National Survey on Drug Use and Health:
Comparison of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 Model-Based
Prevalence Estimates (50 States and the District of Columbia)

NOTE: The methodology used to conduct significance testing for State estimates between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 NSDUHs and to calculate p values is provided after Tables 1 to 23.

130116
Table 1 – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 8.04a 8.38 0.010 9.43 9.69 0.180 19.74a 20.54 0.004 5.85b 6.12 0.075
Northeast 8.22a 8.98 0.000 9.72 10.07 0.265 22.28a 24.32 0.000 5.69a 6.26 0.031
Midwest 7.70 7.77 0.661 9.40 9.63 0.399 19.30 19.40 0.834 5.47 5.53 0.788
South 7.29 7.46 0.280 8.86 8.80 0.806 17.87 18.48 0.181 5.31 5.43 0.536
West 9.39a 9.94 0.026 10.10b 10.82 0.057 21.02 21.81 0.201 7.20 7.67 0.133
Alabama 6.76 7.10 0.400 8.29 9.19 0.245 16.74 18.43 0.178 4.87 4.91 0.925
Alaska 11.80a 13.56 0.032 10.94 11.07 0.893 24.50a 28.75 0.019 9.55 11.08 0.134
Arizona 9.00 9.51 0.377 10.10 10.11 0.987 20.47 20.76 0.848 6.91 7.52 0.381
Arkansas 7.98 7.83 0.747 8.51 9.46 0.211 20.28 19.05 0.370 5.89 5.80 0.855
California 9.08a 10.01 0.009 9.71b 10.78 0.058 20.78 21.81 0.248 6.78b 7.64 0.054
Colorado 11.72 11.34 0.583 12.06 12.10 0.968 26.83 27.32 0.779 9.16 8.57 0.484
Connecticut 8.24 8.85 0.194 10.08 10.30 0.798 22.44 24.85 0.137 5.77 6.13 0.491
Delaware 9.15 8.65 0.318 9.95 10.35 0.667 25.32 25.19 0.937 6.36 5.69 0.235
District of Columbia 12.17a 10.47 0.015 10.91 11.42 0.634 26.43a 22.13 0.019 9.15b 7.78 0.083
Florida 7.80 8.04 0.496 9.05 9.05 0.997 18.88 18.20 0.432 6.03 6.43 0.346
Georgia 7.26 7.89 0.179 8.10 8.18 0.903 18.30 19.68 0.306 5.26 5.84 0.295
Hawaii 9.93a 11.88 0.009 9.95 10.19 0.817 21.14 23.43 0.215 8.15a 10.23 0.020
Idaho 8.03 8.21 0.694 9.79 9.94 0.858 18.08 17.87 0.875 5.98 6.26 0.607
Illinois 7.18a 7.77 0.037 8.58a 9.87 0.012 17.70 19.01 0.119 5.10 5.46 0.298
Indiana 8.75 8.50 0.593 10.94 10.59 0.717 20.66 19.94 0.605 6.44 6.29 0.794
Iowa 4.08a 5.29 0.000 7.15a 9.22 0.012 9.99a 13.21 0.005 2.63a 3.40 0.039
Kansas 6.77 7.02 0.556 8.89 8.93 0.952 15.77 16.27 0.709 4.79 5.04 0.604
Kentucky 8.40a 7.38 0.038 9.19 8.13 0.187 20.38 18.17 0.102 6.42 5.60 0.149
Louisiana 7.12 7.11 0.981 8.48 7.40 0.149 17.13 18.88 0.187 4.99 4.80 0.719
Maine 9.14a 11.14 0.003 11.28 10.89 0.671 24.68a 28.55 0.013 6.72a 8.74 0.011
Maryland 7.30 7.12 0.673 9.09 9.33 0.787 19.48 19.04 0.777 5.03 4.82 0.662
Massachusetts 8.92a 10.90 0.000 10.42 11.06 0.468 24.64b 27.93 0.052 6.01a 7.86 0.003
Michigan 8.94 9.50 0.149 10.35 10.74 0.475 22.91 22.36 0.512 6.38 7.15 0.110
Minnesota 8.26a 6.91 0.002 9.24 8.06 0.133 22.48a 18.93 0.012 5.67b 4.72 0.060
