Seen or Heard in School includes respondents who reported having a special class about drugs or alcohol in school or having had films, lectures, discussion, or printed information about drugs or alcohol in a regular school class, such as health or physical education, or outside of a regular school class, such as in a special assembly.
4
Response categories for the School Satisfaction question include "You liked going to school a lot," "You kind of liked going to school," "You didn't like going to school very much," and "You hated going to school." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "You liked going to school a lot" or "You kind of liked going to school."
5 Response categories for Grade Average include "An 'A+,' 'A,' or 'A-minus' average"; "A 'B+,' 'B,' or 'B-minus' average"; "A 'C+,' 'C,' or 'C-minus' average"; "A 'D' or less than a 'D' average"; and "My school does not give these grades." Respondents reporting that their school does not give these grades were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 87 86 251 248 264 256 53 50
AGE                
12-13 40 40 126 115 126 117 24 24
14-15 44 51 123 127 124 128 32 32
16-17 55 48 111 111 125 122 32 30
GENDER                
Male 66 61 161 153 162 159 42 36
Female 50 56 151 159 163 166 31 33
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 73 70 222 220 230 227 45 42
White 62 60 184 188 190 192 36 37
Black or African American 32 29 93 97 109 109 24 20
American Indian or Alaska Native 5 9 * * * 20 * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 20 17 60 53 63 56 6 6
Two or More Races 9 11 22 31 26 30 7 6
Hispanic or Latino 45 47 105 110 115 119 27 29
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 73 66 218 202 226 208 43 40
Small Metro 42 48 132 139 141 148 27 26
Nonmetro 27 34 88 98 97 100 18 22
90414
Table 3.16D – Measures of Student Characteristics in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS1
Participated in One or
Fewer Activities2
Drug or Alcohol Prevention
Messages Were Seen or
Heard in School3
Youth Liked a Lot or
Kind of Liked Going to
School4
Grade Average for Last
Completed Period Was "D"
or Lower5
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 The number of activities participated in is based on four questions: participation in school-based activities, community-based activities, church or faith-based activities, and other activities. For each question, the response categories include "None," "One," "Two," and "3 or more." Respondents were excluded from the analysis if they had unknown data for at least three of the questions and if their known responses did not place them in the recoded "Two or more" category.
3 Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Seen or Heard in School includes respondents who reported having a special class about drugs or alcohol in school or having had films, lectures, discussion, or printed information about drugs or alcohol in a regular school class, such as health or physical education, or outside of a regular school class, such as in a special assembly.
4
Response categories for the School Satisfaction question include "You liked going to school a lot," "You kind of liked going to school," "You didn't like going to school very much," and "You hated going to school." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "You liked going to school a lot" or "You kind of liked going to school."
5 Response categories for Grade Average include "An 'A+,' 'A,' or 'A-minus' average"; "A 'B+,' 'B,' or 'B-minus' average"; "A 'C+,' 'C,' or 'C-minus' average"; "A 'D' or less than a 'D' average"; and "My school does not give these grades." Respondents reporting that their school does not give these grades were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.33 0.33 0.41 0.41 0.37 0.35 0.23 0.22
AGE                
12-13 0.50 0.52 0.70 0.68 0.57 0.61 0.34 0.36
14-15 0.50 0.57 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.60 0.41 0.41
16-17 0.63 0.54 0.72 0.73 0.64 0.61 0.39 0.37
GENDER                
Male 0.50 0.46 0.58 0.56 0.51 0.50 0.35 0.31
Female 0.40 0.44 0.56 0.57 0.49 0.50 0.27 0.29
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.35 0.34 0.43 0.43 0.39 0.39 0.24 0.22
White 0.38 0.39 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.45 0.25 0.26
Black or African American 0.85 0.75 1.02 1.02 0.82 0.73 0.68 0.57
American Indian or Alaska Native 3.47 4.74 * * * 4.58 * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 2.02 1.88 2.51 2.76 1.96 1.96 0.69 0.72
Two or More Races 2.02 2.07 2.60 2.43 2.43 2.31 1.68 1.39
Hispanic or Latino 0.98 0.99 1.08 1.18 0.87 0.86 0.65 0.70
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.51 0.47 0.59 0.56 0.52 0.50 0.33 0.32
Small Metro 0.57 0.63 0.71 0.73 0.65 0.64 0.40 0.38
Nonmetro 0.63 0.74 0.85 0.84 0.80 0.78 0.45 0.54
90414
Table 3.16P – Measures of Student Characteristics in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS1
Participated in One or
Fewer Activities2
Drug or Alcohol Prevention
Messages Were Seen or
Heard in School3
Youth Liked a Lot or
Kind of Liked Going to
School4
Grade Average for Last
Completed Period Was "D"
or Lower5
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 The number of activities participated in is based on four questions: participation in school-based activities, community-based activities, church or faith-based activities, and other activities. For each question, the response categories include "None," "One," "Two," and "3 or more." Respondents were excluded from the analysis if they had unknown data for at least three of the questions and if their known responses did not place them in the recoded "Two or more" category.
3 Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Seen or Heard in School includes respondents who reported having a special class about drugs or alcohol in school or having had films, lectures, discussion, or printed information about drugs or alcohol in a regular school class, such as health or physical education, or outside of a regular school class, such as in a special assembly.
