Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables is a collection of tables presenting national estimates from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). These tables present information on drug, alcohol, and tobacco use; drug and alcohol dependence and abuse and treatment; mental health problems and related treatment; and the co-occurrence of substance use and mental health problems. Measures of these behaviors and characteristics are presented by a variety of demographic, geographic, and other variables. The estimates in the tables include rates of the behaviors, numbers of persons engaging in these behaviors, and other measures. Although the majority of these tables are trend tables presenting estimates from the 2007 and 2008 NSDUHs, some tables include only estimates from the 2008 NSDUH if the same or comparable data are not available from 2007. Also, a number of tables contain annual averages that are generated by combining multiple years of data if sufficient data within a single year are unavailable to produce reliable estimates. These tables may provide annual averages combining data for (a) 2007 and 2008, (b) 2006 and 2007, (c) 2005 and 2006, and (d) 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008. Also included are a number of tables that present data from earlier surveys in the series, including a section of tables mainly presenting data from 2002 to 2008 and a couple of tables within that section presenting data from 1971 to 2008. Two tables related to respondents' mental health status were produced based on a subsample of respondents aged 18 or older1 Finally, tables were created that present estimates corresponding to the Healthy People 2010 Objectives.2
Because of survey improvements in the 2002 NSDUH, the 2002 data constitute a new baseline for tracking trends in substance use and other measures. Therefore, estimates from the 2002 through 2008 surveys should not be compared with estimates from the 2001 or earlier surveys to examine changes over time. Methodology changes throughout NSDUH's history make it difficult to assess long-term trends from tables presenting data from 1971 to 2008. However, it is instructive to compare NSDUH estimates from 1971 to 2008 by "piecing together" the data from time periods for which data are comparable. Specifically, valid trend comparisons can be made for 1971 to 1998, 1999 to 2001, and 2002 to 2008. With this approach, comparisons between 1998 and 1999, and between 2001 and 2002, should be made with caution because they are potentially biased due to changes in methods. Nevertheless, when these data are combined in a single presentation, it often becomes clear that the effects of the methods changes are small compared with the major shifts in substance use prevalence that have occurred over the past four decades.
The 2008 detailed tables include revised estimates of the nonmedical use of prescription psychotherapeutic drugs and prescription stimulants that take into account data on methamphetamine use based on information obtained from survey items added to NSDUH in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008. In a methodological study, these measures were found to be noticeably higher when the data from the additional methamphetamine use items were taken into account. Estimates for use of illicit drugs overall and use of illicit drugs other than marijuana, however, were affected only minimally by these methamphetamine use items and were not revised. The 2006 estimates for nonmedical use of stimulants and prescription psychotherapeutics in the 2008 detailed tables have been revised based on the additional questions on methamphetamine use, and statistical adjustments have been applied to the estimates from 2002 to 2005. These modifications control for the potentially confounding effects of the questionnaire changes and enable year-to-year comparisons to be made over the period from 2002 to 2008. Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings provides a discussion of the revised measures and the procedures used to generate estimates based on them.3 Because of these changes, estimates for nonmedical use of stimulants and psychotherapeutic drugs in these tables are not comparable with corresponding estimates in previous NSDUH tables and reports, and methamphetamine use estimates are not comparable with those in NSDUH tables and reports for survey years prior to 2006. Throughout these tables, notes have been added to the applicable tables to clearly document estimates that were revised.
Several important changes were made to the adult mental health module of the 2008 NSDUH questionnaire. These changes not only provide valuable new data on mental health, but also affect some of the measures that have been collected in NSDUH since 2004. In Sections B.4.4 to B.4.7 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings, the questionnaire changes and their impact on NSDUH estimates are discussed in detail.4 The 2008 detailed tables include estimates from the expanded mental health module, including serious mental illness (SMI), 30-day serious psychological distress (SPD), and suicidal thoughts and behavior. SMI estimates were not produced from 2004 through 2007, and the SMI estimates presented in the 2008 detailed tables are not comparable with the SMI estimates produced from NSDUH data prior to 2004. Additionally, the questionnaire changes caused discontinuities in trends for the adult major depressive episode (MDE) and 12-month SPD estimates. Analyses of these data indicate that the 2008 data for adult MDE and 12-month SPD are not comparable with data from 2007 and earlier. Thus, 12-month SPD data are not included in the detailed tables, and adult MDE data are presented only for 2008. No questionnaire changes were made in 2008 that affected MDE items for youths aged 12 to 17 or for the youth and adult mental health service utilization questions. Thus, estimates for these measures include comparisons with data from prior years.
Subsets of the detailed tables are included in Appendices F and G of the report titled Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. A description of the survey measurement issues and the sample design and estimation procedures used in the 2008 NSDUH can be found in technical appendices of the same report.
As of May 2012, tables containing estimates for the mid-Atlantic division and the Northeast region have been revised. These tables have been denoted with the word "(REVISED)" placed between the table's number and title. In addition, a note appears with each revised table to briefly explain the reason for the corrected data. In general, previously published estimates for the mid-Atlantic division and Northeast region were incorrect because of data errors.
More specifically, during regular data collection and processing checks for the 2011 NSDUH, data errors were identified. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). Cases with erroneous data were removed from the data files, and the remaining cases were reweighted to provide representative estimates. The errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 States and the District of Columbia. In reports where model-based small area estimation techniques are used, estimates for all States may be affected, even though the errors were concentrated in only two States. In reports that do not use model-based estimates, the only estimates appreciably affected are estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region. The 2008 detailed tables and 2008 national findings report do not include State-level or model-based estimates. However, they do include estimates for the mid-Atlantic division and the Northeast region. Thus, tables containing estimates for these geographic regions have been revised using the corrected data. Because only a limited set of tables use revised data, there exist some minor differences in the marginal estimates (i.e., the estimates in the row described as "TOTAL" between the revised and nonrevised tables).