Mississippi 6.39 6.20 0.609 7.32b 8.77 0.068 15.23 15.05 0.883 4.62 4.21 0.343
Missouri 7.40 7.55 0.748 8.80 8.04 0.293 18.68 19.39 0.596 5.35 5.54 0.732
Montana 9.99 9.63 0.512 11.21 11.31 0.914 24.99 24.52 0.756 7.30 6.93 0.578
Nebraska 6.44 6.69 0.500 8.93 8.64 0.688 16.36 17.06 0.576 4.25 4.48 0.593
Nevada 9.39 10.03 0.303 11.30 12.64 0.147 21.19 23.25 0.192 7.40 7.73 0.649
New Hampshire 10.73 11.21 0.475 11.66 11.54 0.894 29.22 30.31 0.552 7.79 8.25 0.562
New Jersey 6.42 6.71 0.459 8.21 8.31 0.890 18.84 20.54 0.216 4.30 4.37 0.875
New Mexico 8.68 9.09 0.502 11.78 12.37 0.562 20.08 19.09 0.501 6.17 6.82 0.374
New York 9.00a 9.73 0.035 9.99 10.55 0.330 23.63a 26.01 0.013 6.28 6.70 0.312
North Carolina 7.74 8.14 0.380 9.89 10.28 0.652 19.42 19.97 0.684 5.60 5.97 0.475
North Dakota 5.93 5.62 0.439 7.95 7.64 0.689 13.64 12.71 0.416 3.93 3.79 0.763
Ohio 7.59 7.53 0.819 9.64 9.89 0.647 19.56 19.95 0.629 5.35 5.19 0.634
Oklahoma 8.06 8.94 0.132 9.57 9.41 0.858 17.76 19.48 0.239 6.09 6.97 0.198
Oregon 12.21 12.32 0.877 12.20 12.33 0.889 26.01 27.79 0.281 10.08 9.93 0.867
Pennsylvania 6.92b 7.45 0.096 9.14 9.45 0.573 18.49 19.76 0.157 4.74 5.18 0.239
Rhode Island 13.35 12.67 0.338 12.43 12.90 0.667 33.24 30.12 0.101 9.78 9.37 0.630
South Carolina 6.70a 8.91 0.000 8.67 9.13 0.537 16.24a 20.37 0.004 4.89a 7.01 0.001
South Dakota 6.25 6.19 0.890 8.50 9.43 0.279 16.13 15.12 0.452 4.15 4.17 0.974
Tennessee 8.27 7.48 0.102 8.83 7.97 0.222 20.36 19.62 0.591 6.35 5.55 0.170
Texas 6.26 6.65 0.154 8.65 8.42 0.669 14.90a 17.02 0.006 4.27 4.45 0.610
Utah 6.25 6.23 0.958 8.31 8.16 0.835 12.91 13.12 0.852 4.21 4.19 0.967
Vermont 11.60 12.32 0.336 13.06 11.92 0.247 30.69 32.77 0.241 8.32 9.03 0.413
Virginia 7.29a 6.23 0.006 9.50 8.69 0.332 19.58b 17.24 0.096 4.94a 4.06 0.041
Washington 9.62 9.18 0.429 9.55 10.34 0.362 20.58 20.20 0.791 7.86 7.27 0.359
West Virginia 6.81a 7.80 0.033 8.98 9.21 0.763 17.41a 21.22 0.005 5.03 5.71 0.212
Wisconsin 8.69 7.90 0.103 9.95 9.67 0.746 21.63 21.26 0.787 6.34 5.43 0.112
Wyoming 6.82 6.45 0.385 9.99 10.13 0.875 17.24 17.41 0.899 4.55 4.05 0.296
130116
Table 2 – Marijuana Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 10.25a 10.88 0.000 12.80a 13.37 0.007 27.66a 29.31 0.000 6.93a 7.38 0.006
Northeast 10.78a 11.95 0.000 13.50b 14.22 0.063 31.55a 34.64 0.000 6.98a 7.84 0.001
Midwest 10.11 10.36 0.153 12.68 12.84 0.597 27.97 28.53 0.272 6.68 6.90 0.287
South 9.26b 9.59 0.052 11.87 12.06 0.530 24.24a 25.38 0.014 6.40 6.62 0.299
West 11.53a 12.55 0.000 13.80a 15.26 0.001 29.52a 31.83 0.001 7.97a 8.69 0.029
Alabama 8.05 8.49 0.290 10.85 10.11 0.394 20.70 22.60 0.163 5.54 5.89 0.440
Alaska 14.88 16.25 0.104 15.04 15.89 0.444 33.42 35.51 0.251 11.37 12.67 0.220