4
Response categories for the School Satisfaction question include "You liked going to school a lot," "You kind of liked going to school," "You didn't like going to school very much," and "You hated going to school." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "You liked going to school a lot" or "You kind of liked going to school."
5 Response categories for Grade Average include "An 'A+,' 'A,' or 'A-minus' average"; "A 'B+,' 'B,' or 'B-minus' average"; "A 'C+,' 'C,' or 'C-minus' average"; "A 'D' or less than a 'D' average"; and "My school does not give these grades." Respondents reporting that their school does not give these grades were excluded from the analysis.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.5027   0.8938   0.5118   0.8736  
AGE                
12-13 0.4822   0.7874   0.8684   0.4151  
14-15 0.2607   0.2018   0.6147   0.8793  
16-17 0.5592   0.3787   0.4159   0.5104  
GENDER                
Male 0.6055   0.6799   0.3151   0.2073  
Female 0.0836   0.5254   0.8650   0.0755  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.5822   0.7218   0.9486   0.7655  
White 0.4495   0.5683   0.4287   0.0855  
Black or African American 0.4637   0.4948   0.0297   0.0457  
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.0170   *   *   *  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *   *  
Asian 0.9189   0.1643   0.6491   0.8365  
Two or More Races 0.6915   0.3795   0.7610   0.2915  
Hispanic or Latino 0.7954   0.7127   0.1234   0.8158  
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.3021   0.9775   0.2768   0.9651  
Small Metro 0.3243   0.9744   0.8478   0.6974  
Nonmetro 0.0045   0.5744   0.5185   0.4173  
90414
Table 3.17C – Adults Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific School-Related Behaviors in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic ADULT INVOLVEMENT
Teacher Always or
Sometimes Let Youth
Know He or She Was
Doing a Good Job with
School Work
Parents Checked That
Youth Did Homework
Parents Provided Help
with Homework
Parents Limited Time
Youth Went Out with
Friends on a School
Night
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
NOTE: Response categories for the Adult Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Always" or "Sometimes." Respondents with unknown Adult Involvement data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 262 254 259 252 258 253 232 230
AGE                
12-13 127 117 129 119 128 120 114 106
14-15 125 126 124 125 125 127 116 111
16-17 121 122 116 112 116 112 110 112
GENDER                
Male 165 159 166 160 165 161 152 135
Female 158 162 154 158 154 156 142 154
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 230 226 224 222 231 223 205 204
White 191 195 187 190 193 196 172 174
Black or African American 109 108 106 105 105 100 93 96
American Indian or Alaska Native 21 21 21 * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 62 57 55 51 58 47 53 51
Two or More Races 24 29 26 29 25 31 24 28
Hispanic or Latino 111 115 114 113 103 107 100 105
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 220 207 216 203 218 208 197 188
Small Metro 143 146 141 149 142 148 124 137
Nonmetro 96 104 99 106 96 105 86 95
90414
Table 3.17D – Adults Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific School-Related Behaviors in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic ADULT INVOLVEMENT
Teacher Always or
Sometimes Let Youth
Know He or She Was
Doing a Good Job with
School Work
Parents Checked That
Youth Did Homework
Parents Provided Help
with Homework
Parents Limited Time
Youth Went Out with
Friends on a School
Night
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
NOTE: Response categories for the Adult Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Always" or "Sometimes." Respondents with unknown Adult Involvement data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.36 0.35 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.43 0.42
AGE                
12-13 0.52 0.60 0.51 0.54 0.51 0.50 0.70 0.69
14-15 0.65 0.63 0.62 0.65 0.60 0.65 0.74 0.70
16-17 0.63 0.61 0.70 0.72 0.70 0.72 0.74 0.75
GENDER                
Male 0.49 0.47 0.48 0.52 0.49 0.50 0.61 0.57
Female 0.50 0.54 0.57 0.58 0.55 0.58 0.61 0.58
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.39 0.40 0.42 0.43 0.40 0.39 0.47 0.46
White 0.45 0.47 0.48 0.47 0.45 0.42 0.52 0.53
Black or African American 0.87 0.86 0.92 1.06 0.93 0.90 1.16 1.08
American Indian or Alaska Native 2.96 3.91 2.82 * * * * *
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 1.89 2.21 2.50 2.62 2.46 3.00 2.82 2.63
Two or More Races 3.20 2.61 2.60 2.66 2.44 2.16 2.99 2.64
Hispanic or Latino 0.91 0.91 0.99 0.94 1.07 1.06 1.08 1.08
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.51 0.53 0.54 0.57 0.55 0.59 0.63 0.61
Small Metro 0.64 0.60 0.68 0.63 0.67 0.65 0.75 0.75
Nonmetro 0.78 0.81 0.78 0.91 0.73 0.82 0.90 0.91
90414
Table 3.17P – Adults Always or Sometimes Took Part in Specific School-Related Behaviors in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic ADULT INVOLVEMENT
Teacher Always or
Sometimes Let Youth
Know He or She Was
Doing a Good Job with
School Work
Parents Checked That
Youth Did Homework
Parents Provided Help
with Homework
Parents Limited Time
Youth Went Out with
Friends on a School
Night
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis. Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
NOTE: Response categories for the Adult Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "Always" or "Sometimes." Respondents with unknown Adult Involvement data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.0486   0.6785   0.0876   0.7815  
AGE                
12-13 0.0155   0.5451   0.4630   0.5734  
14-15 0.3102   0.8536   0.1227   0.7394  
16-17 0.8972   0.7335   0.2097   0.6902  
GENDER                
Male 0.5596   0.1535   0.0428   0.2327  
Female 0.0265   0.4516   0.5923   0.4132  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.0431   0.9176   0.1361   0.9487  
White 0.0485   0.5876   0.9134   0.6940  
Black or African American 0.5872   0.7952   0.1710   0.2805  
American Indian or Alaska Native 0.6624   *   *   *  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *   *  
Asian 0.4305   0.6759   0.0015   0.2434  
Two or More Races 0.5261   0.4715   0.3282   0.2434  
Hispanic or Latino 0.7121   0.4480   0.4749   0.5950  
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.0125   0.5257   0.0209   0.5304  
Small Metro 0.7969   0.9232   0.6119   0.5707  
Nonmetro 0.6287   0.9444   0.7343   0.8218  
90414
Table 3.18C – Youths Perceived That All or Most Students in Grade Level Use Specific Substances among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE OF STUDENTS IN GRADE LEVEL
Smoke Cigarettes Use Marijuana or
Hashish
Drink Alcoholic
Beverages
Get Drunk at Least Once
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months, or reported that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis.