Caution is advised when comparing data from older reports with data from more recent reports that are based on corrected data files. As discussed above, comparisons of estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region are of most concern, while comparisons of national data or data for other States and regions are essentially still valid. The Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ) within the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) does not recommend making comparisons between unrevised 2006-2010 estimates and estimates based on 2011 data for the areas of greatest concern.
As of October 2013, tables containing estimates for past year any mental illness (AMI) and SMI for adults have been revised.5 These tables have been denoted with the word "(REVISED)" placed between the table's number and title. In addition, a note appears with each revised table to briefly explain that the revision is due to revised estimation procedures.
More specifically, SAMHSA has been publishing estimates of the prevalence of past year mental illness among adults aged 18 or older since the release of the 2008 NSDUH national findings report.6 Estimates were based on a model developed in 2008. In 2013, SAMHSA developed a more accurate model for the 2012 data. This revised model incorporates the NSDUH respondent's age and indicators of past year suicide thoughts and depression, along with the variables that were specified in the 2008 model (Kessler-6 [K6] questions on psychological distress and an abbreviated set of questions on impairment in carrying out activities from the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule [WHODAS]), leading to more accurate estimates of AMI and SMI. Other mental health measures, such as MDE, SPD, and serious thoughts of suicide, were not affected. It is recommended that the mental illness variables derived from the 2012 model not be used when analyzing variables for past year suicidal thoughts, past year MDE, the K6, or the WHODAS, and it is also recommended that the mental illness variables derived from the 2012 model not be used when analyzing other closely linked variables (including, past year suicide attempts, past year suicide plans, medical treatment for suicide attempts, lifetime MDE, SPD, or components used in the K6 or WHODAS scales). For these revised tables, estimates are based on the 2012 model. For further information on the revised model, see the NSDUH short report titled Revised Estimates of Mental Illness from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health at http://samhsa.gov/data/default.aspx.
The detailed tables are numbered using a three-part numbering scheme (e.g., 1.15A). The first part of the table number (1.15A) is the subject matter section to which a particular table belongs. The second part (1.15A) is the number of the table within a particular section. The third part (1.15A) is a table type indicator, an alphabetic letter appended to the table number. Each table number, as explained below, has multiple table types. Tables are numbered sequentially within each subject matter section. To the extent possible, identical tables are assigned the same table number each year except in the case where specific tables are removed or added.
The nine subject matter sections and the number of tables per section are as follows:
Section 1: Illicit Drug Use Tables - 1.1 to 1.92
Section 2: Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use Tables - 2.1 to 2.84
Section 3: Risk and Protective Factor Tables - 3.1 to 3.25
Section 4: Incidence Tables - 4.1 to 4.16
Section 5: Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment Tables - 5.1 to 5.56
Section 6: Mental Health Tables - 6.1 to 6.50
Section 7: Miscellaneous Tables - 7.1 to 7.118
Section 8: Trend Tables - 8.1 to 8.43
Section 9: Sample Size and Population Tables - 9.1 to 9.14
The table type indicators are primarily defined as follows; however, some exceptions do exist and are noted in subsequent bullets.
|Table Type||Purpose of the Table|
|A:||Presents estimates of the numbers of persons exhibiting the specified behavior or characteristic (e.g., substance use) in the populations described by the column and row headings.|
|B:||Presents estimates of the percentages of persons exhibiting the specified behavior or characteristic (e.g., substance use) in the populations described by the column and row headings.|
|C:||Presents the standard error associated with each of the estimates in the "A" tables.|
|D:||Presents the standard error associated with each of the estimates in the "B" tables.|
|N:||Presents the number of cases in the specified NSDUH sample with the characteristics defined by the column and row headings.|
|P:||Presents the p values from tests of the statistical significance of differences between columns in the "B" tables.|
The majority of tables within the detailed tables contain five table types (A, B, C, D, and P) as defined above. Note that table type N is used exclusively within Section 9 to display the sample size counts. Exceptions to this organization are noted as follows:
The detailed tables are organized by table type as follows:
Both types of tables are organized such that the first eight subject matter sections are grouped into five separate parts. For easy reference, the ninth section, the Sample Size and Population Tables, is included within each part. The subject matter sections included in each part are provided in the table of contents.
The detailed tables are organized by table type into two categories:
Both categories are organized based on nine subject matter sections as listed below. Clicking on the subject matter section of interest will take users to an index of tables for that section. Users can scroll through the list of table titles to find the table of interest, then click on the table title to go directly to that table. Users need to return to the table of contents to access tables from other sections or categories.
The nine subject matter sections are as follows:
Section 1: Illicit Drug Use Tables
Section 2: Tobacco Product and Alcohol Use Tables
Section 3: Risk and Protective Factor Tables
Section 4: Incidence Tables
Section 5: Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment Tables
Section 6: Mental Health Tables
Section 7: Miscellaneous Tables
Section 8: Trend Tables
Section 9: Sample Size and Population Tables
For best printing results, use the PDF-Web file of this report located at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/.
1 Office of Applied Studies. (2009). Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings (HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434, NSDUH Series H-36). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
2 Additional information on the Healthy People 2010 Objectives may be obtained at the following archive Web site: http://www.healthypeople.gov/2010/?visit=1. Information on the Healthy People 2020 Objectives is available at http://www.healthypeople.gov/.
3 See the report cited in footnote 1.
4 Again, see the report cited in footnote 1.
5 Past year AMI estimates for adults are not included in the 2008 detailed tables. Estimates of AMI for the 2008 NSDUH are included in the subsequent year mental health detailed tables.
6 See the report cited in footnote 1.