Arizona 10.36 10.89 0.299 13.67 14.28 0.557 27.93 29.42 0.372 6.93 7.29 0.542
Arkansas 10.62 10.78 0.752 11.45 12.33 0.358 27.47 27.59 0.937 7.76 7.85 0.885
California 11.56a 12.91 0.001 13.25a 15.12 0.006 29.44a 32.15 0.011 7.93a 8.91 0.044
Colorado 13.68a 15.12 0.048 16.62 18.55 0.117 35.61b 38.59 0.099 9.65 10.79 0.181
Connecticut 11.38a 12.56 0.032 13.64a 15.91 0.039 34.55 37.10 0.158 7.44 8.25 0.210
Delaware 11.70 11.82 0.842 13.79 15.53 0.101 34.39 35.92 0.386 7.66 7.35 0.664
District of Columbia 15.63 14.34 0.105 13.85 14.59 0.525 36.74b 33.16 0.055 11.13 10.11 0.270
Florida 9.68 10.12 0.239 12.33 12.94 0.346 26.04 26.58 0.544 6.98 7.38 0.372
Georgia 10.25 11.03 0.128 12.08 12.69 0.511 24.87 26.60 0.261 7.50 8.15 0.265
Hawaii 10.43a 12.06 0.008 13.63 14.45 0.519 29.29 31.14 0.353 7.08a 8.74 0.019
Idaho 9.36a 10.66 0.006 12.54 13.44 0.325 25.24a 28.30 0.037 6.07a 7.15 0.046
Illinois 9.81a 10.54 0.019 11.77a 13.33 0.009 26.08a 27.95 0.048 6.62 7.01 0.288
Indiana 10.28 10.28 0.998 13.20 12.90 0.763 27.41 27.22 0.905 6.98 7.08 0.855
Iowa 6.25a 7.68 0.001 9.63a 11.72 0.026 18.00b 20.54 0.056 3.72a 4.90 0.012
Kansas 8.95 9.39 0.302 11.73 12.12 0.662 25.13 25.63 0.768 5.53 6.00 0.307
Kentucky 9.79a 8.83 0.033 12.58b 10.91 0.083 25.62 24.66 0.505 6.96b 6.10 0.091
Louisiana 9.03 8.52 0.268 10.73 9.76 0.254 22.86 23.23 0.802 6.10 5.51 0.239
Maine 12.18a 13.55 0.038 15.69 14.20 0.194 36.47b 39.68 0.077 8.39b 9.85 0.059
Maryland 10.63 10.69 0.907 12.96 13.73 0.419 29.40 30.32 0.636 7.19 6.98 0.713
Massachusetts 12.24a 14.57 0.000 15.42 16.44 0.387 35.66a 40.19 0.011 7.79a 9.81 0.005
Michigan 11.53b 12.20 0.074 13.61 14.21 0.341 32.12 32.33 0.826 7.76b 8.51 0.097
Minnesota 11.32b 10.37 0.086 12.34 11.29 0.256 33.19a 29.92 0.050 7.40 6.92 0.449
Mississippi 7.23 7.88 0.104 9.13 9.92 0.310 19.03 20.36 0.318 4.77 5.30 0.241
Missouri 9.49 9.73 0.619 12.34 11.54 0.364 25.53 27.19 0.300 6.47 6.62 0.780
Montana 12.38 12.23 0.799 16.39 15.50 0.409 35.23 34.96 0.881 8.01 8.04 0.962
Nebraska 8.80 9.25 0.308 11.60 10.87 0.381 23.86 24.63 0.598 5.59 6.12 0.285
Nevada 10.78 11.09 0.603 15.05 16.45 0.205 27.61 28.98 0.397 7.75 7.74 0.998
New Hampshire 14.47 14.87 0.612 17.08 16.56 0.652 41.56 41.83 0.885 10.02 10.55 0.575
New Jersey 8.36b 9.19 0.071 10.42 11.63 0.171 26.82b 30.00 0.074 5.29 5.67 0.446
New Mexico 10.29 10.95 0.213 15.78 16.83 0.370 28.28 29.23 0.596 6.22 6.82 0.318
New York 11.55a 12.82 0.001 14.25 14.87 0.346 32.34a 36.36 0.000 7.52b 8.34 0.086
North Carolina 10.17 10.46 0.562 13.33 13.41 0.930 27.15 28.35 0.449 7.04 7.20 0.775
North Dakota 8.59 8.29 0.505 10.51 9.42 0.210 24.30 23.06 0.422 4.78 4.85 0.872
Ohio 10.24 10.08 0.606 13.83 12.97 0.173 28.78 29.54 0.410 6.72 6.52 0.590