NOTE: Response categories for the Substance Use in Grade Level questions include "All of them," "Most of them," "A few of them," and "None of them." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "All of them" or "Most of them." Respondents with unknown Substance Use in Grade Level data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 119 118 114 115 169 163 92 93
AGE                
12-13 31 29 22 23 39 36 17 16
14-15 68 68 64 60 89 87 57 50
16-17 84 80 81 84 116 111 70 70
GENDER                
Male 72 68 74 69 105 97 60 56
Female 85 85 79 85 112 114 68 70
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 108 106 101 102 153 146 83 79
White 91 90 79 83 132 125 71 68
Black or African American 54 48 55 54 60 65 36 35
American Indian or Alaska Native * 6 6 11 * 10 * 5
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 17 31 20 21 33 36 19 19
Two or More Races 14 16 13 16 17 20 8 11
Hispanic or Latino 49 50 50 53 71 73 41 46
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 90 92 95 92 140 133 73 74
Small Metro 72 64 62 63 95 93 49 51
Nonmetro 50 48 34 39 63 62 38 36
90414
Table 3.18D – Youths Perceived That All or Most Students in Grade Level Use Specific Substances among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2007 and 2008
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE OF STUDENTS IN GRADE LEVEL
Smoke Cigarettes Use Marijuana or
Hashish
Drink Alcoholic
Beverages
Get Drunk at Least Once
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months, or reported that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis.
NOTE: Response categories for the Substance Use in Grade Level questions include "All of them," "Most of them," "A few of them," and "None of them." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "All of them" or "Most of them." Respondents with unknown Substance Use in Grade Level data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.45 0.42 0.41 0.42 0.46 0.47 0.37 0.35
AGE                
12-13 0.43 0.42 0.32 0.34 0.53 0.51 0.25 0.25
14-15 0.74 0.73 0.72 0.68 0.79 0.80 0.68 0.60
16-17 0.80 0.79 0.77 0.79 0.73 0.69 0.72 0.71
GENDER                
Male 0.55 0.51 0.55 0.52 0.66 0.64 0.48 0.46
Female 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.62 0.67 0.65 0.59 0.54
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.48 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.51 0.50 0.40 0.37
White 0.54 0.53 0.49 0.49 0.58 0.57 0.44 0.42
Black or African American 1.24 1.14 1.15 1.21 1.19 1.30 0.95 0.94
American Indian or Alaska Native * 4.83 4.68 5.07 * 4.46 * 3.54
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * * * * * * * *
Asian 1.76 3.22 2.04 2.29 2.72 3.33 1.99 2.21
Two or More Races 2.79 2.85 2.91 2.71 2.98 2.85 1.98 2.22
Hispanic or Latino 1.04 1.00 0.99 1.15 1.14 1.19 0.94 0.99
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.61 0.62 0.62 0.61 0.66 0.69 0.53 0.53
Small Metro 0.75 0.71 0.70 0.71 0.81 0.76 0.61 0.60
Nonmetro 0.96 0.93 0.77 0.87 1.10 1.03 0.82 0.79
90414
Table 3.18P – Youths Perceived That All or Most Students in Grade Level Use Specific Substances among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year, by Demographic and Geographic Characteristics: P Values from Tests of Differences of Percentages, 2008 Versus 2007
Demographic/Geographic Characteristic SUBSTANCE USE OF STUDENTS IN GRADE LEVEL
Smoke Cigarettes Use Marijuana or
Hashish
Drink Alcoholic
Beverages
Get Drunk at Least Once
a Week
2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008 2007 2008
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months, or reported that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis.
NOTE: Response categories for the Substance Use in Grade Level questions include "All of them," "Most of them," "A few of them," and "None of them." The estimates in this table correspond to persons reporting "All of them" or "Most of them." Respondents with unknown Substance Use in Grade Level data were excluded.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007 and 2008.