Oklahoma 8.43a 10.19 0.001 11.50 12.69 0.246 20.53a 25.06 0.008 5.80a 7.16 0.014
Oregon 14.04 14.41 0.603 16.55 18.34 0.139 36.95 37.33 0.831 10.21 10.40 0.814
Pennsylvania 9.12a 10.04 0.006 12.31 12.87 0.391 26.89b 28.78 0.063 5.81a 6.62 0.040
Rhode Island 15.77a 14.34 0.039 17.67 16.31 0.290 44.11a 39.48 0.025 10.28 9.39 0.267
South Carolina 8.60b 9.36 0.100 11.34 11.75 0.629 23.62 25.58 0.198 5.80 6.40 0.244
South Dakota 8.28 8.96 0.105 11.31 12.05 0.424 24.98 25.67 0.646 4.83 5.55 0.121
Tennessee 10.09 9.61 0.337 11.80 10.52 0.134 26.17 26.28 0.943 7.42 6.95 0.409
Texas 7.74a 8.31 0.036 11.00 11.24 0.697 20.16a 22.03 0.025 4.90 5.29 0.212
Utah 6.98 7.18 0.615 9.81 9.73 0.929 16.81 17.70 0.516 3.99 4.13 0.732
Vermont 15.49 15.95 0.513 17.84 16.67 0.333 44.56 45.25 0.710 10.48 11.09 0.457
Virginia 9.87 9.75 0.783 13.18 13.80 0.527 27.50 27.03 0.776 6.49 6.32 0.735
Washington 12.19 12.81 0.276 14.17 15.24 0.306 30.81a 34.11 0.038 8.96 9.08 0.854
West Virginia 8.73b 9.60 0.094 12.66 12.05 0.532 24.12 26.63 0.115 6.06 6.88 0.155
Wisconsin 10.72 10.65 0.892 13.66 13.71 0.954 31.07 31.13 0.970 6.90 6.82 0.895
Wyoming 9.83 9.88 0.921 14.85 14.19 0.539 27.13 27.24 0.945 6.11 6.27 0.783
130116
Table 3 – Marijuana Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 5.98a 6.40 0.000 6.70a 7.03 0.045 16.52a 17.42 0.001 4.07a 4.42 0.005
Northeast 6.39a 7.14 0.000 7.45b 7.94 0.081 19.65a 21.45 0.001 4.05a 4.63 0.004
Midwest 5.90 6.07 0.190 6.80 7.03 0.281 16.32 16.57 0.551 3.98 4.14 0.323
South 5.26b 5.47 0.083 6.01 6.06 0.811 14.45b 15.21 0.058 3.62 3.76 0.344
West 6.83a 7.57 0.000 7.12a 7.86 0.024 17.44b 18.43 0.082 4.88a 5.56 0.009
Alabama 4.57 5.04 0.114 5.24 5.70 0.412 12.99 14.49 0.180 3.06 3.35 0.367
Alaska 9.13a 11.52 0.001 8.00 9.14 0.207 20.28a 25.16 0.008 7.20a 9.30 0.019
Arizona 5.81a 6.70 0.038 6.57 7.28 0.298 16.08 17.08 0.502 3.96b 4.86 0.064
Arkansas 5.50 6.11 0.108 5.68b 6.73 0.077 15.51 16.16 0.617 3.84 4.40 0.194
California 6.66a 7.67 0.001 6.88b 7.70 0.075 17.29 18.67 0.101 4.62a 5.57 0.009
Colorado 9.21 9.77 0.341 9.13 10.17 0.237 23.44 24.18 0.665 6.84 7.31 0.501
Connecticut 6.47a 7.26 0.043 7.79 8.35 0.443 19.78b 22.56 0.081 4.21 4.70 0.236
Delaware 7.11 6.97 0.743 7.19 7.54 0.608 22.11 22.67 0.726 4.60 4.29 0.465
District of Columbia 9.66a 8.46 0.047 7.21 7.50 0.713 23.72a 19.59 0.022 6.79 6.07 0.281
Florida 5.62 5.80 0.508 6.55 6.31 0.602 15.62 15.21 0.605 4.04 4.35 0.339
Georgia 5.44 6.06 0.102 5.41 5.50 0.859 14.72 15.87 0.344 3.87 4.46 0.158
Hawaii 6.70a 8.46 0.001 7.09 7.72 0.465 17.31 19.15 0.256 4.97a 6.84 0.003
Idaho 5.74 5.89 0.697 7.07 7.50 0.525 14.55 14.13 0.735 3.98 4.21 0.590
Illinois 5.42a 5.91 0.027 6.18a 7.29 0.012 14.56a 16.23 0.027 3.67 3.86 0.461