TOTAL 0.0303   0.5415   0.5111   0.2057  
AGE                
12-13 0.1632   0.5616   0.9410   1.0000  
14-15 0.6144   0.9768   0.2498   0.3095  
16-17 0.0035   0.9022   0.2109   0.1260  
GENDER                
Male 0.0380   0.9941   0.4639   0.0444  
Female 0.2269   0.4165   0.8325   0.9638  
HISPANIC ORIGIN AND RACE                
Not Hispanic or Latino 0.0752   0.5837   0.4937   0.1073  
White 0.0647   0.8820   0.0485   0.1007  
Black or African American 0.3931   0.6795   0.0201   0.7864  
American Indian or Alaska Native *   0.0094   *   *  
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander *   *   *   *  
Asian 0.1845   0.7904   0.9460   0.6072  
Two or More Races 0.3753   0.8447   0.7759   0.6873  
Hispanic or Latino 0.2012   0.8202   0.9177   0.7662  
COUNTY TYPE                
Large Metro 0.6225   0.1817   0.2044   0.5847  
Small Metro 0.0213   0.6217   0.1664   0.8175  
Nonmetro 0.0001   0.5989   0.0076   0.0441  
90414
Table 3.19C – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Risk Perceptions of Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Perceptions of Risk1 Used Illicit Drugs2 Used Marijuana Used Cigarettes Binge Use
of Alcohol3
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
CIGARETTES        
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day – Great Risk 51 43 43 50
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 43 35 45 37
MARIJUANA        
Smoke Once a Month – Great Risk 23 14 22 25
Smoke Once a Month – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 64 56 59 56
Smoke Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 27 18 27 29
Smoke Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 62 54 56 53
COCAINE        
Use Once a Month – Great Risk 47 40 44 45
Use Once a Month – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 48 40 44 42
Use Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 57 49 54 54
Use Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 33 26 30 28
HEROIN        
Try Once or Twice – Great Risk 54 49 53 52
Try Once or Twice – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 34 27 33 34
Use Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 61 54 59 58
Use Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 25 17 23 20
LSD        
Try Once or Twice – Great Risk 42 36 43 47
Try Once or Twice – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 49 42 42 41
Use Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 57 48 53 55
Use Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 35 28 31 28
ALCOHOL        
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day – Great Risk 46 39 41 44
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 48 41 48 44
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 35 28 32 31
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 56 49 52 54
90414
Table 3.19D – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Risk Perceptions of Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2008
Perceptions of Risk1 Used Illicit Drugs2 Used Marijuana Used Cigarettes Binge Use
of Alcohol3
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
CIGARETTES        
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day – Great Risk 0.27 0.24 0.25 0.27
Smoke One or More Packs Per Day – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 0.53 0.44 0.54 0.47
MARIJUANA        
Smoke Once a Month – Great Risk 0.27 0.17 0.26 0.29
Smoke Once a Month – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 0.34 0.31 0.34 0.31
Smoke Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 0.21 0.14 0.20 0.22
Smoke Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 0.47 0.42 0.46 0.42
COCAINE        
Use Once a Month – Great Risk 0.37 0.32 0.35 0.35
Use Once a Month – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 0.37 0.31 0.35 0.33
Use Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 0.27 0.24 0.27 0.26
Use Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 0.62 0.50 0.55 0.51
HEROIN        
Try Once or Twice – Great Risk 0.36 0.33 0.37 0.35
Try Once or Twice – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 0.32 0.25 0.31 0.32
Use Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 0.29 0.26 0.29 0.27
Use Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 0.53 0.37 0.49 0.44
LSD        
Try Once or Twice – Great Risk 0.33 0.29 0.36 0.38
Try Once or Twice – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 0.39 0.34 0.34 0.33
Use Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 0.30 0.26 0.30 0.30
Use Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 0.53 0.44 0.47 0.44
ALCOHOL        
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day – Great Risk 0.27 0.23 0.25 0.26
Have Four or Five Drinks Nearly Every Day – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 0.51 0.46 0.52 0.48
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week – Great Risk 0.33 0.27 0.32 0.30
Have Five or More Drinks Once or Twice a Week – Moderate/Slight/No Risk 0.34 0.31 0.33 0.33
90414
Table 3.20C – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Perceived Availability of Selected Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Perceived Availability1 Used Illicit Drugs2 Used Marijuana Used Cigarettes Binge Use
of Alcohol3
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
FAIRLY OR VERY EASY TO OBTAIN        
Marijuana 64 57 60 57
Cocaine 42 36 40 40
Crack 36 30 34 36
Heroin 26 20 26 27
LSD 35 30 34 35
FAIRLY, VERY DIFFICULT, OR IMPOSSIBLE TO OBTAIN        
Marijuana 25 15 23 23
Cocaine 50 44 47 48
Crack 53 46 49 50
Heroin 59 52 54 54
LSD 53 45 50 49
90414
Table 3.20D – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Perceived Availability of Selected Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2008
Perceived Availability1 Used Illicit Drugs2 Used Marijuana Used Cigarettes Binge Use
of Alcohol3
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
FAIRLY OR VERY EASY TO OBTAIN        
Marijuana 0.46 0.42 0.47 0.43
Cocaine 0.71 0.63 0.71 0.70
Crack 0.60 0.51 0.58 0.60
Heroin 0.78 0.63 0.78 0.79
LSD 0.97 0.87 0.95 0.95
FAIRLY, VERY DIFFICULT, OR IMPOSSIBLE TO OBTAIN        
Marijuana 0.20 0.12 0.19 0.18
Cocaine 0.25 0.22 0.25 0.25
Crack 0.27 0.24 0.26 0.26
Heroin 0.26 0.24 0.25 0.25
LSD 0.25 0.22 0.25 0.23
90414
Table 3.21C – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Youth's Perceptions of Parents' Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
YOUTH'S PERCEPTIONS OF PARENTS'
FEELINGS ABOUT YOUTH…
               
Smoking One or More Packs of
  Cigarettes Per Day
59 29 50 26 52 33 56 27
Trying Marijuana or Hashish Once or
  Twice
53 39 43 36 53 34 51 34
Using Marijuana or Hashish Once a
  Month or More
56 34 47 32 54 31 53 29
Having One or Two Drinks of an Alcoholic
  Beverage Nearly Every Day
59 31 51 26 52 31 51 35
90414
Table 3.21D – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Youth's Perceptions of Parents' Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2008
Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly
Disapprove
Somewhat
Disapprove/
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
YOUTH'S PERCEPTIONS OF PARENTS'
FEELINGS ABOUT YOUTH…
               
Smoking One or More Packs of
  Cigarettes Per Day
0.24 1.33 0.21 1.25 0.23 1.51 0.23 1.32
Trying Marijuana or Hashish Once or
  Twice
0.22 1.33 0.19 1.28 0.23 1.30 0.22 1.24
Using Marijuana or Hashish Once a
  Month or More
0.23 1.56 0.20 1.54 0.23 1.56 0.22 1.46
Having One or Two Drinks of an Alcoholic
  Beverage Nearly Every Day
0.24 1.11 0.22 0.95 0.23 1.11 0.22 1.20
90414
Table 3.22C – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
YOUTH'S PERCEPTIONS OF CLOSE
FRIENDS' FEELINGS ABOUT YOUTH…
               
Smoking One or More Packs of
  Cigarettes Per Day
55 39 47 34 51 36 52 34
Trying Marijuana or Hashish Once or
  Twice
42 54 31 49 42 45 42 44
Using Marijuana or Hashish Once a
  Month or More
42 51 32 48 44 44 44 42
Having One or Two Drinks of an Alcoholic
  Beverage Nearly Every Day
50 42 43 37 47 39 49 39
YOUTH'S FEELINGS ABOUT PEERS…                
Smoking One or More Packs of
  Cigarettes Per Day
57 32 48 28 49 35 54 30
Trying Marijuana or Hashish Once or
  Twice
42 52 30 47 40 46 41 44
Using Marijuana or Hashish Once a
  Month or More
41 54 30 49 41 46 42 43
Having One or Two Drinks of an Alcoholic
  Beverage Nearly Every Day
53 40 43 36 50 38 49 37
90414
Table 3.22D – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2008
Feelings about Substance Use Behaviors1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
Strongly/
Somewhat
Disapprove
Neither
Approve Nor
Disapprove
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
YOUTH'S PERCEPTIONS OF CLOSE
FRIENDS' FEELINGS ABOUT YOUTH…
               
Smoking One or More Packs of
  Cigarettes Per Day
0.24 1.08 0.21 1.02 0.23 1.08 0.23 0.99
Trying Marijuana or Hashish Once or
  Twice
0.20 1.02 0.15 0.97 0.21 0.94 0.20 0.89
Using Marijuana or Hashish Once a
  Month or More
0.19 1.06 0.15 1.03 0.21 1.00 0.20 0.93
Having One or Two Drinks of an Alcoholic
  Beverage Nearly Every Day
0.23 1.01 0.20 0.90 0.22 0.92 0.22 0.93
YOUTH'S FEELINGS ABOUT PEERS…                
Smoking One or More Packs of
  Cigarettes Per Day
0.24 1.14 0.21 1.01 0.22 1.19 0.23 1.08
Trying Marijuana or Hashish Once or
  Twice
0.20 0.95 0.15 0.89 0.20 0.93 0.20 0.86
Using Marijuana or Hashish Once a
  Month or More
0.20 1.03 0.15 0.96 0.20 0.95 0.20 0.90
Having One or Two Drinks of an Alcoholic
  Beverage Nearly Every Day
0.23 1.07 0.19 1.00 0.22 1.01 0.22 0.97
90414
Table 3.23C – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Measures of Youth's Exposure to Prevention Programs and Messages and Youth's Delinquency in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Prevention Programs/Messages and Delinquency1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
4 Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as "Yes" if they indicated participating in a particular behavior at least one time and "No" if they did not.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
EXPOSURE TO PREVENTION PROGRAMS
AND MESSAGES IN PAST YEAR
               
Participated in Problem-Solving,
  Communication, or Self-Esteem Group
28 60 22 52 25 57 24 57
Participated in Violence Prevention Program 22 62 18 54 20 59 19 58
Participated in Pregnancy or Sexually
  Transmitted Disease Prevention Program
21 61 17 53 17 60 19 58
Participated in Alcohol, Tobacco, or Drug
  Prevention Program Outside of School
21 63 16 55 20 59 20 58
Participated in Program to Help Deal with
  Drug or Alcohol Use
16 63 13 55 14 61 14 59
Saw or Heard Alcohol or Drug Prevention
  Message from Sources Outside School
58 33 51 25 54 31 52 32
Talked to Parents about Dangers of Tobacco,
  Alcohol, or Drug Use
49 44 44 36 47 43 48 39
DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR IN PAST YEAR4                
Got into a Serious Fight at School or Work 39 54 32 46 39 51 37 52
Took Part in a Group-Against-Group Fight 34 55 30 47 34 54 32 53
Attacked Someone with the Intent to Seriously