Indiana 6.23 6.08 0.655 7.58 7.24 0.614 16.87 16.48 0.752 4.25 4.17 0.841
Iowa 3.28a 4.48 0.000 5.13a 6.88 0.005 8.62a 11.62 0.003 2.09a 2.92 0.005
Kansas 5.10 5.02 0.807 6.27 5.97 0.627 13.47 13.04 0.718 3.37 3.40 0.933
Kentucky 5.66a 4.81 0.008 6.38b 5.27 0.060 15.93 14.25 0.195 3.96a 3.27 0.043
Louisiana 5.02 5.14 0.695 5.23 4.82 0.440 13.65 15.19 0.228 3.31 3.26 0.872
Maine 8.16a 9.81 0.008 9.13 8.43 0.402 23.38b 26.13 0.088 5.93a 7.69 0.013
Maryland 5.41 5.66 0.475 6.28 7.01 0.264 16.60 17.03 0.764 3.42 3.56 0.698
Massachusetts 7.07a 8.74 0.000 8.14 9.09 0.213 22.01b 24.84 0.078 4.36a 5.84 0.005
Michigan 7.02 7.52 0.114 7.36 7.88 0.255 19.20 18.99 0.785 4.90 5.52 0.109
Minnesota 7.11a 5.98 0.007 6.60b 5.58 0.100 20.95a 17.10 0.009 4.78 4.13 0.159
Mississippi 4.39 4.54 0.622 4.46 5.02 0.265 11.52 11.72 0.857 3.06 3.15 0.800
Missouri 5.40 5.94 0.135 6.30 5.74 0.374 15.29 16.91 0.199 3.65 4.15 0.208
Montana 8.33 8.12 0.699 8.65 8.78 0.862 22.99 21.99 0.508 5.81 5.72 0.890
Nebraska 4.95 5.36 0.197 6.32 6.09 0.685 13.51 14.70 0.310 3.16 3.50 0.323
Nevada 6.23b 7.00 0.071 7.58b 8.96 0.060 16.32 18.34 0.158 4.56 5.06 0.305
New Hampshire 9.03 9.62 0.308 9.43 9.66 0.780 26.53 27.28 0.660 6.32 6.91 0.372
New Jersey 4.85 5.04 0.536 5.69 6.16 0.397 15.99 17.42 0.309 3.04 2.99 0.851
New Mexico 6.14 6.54 0.377 8.27 9.25 0.276 16.41 15.74 0.632 3.96 4.49 0.303
New York 6.94a 7.73 0.006 7.83 8.50 0.171 21.31b 23.09 0.052 4.28b 4.87 0.085
North Carolina 6.02 6.30 0.426 6.91 7.19 0.635 16.56 16.85 0.808 4.21 4.49 0.496
North Dakota 5.01 4.67 0.326 5.34 5.06 0.607 11.55 10.65 0.373 3.49 3.30 0.625
Ohio 5.86 5.96 0.675 7.45 7.63 0.675 16.85 17.26 0.583 3.84 3.89 0.856
Oklahoma 4.81a 5.60 0.031 5.98 6.23 0.674 11.57a 14.18 0.044 3.41 3.96 0.178
Oregon 8.52 9.29 0.197 8.16 8.66 0.516 21.89 23.87 0.207 6.49 7.11 0.380
Pennsylvania 5.17a 5.81 0.006 6.94 7.19 0.584 15.32a 17.08 0.024 3.29b 3.80 0.059
Rhode Island 10.88 10.04 0.159 9.39 9.09 0.745 30.38b 27.14 0.084 7.44 6.94 0.449
South Carolina 4.99a 5.91 0.009 5.45 5.55 0.844 13.57a 16.88 0.010 3.53 4.16 0.101
South Dakota 5.26 5.14 0.756 6.12 6.61 0.433 14.49 13.55 0.457 3.46 3.44 0.965
Tennessee 5.83 5.42 0.224 6.12b 5.19 0.093 16.84 16.64 0.871 4.11 3.72 0.295
Texas 4.43 4.74 0.110 5.74 6.11 0.385 11.70a 13.45 0.009 2.86 2.91 0.829
Utah 4.28a 3.60 0.034 5.07 4.78 0.594 9.80 8.21 0.123 2.75 2.27 0.133
Vermont 10.17 10.85 0.273 10.93 9.73 0.205 29.69 30.56 0.592 6.90 7.75 0.236
Virginia 5.77 5.33 0.178 6.76 6.33 0.503 16.54 15.70 0.547 3.83 3.45 0.239
Washington 7.34 7.21 0.762 7.15 7.74 0.398 17.34 17.19 0.916 5.76 5.53 0.664
West Virginia 4.80a 5.50 0.044 6.25 5.74 0.355 14.29a 17.46 0.013 3.27 3.74 0.198
Wisconsin 6.40 6.19 0.564 7.24 7.20 0.947 18.04 17.49 0.685 4.31 4.16 0.691
Wyoming 5.58 5.42 0.648 7.27 7.55 0.703 15.20 15.50 0.827 3.65 3.37 0.436
130116
Table 4 – Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 37.66a 35.75 0.000 33.91a 31.84 0.000 23.69a 21.30 0.000 40.56a 38.75 0.000
Northeast 35.08a 32.82 0.000 31.08a 28.53 0.000 20.25a 17.46 0.000 38.05a 35.93 0.000
Midwest 36.36a 34.22 0.000 34.99a 32.93 0.000 21.85a 19.87 0.000 39.05a 36.87 0.000
South 41.54a 39.95 0.000 36.33a 34.60 0.000 26.61a 24.25 0.000 44.74a 43.28 0.002
West 34.86a 32.92 0.000 31.32a 29.05 0.000 23.62a 21.10 0.000 37.38a 35.59 0.003
Alabama 44.29a 41.12 0.011 40.83 39.41 0.405 28.23 28.47 0.876 47.46a 43.48 0.012
Alaska 29.85b 27.80 0.065 28.84 28.13 0.711 18.26 17.04 0.365 32.19b 29.78 0.090
Arizona 38.30a 34.84 0.005 34.54a 28.86 0.001 27.88a 22.86 0.001 40.58b 37.66 0.063
Arkansas 40.74 39.79 0.464 38.72 36.75 0.232 25.05 22.80 0.113 43.56 42.94 0.704
California 36.30a 34.50 0.010 30.90a 28.11 0.002 24.51a 22.36 0.009 39.31b 37.72 0.082
Colorado 28.33 26.74 0.162 25.88 25.24 0.668 16.16 14.95 0.264 30.67 28.90 0.217
Connecticut 35.94a 33.13 0.023 29.83 28.49 0.429 20.20a 17.73 0.041 39.20b 36.15 0.052
Delaware 37.03a 33.59 0.006 33.81b 30.51 0.054 20.75b 18.49 0.056 40.14a 36.48 0.021
District of Columbia 30.96 29.19 0.150 26.87 27.40 0.782 18.18 16.81 0.269 34.19 32.13 0.188
Florida 42.62 42.23 0.626 35.22 33.87 0.186 26.05 24.92 0.181 45.89 45.71 0.858
Georgia 37.65b 35.32 0.055 32.51 30.34 0.183 24.24a 20.16 0.004 40.65 38.59 0.183
Hawaii 36.54a 33.77 0.048 30.19 29.23 0.570 23.23 21.54 0.283 39.38b 36.23 0.070
Idaho 37.14a 33.64 0.002 36.77b 33.91 0.090 24.24a 20.85 0.009 39.49a 35.85 0.013
Illinois 38.22a 36.03 0.002 35.10a 32.62 0.006 23.46 22.21 0.113 41.28a 38.98 0.012
Indiana 38.00a 35.34 0.023 36.10 33.39 0.103 22.85a 20.29 0.039 40.82b 38.13 0.069
Iowa 38.23a 35.39 0.022 40.28a 37.01 0.050 24.79a 20.18 0.001 40.36 37.87 0.114
Kansas 38.46 36.77 0.178 38.46a 34.17 0.010 23.60a 20.32 0.017 41.26 40.18 0.503
Kentucky 42.95 41.41 0.192 39.74 39.04 0.692 26.07 24.12 0.173 46.00 44.40 0.278
Louisiana 43.63 41.86 0.156 38.61 38.44 0.920 29.35a 25.82 0.012 47.10 45.41 0.296
Maine 29.73 28.19 0.230 28.85 28.86 0.993 15.04 14.92 0.904 31.88 29.96 0.222
Maryland 35.84 34.42 0.307 32.76 30.30 0.145 20.90 19.80 0.416 38.75 37.42 0.453
Massachusetts 27.60b 25.59 0.085 27.70a 24.40 0.027 15.74a 13.47 0.030 29.64 27.87 0.233
Michigan 34.22a 31.57 0.000 32.65 31.38 0.158 19.58a 17.44 0.003 36.92a 33.99 0.002
Minnesota 30.52b 28.46 0.067 32.10a 28.55 0.022 17.73 17.06 0.567 32.53 30.40 0.134
Mississippi 48.98 47.21 0.176 44.47a 40.42 0.031 31.27 29.43 0.236 52.91 51.44 0.390
Missouri 36.75 36.08 0.594 36.35 34.94 0.421 22.64 21.45 0.361 39.14 38.64 0.756