  Hurt Them
28 60 24 51 25 57 26 56
Carried a Handgun 19 61 16 53 17 60 17 59
Sold Illegal Drugs 31 58 28 50 28 55 26 56
Stole or Tried to Steal Anything Worth More
  Than $50
29 58 27 50 26 56 25 55
90414
Table 3.23D – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Measures of Youth's Exposure to Prevention Programs and Messages and Youth's Delinquency in the Past Year among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2008
Prevention Programs/Messages and Delinquency1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
4 Respondents were asked how many times they participated in a delinquent behavior in the past year and were categorized as "Yes" if they indicated participating in a particular behavior at least one time and "No" if they did not.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
EXPOSURE TO PREVENTION PROGRAMS
AND MESSAGES IN PAST YEAR
               
Participated in Problem-Solving,
  Communication, or Self-Esteem Group
0.49 0.29 0.40 0.25 0.46 0.29 0.44 0.28
Participated in Violence Prevention Program 0.62 0.26 0.53 0.24 0.58 0.27 0.53 0.25
Participated in Pregnancy or Sexually
  Transmitted Disease Prevention Program
0.74 0.25 0.61 0.23 0.63 0.26 0.70 0.24
Participated in Alcohol, Tobacco, or Drug
  Prevention Program Outside of School
0.74 0.26 0.57 0.23 0.70 0.26 0.70 0.24
Participated in Program to Help Deal with
  Drug or Alcohol Use
1.40 0.24 1.11 0.22 1.20 0.25 1.24 0.23
Saw or Heard Alcohol or Drug Prevention
  Message from Sources Outside School
0.28 0.58 0.25 0.44 0.27 0.54 0.26 0.56
Talked to Parents about Dangers of Tobacco,
  Alcohol, or Drug Use
0.32 0.41 0.29 0.34 0.31 0.40 0.31 0.37
DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR IN PAST YEAR4                
Got into a Serious Fight at School or Work 0.67 0.26 0.57 0.23 0.68 0.26 0.64 0.25
Took Part in a Group-Against-Group Fight 0.88 0.24 0.79 0.21 0.87 0.25 0.82 0.24
Attacked Someone with the Intent to Seriously
  Hurt Them
1.35 0.24 1.22 0.21 1.25 0.24 1.27 0.23
Carried a Handgun 2.12 0.23 1.90 0.21 1.96 0.24 1.93 0.23
Sold Illegal Drugs 2.61 0.22 2.70 0.20 2.55 0.22 2.44 0.22
Stole or Tried to Steal Anything Worth More
  Than $50
2.04 0.23 2.00 0.20 1.90 0.23 1.85 0.22
90414
Table 3.24C – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Measures of Risk and Protective Factors, Religious Beliefs, and Past Year Parental Involvement among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Risk and Protective Factors, Religious Feelings, and Parental Involvement1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
4 Respondents were able to select multiple categories of persons that they would talk to about a serious problem, including the choice of "nobody." Respondents who reported both a person that they would talk to and that they had nobody to talk to were excluded from the analysis.
5 Special occasions, such as weddings, funerals, or other special events, were not to have been considered in the number of times attended religious services.
6 Response categories for the questions on Religious Beliefs include "Strongly disagree," "Disagree," "Agree," and "Strongly agree." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "Agree" or "Strongly agree" and "No" if they reported "Strongly disagree" or "Disagree."
7 Responses categories for the Parental Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "Always" or "Sometimes" and "No" if they reported "Seldom" or "Never."
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS                
Youth Moved 2 or More Times in the Past 5
  Years
38 54 33 46 39 50 33 53
Youth Argued with at Least One Parent 10 or
  More Times in the Past Year
42 50 35 43 39 48 40 46
Youth Was Approached by Someone Selling
  Drugs in the Past Month
47 48 43 37 44 47 41 47
Youth Had Someone to Talk to about
  Problems4
64 17 55 14 60 13 59 13
Youth Attended 25 or More Religious Services
  in the Past Year5
27 59 20 53 27 56 27 55
YOUTH RELIGIOUS BELIEFS6                
Youth Agreed or Strongly Agreed That
  Religious Beliefs Are a Very Important Part
  of His or Her Life
47 46 38 42 45 42 47 40
Youth Agreed or Strongly Agreed That His or Her
  Religious Beliefs Influence Decision Making
  in Life
42 51 33 45 40 46 42 44
Youth Agreed or Strongly Agreed That It Is
  Important for Friends to Share Religious
  Beliefs
30 61 22 54 28 58 30 55
PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN PAST YEAR7                
Parent Always or Sometimes Made Youth Do
  Chores around the House
60 28 52 24 56 26 55 28
Parent Always or Sometimes Limited Amount
  of Time Youth Watched TV
34 57 26 50 27 57 28 55
Parents Always or Sometimes Let Youth Know
  He or She Had Done a Good Job
57 33 50 28 53 35 55 29
Parents Always or Sometimes Let Youth Know
  They Were Proud of Something He or She Had
  Done
57 33 49 28 53 34 55 28
90414
Table 3.24D – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Measures of Risk and Protective Factors, Religious Beliefs, and Past Year Parental Involvement among Persons Aged 12 to 17: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2008
Risk and Protective Factors, Religious Feelings, and Parental Involvement1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
4 Respondents were able to select multiple categories of persons that they would talk to about a serious problem, including the choice of "nobody." Respondents who reported both a person that they would talk to and that they had nobody to talk to were excluded from the analysis.