Montana 31.87 30.99 0.469 31.43 29.24 0.158 17.58 16.16 0.218 34.34 33.68 0.670
Nebraska 40.60a 36.89 0.003 39.83 38.07 0.340 23.28a 19.05 0.002 43.96a 40.11 0.014
Nevada 36.25 35.00 0.331 31.26 30.70 0.735 23.84 22.70 0.441 38.72 37.38 0.396
New Hampshire 25.71 25.37 0.767 23.90 23.43 0.768 11.83 12.23 0.692 28.05 27.62 0.761
New Jersey 39.29a 36.23 0.018 34.94a 29.21 0.001 22.07a 18.41 0.005 42.46 39.85 0.107
New Mexico 40.00 39.02 0.436 32.22 30.94 0.441 25.27 23.08 0.121 43.77 43.01 0.643
New York 36.00a 34.12 0.012 30.25b 28.67 0.092 21.89a 18.78 0.000 39.23b 37.55 0.080
North Carolina 38.48a 34.08 0.000 34.30a 29.94 0.006 25.09a 21.51 0.008 41.16a 36.62 0.004
North Dakota 37.56 35.88 0.150 37.82 35.88 0.227 22.76b 20.18 0.055 40.90 39.40 0.330
Ohio 36.68a 34.15 0.001 34.26b 32.61 0.067 21.89a 19.41 0.001 39.43a 36.76 0.008
Oklahoma 42.56a 37.72 0.001 40.25 37.82 0.187 26.85 24.39 0.106 45.75a 40.14 0.002
Oregon 28.41 26.66 0.113 27.77 26.42 0.386 17.23a 15.00 0.045 30.21 28.49 0.208
Pennsylvania 36.60a 34.19 0.005 33.20a 30.70 0.012 21.00a 18.17 0.001 39.57a 37.24 0.032
Rhode Island 32.38a 28.45 0.002 29.57 28.23 0.381 15.91 14.28 0.144 35.79a 31.13 0.004
South Carolina 40.71 40.24 0.713 35.89 33.86 0.198 26.24a 23.04 0.022 43.69 43.85 0.924
South Dakota 37.94 37.92 0.989 36.54 35.34 0.487 23.48 22.26 0.352 40.77 41.08 0.842
Tennessee 42.68a 39.40 0.010 39.47a 34.73 0.002 25.69a 20.37 0.000 45.66b 42.87 0.082
Texas 44.82 44.28 0.479 37.12 36.92 0.845 30.55a 28.17 0.007 48.67 48.39 0.780
Utah 40.94a 38.16 0.018 44.39 43.40 0.587 31.59a 26.87 0.005 42.75b 40.10 0.090
Vermont 27.84a 25.22 0.026 24.02 23.93 0.950 12.65 11.73 0.361 30.77a 27.57 0.031
Virginia 35.34 34.58 0.523 32.12 30.56 0.316 22.57 21.37 0.353 37.90 37.31 0.697
Washington 27.77 26.26 0.169 28.67 28.94 0.867 19.73a 16.37 0.003 28.94 27.53 0.298
West Virginia 43.67 44.03 0.785 38.66 38.16 0.770 24.69 23.66 0.507 46.97 47.60 0.701
Wisconsin 34.81 33.81 0.422 33.93 33.56 0.814 20.60 19.54 0.366 37.34 36.24 0.492
Wyoming 36.93 35.61 0.271 38.75 39.62 0.696 21.41 21.28 0.922 39.46 37.65 0.237
130116
Table 5 – First Use of Marijuana, by Age Group and State: Average Annual Rates and P Values from Tests of Differences between Rates, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Average annual marijuana initiation rate = 100 × {[X1 ÷ (0.5 × X1 + X2)] ÷ 2}, where X1 is the number of marijuana initiates in the past 24 months and X2 is the number of persons who never used marijuana. Both of the computation components, X1 and X2, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach. Note that the age group is based on a respondent's age at the time of the interview, not his or her age at first use.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 1.66a 1.75 0.006 5.49a 5.74 0.026 6.54a 7.09 0.003 0.12 0.13 0.934