5 Special occasions, such as weddings, funerals, or other special events, were not to have been considered in the number of times attended religious services.
6 Response categories for the questions on Religious Beliefs include "Strongly disagree," "Disagree," "Agree," and "Strongly agree." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "Agree" or "Strongly agree" and "No" if they reported "Strongly disagree" or "Disagree."
7 Responses categories for the Parental Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "Always" or "Sometimes" and "No" if they reported "Seldom" or "Never."
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS                
Youth Moved 2 or More Times in the Past 5
  Years
0.59 0.26 0.53 0.23 0.63 0.26 0.53 0.26
Youth Argued with at Least One Parent 10 or
  More Times in the Past Year
0.65 0.25 0.56 0.22 0.63 0.26 0.63 0.24
Youth Was Approached by Someone Selling
  Drugs in the Past Month
1.11 0.21 1.06 0.17 1.06 0.22 1.00 0.21
Youth Had Someone to Talk to about
  Problems4
0.25 1.78 0.22 1.48 0.25 1.42 0.23 1.41
Youth Attended 25 or More Religious Services
  in the Past Year5
0.34 0.32 0.26 0.29 0.34 0.32 0.34 0.30
YOUTH RELIGIOUS BELIEFS6                
Youth Agreed or Strongly Agreed That
  Religious Beliefs Are a Very Important Part
  of His or Her Life
0.24 0.67 0.20 0.62 0.24 0.64 0.24 0.59
Youth Agreed or Strongly Agreed That His or Her
  Religious Beliefs Influence Decision Making
  in Life
0.24 0.57 0.20 0.52 0.24 0.53 0.25 0.50
Youth Agreed or Strongly Agreed That It Is
  Important for Friends to Share Religious
  Beliefs
0.35 0.33 0.27 0.30 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.31
PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN PAST YEAR7                
Parent Always or Sometimes Made Youth Do
  Chores around the House
0.25 0.87 0.22 0.77 0.25 0.80 0.24 0.85
Parent Always or Sometimes Limited Amount
  of Time Youth Watched TV
0.33 0.35 0.26 0.31 0.27 0.36 0.28 0.34
Parents Always or Sometimes Let Youth Know
  He or She Had Done a Good Job
0.24 0.89 0.22 0.77 0.24 0.91 0.24 0.76
Parents Always or Sometimes Let Youth Know
  They Were Proud of Something He or She Had
  Done
0.24 0.85 0.22 0.74 0.24 0.87 0.24 0.73
90414
Table 3.25C – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Measures of Scholastic Environment among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year: Standard Errors of Numbers in Thousands, 2008
Scholastic Environment1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
4 Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
5 The number of activities participated in is based on four questions: participation in school-based activities, community-based activities, church or faith-based activities, and other activities. For each question, the response categories include "None," "One," "Two," and "3 or more." Respondents were excluded from the analysis if they had unknown data for at least three of the questions and if their known responses did not place them in the recoded "Two or more" category.
6 Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Seen or Heard in School includes respondents who reported having a special class about drugs or alcohol in school or having had films, lectures, discussion, or printed information about drugs or alcohol in a regular school class, such as health or physical education, or outside of a regular school class, such as in a special assembly.
7 Response categories for the School Satisfaction question include "You liked going to school a lot," "You kind of liked going to school," "You didn't like going to school very much," and "You hated going to school." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "You liked going to school a lot" or "You kind of liked going to school" and were categorized as "No" if they reported "You didn't like going to school very much" or "You hated going to school."
8 Response categories for Grade Average include "An 'A+,' 'A,' or 'A-minus' average"; "A 'B+,' 'B,' or 'B-minus' average"; "A 'C+,' 'C,' or 'C-minus' average"; "A 'D' or less than a 'D' average"; and "My school does not give these grades." Respondents reporting that their school does not give these grades were excluded from the analysis.
9 Response categories for the Adult Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "Always" or "Sometimes" and "No" if they reported "Seldom" or "Never."
10 Response categories for the Substance Use in Grade Level questions include "All of them," "Most of them," "A few of them," and "None of them." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "All of them" or "Most of them" and "No" if they reported "A few of them" or "None of them."
11 Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were not considered to be enrolled in school.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS IN PAST YEAR4                
Participated in One or Fewer Activities5 31 56 27 48 31 53 28 55
Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Were
  Seen or Heard in School6
53 37 46 32 49 35 51 35
Youth Liked a Lot or Kind of Liked Going to
  School7
51 38 44 34 48 38 52 34
Grade Average for Last Completed Period Was
  "D" or Lower8
25 58 20 50 24 55 22 55
ADULT INVOLVEMENT IN PAST YEAR4,9                
Teacher Always or Sometimes Let Youth Know
  He or She Was Doing a Good Job with School Work
55 35 48 30 53 32 53 31
Parents Always or Sometimes Checked That
  Youth Did Homework
51 39 44 33 48 37 48 38
Parents Always or Sometimes Provided Help with
  Homework
52 37 46 32 49 36 47 38
Parents Always or Sometimes Limited Time
  Youth Went Out with Friends on a School Night
50 38 43 34 49 37 48 37
SUBSTANCE USE IN GRADE LEVEL10,11                
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade
  Smoke Cigarettes
41 49 36 42 45 41 41 42
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade Use
  Marijuana or Hashish
48 42 44 34 46 41 44 42
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade
  Drink Alcoholic Beverages
55 35 49 26 52 30 54 28
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade Get
  Drunk at Least Once a Week
38 50 34 42 36 48 40 45
90414
Table 3.25D – Past Month Use of Selected Substances, by Measures of Scholastic Environment among Persons Aged 12 to 17 Who Were Enrolled in School in the Past Year: Standard Errors of Percentages, 2008
Scholastic Environment1 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE PAST MONTH
Illicit Drugs2 Marijuana Cigarettes Binge Alcohol3
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
*Low precision; no estimate reported.
NOTE: Youths who did not report their school enrollment status or reported not being enrolled in school in the past 12 months were excluded from this analysis.
1 Respondents with unknown data were excluded.
2 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, based on data from original questions not including methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
3 Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
4 Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were considered to be enrolled in school.
5 The number of activities participated in is based on four questions: participation in school-based activities, community-based activities, church or faith-based activities, and other activities. For each question, the response categories include "None," "One," "Two," and "3 or more." Respondents were excluded from the analysis if they had unknown data for at least three of the questions and if their known responses did not place them in the recoded "Two or more" category.
6 Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Seen or Heard in School includes respondents who reported having a special class about drugs or alcohol in school or having had films, lectures, discussion, or printed information about drugs or alcohol in a regular school class, such as health or physical education, or outside of a regular school class, such as in a special assembly.
7 Response categories for the School Satisfaction question include "You liked going to school a lot," "You kind of liked going to school," "You didn't like going to school very much," and "You hated going to school." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "You liked going to school a lot" or "You kind of liked going to school" and were categorized as "No" if they reported "You didn't like going to school very much" or "You hated going to school."
8 Response categories for Grade Average include "An 'A+,' 'A,' or 'A-minus' average"; "A 'B+,' 'B,' or 'B-minus' average"; "A 'C+,' 'C,' or 'C-minus' average"; "A 'D' or less than a 'D' average"; and "My school does not give these grades." Respondents reporting that their school does not give these grades were excluded from the analysis.
9 Response categories for the Adult Involvement questions include "Always," "Sometimes," "Seldom," and "Never." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "Always" or "Sometimes" and "No" if they reported "Seldom" or "Never."
10 Response categories for the Substance Use in Grade Level questions include "All of them," "Most of them," "A few of them," and "None of them." Respondents were categorized as "Yes" if they reported "All of them" or "Most of them" and "No" if they reported "A few of them" or "None of them."
11 Youths reporting that they were "home-schooled" in the past 12 months were not considered to be enrolled in school.
Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008.
STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS IN PAST YEAR4                
Participated in One or Fewer Activities5 0.85 0.26 0.78 0.23 0.86 0.26 0.82 0.26
Drug or Alcohol Prevention Messages Were
  Seen or Heard in School6
0.28 0.63 0.25 0.55 0.27 0.60 0.27 0.59
Youth Liked a Lot or Kind of Liked Going to
  School7
0.25 0.79 0.22 0.71 0.25 0.78 0.26 0.72
Grade Average for Last Completed Period Was
  "D" or Lower8
1.60 0.25 1.36 0.23 1.49 0.26 1.42 0.25
ADULT INVOLVEMENT IN PAST YEAR4,9                
Teacher Always or Sometimes Let Youth Know
  He or She Was Doing a Good Job with School Work
0.28 0.69 0.25 0.60 0.28 0.65 0.27 0.63
Parents Always or Sometimes Checked That
  Youth Did Homework
0.26 0.72 0.23 0.63 0.26 0.71 0.25 0.71
Parents Always or Sometimes Provided Help with
  Homework
0.27 0.73 0.24 0.64 0.26 0.72 0.24 0.76
Parents Always or Sometimes Limited Time
  Youth Went Out with Friends on a School Night
0.29 0.51 0.25 0.47 0.29 0.52 0.28 0.51
SUBSTANCE USE IN GRADE LEVEL10,11                
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade
  Smoke Cigarettes
0.65 0.27 0.58 0.24 0.70 0.24 0.64 0.24
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade Use
  Marijuana or Hashish
0.80 0.24 0.75 0.20 0.80 0.24 0.77 0.24
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade
  Drink Alcoholic Beverages
0.50 0.27 0.46 0.20 0.49 0.24 0.50 0.22
All or Most of Students in Youth's Grade Get
  Drunk at Least Once a Week
0.85 0.26 0.79 0.22 0.83 0.26 0.90 0.24

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