Northeast 1.69a 1.80 0.012 5.70 5.92 0.195 7.09a 7.96 0.002 0.12 0.13 0.865
Midwest 1.73 1.79 0.166 5.53 5.57 0.771 6.92a 7.41 0.019 0.12 0.12 0.753
South 1.50 1.56 0.119 5.20 5.22 0.889 5.75a 6.34 0.001 0.12 0.12 0.935
West 1.85a 2.00 0.004 5.75a 6.57 0.000 7.04 7.38 0.244 0.13 0.14 0.835
Alabama 1.27 1.38 0.186 4.52 4.47 0.883 4.63b 5.53 0.056 0.11 0.12 0.731
Alaska 2.26 2.30 0.810 6.15 6.35 0.706 7.24 7.33 0.901 0.16 0.17 0.637
Arizona 1.65 1.72 0.477 5.50 6.10 0.180 6.71 6.58 0.840 0.12 0.12 0.998
Arkansas 1.52 1.56 0.700 4.93 5.15 0.561 6.58 6.99 0.532 0.13 0.12 0.823
California 1.86a 2.06 0.013 5.58a 6.66 0.000 7.15 7.39 0.562 0.13 0.14 0.795
Colorado 2.38 2.45 0.625 7.42 8.11 0.252 9.38 9.23 0.863 0.18 0.17 0.694
Connecticut 1.91a 2.14 0.045 6.60 7.09 0.331 7.25a 8.98 0.015 0.13 0.14 0.835
Delaware 1.78a 2.13 0.003 5.38a 6.67 0.008 8.54 9.55 0.209 0.13 0.14 0.648
District of Columbia 2.30 2.33 0.822 6.83 7.25 0.451 8.38 8.38 0.996 0.21 0.24 0.437
Florida 1.33 1.39 0.300 5.17 5.35 0.524 5.81 6.22 0.254 0.10 0.10 0.991
Georgia 1.67a 1.87 0.037 5.24 5.46 0.587 5.95b 6.90 0.076 0.15 0.17 0.466
Hawaii 1.73 1.71 0.862 6.55 6.42 0.808 7.80 7.57 0.781 0.07 0.11 0.234
Idaho 1.61a 1.86 0.020 5.28 5.50 0.626 5.34a 7.18 0.002 0.12 0.13 0.979
Illinois 1.69 1.74 0.473 5.46 5.65 0.475 6.41 6.85 0.238 0.12 0.12 0.768
Indiana 1.75 1.76 0.933 5.80 5.81 0.986 7.41 7.37 0.954 0.12 0.11 0.817
Iowa 1.33a 1.55 0.021 4.51a 5.34 0.044 5.05b 5.97 0.085 0.09 0.10 0.981
Kansas 1.66 1.72 0.531 5.29 5.65 0.365 6.47 6.85 0.517 0.11 0.10 0.736
Kentucky 1.68a 1.48 0.026 6.48a 5.46 0.029 6.26 6.09 0.751 0.14 0.14 0.966
Louisiana 1.47 1.33 0.138 4.52b 3.89 0.087 5.44 5.53 0.859 0.12 0.12 0.931
Maine 1.86 1.73 0.225 6.41a 5.43 0.025 8.50 8.97 0.518 0.14 0.14 0.940
Maryland 1.81 1.81 0.996 5.93 5.61 0.496 7.71 8.20 0.486 0.12 0.12 0.880
Massachusetts 2.15 2.27 0.370 7.16 7.13 0.959 9.10 9.69 0.487 0.15 0.16 0.611
Michigan 1.92a 2.10 0.031 5.68 5.97 0.289 7.99 8.72 0.106 0.13 0.13 0.975
Minnesota 1.80 1.77 0.772 4.90 4.85 0.913 8.11 7.89 0.747 0.13 0.12 0.524
Mississippi 1.29 1.34 0.487 4.20 4.09 0.731 4.69 5.22 0.207 0.10 0.11 0.664
Missouri 1.62 1.64 0.849 5.32 5.11 0.581 6.44 7.12 0.249 0.13 0.12 0.826
Montana 1.95 2.04 0.458 6.80 6.67 0.793 8.56 9.79 0.129 0.11 0.13 0.613
Nebraska 1.46 1.54 0.361 5.01 4.48 0.130 5.07a 6.32 0.023 0.10 0.10 0.826
Nevada 1.64a 1.85 0.037 5.73a 7.16 0.003 6.23 6.55 0.549 0.15 0.15 0.786
New Hampshire 2.43 2.25 0.193 6.94 6.29 0.148 10.88 10.53 0.709 0.17 0.15 0.504
New Jersey 1.25a 1.50 0.004 4.20b 4.89 0.070 5.81a 7.69 0.004 0.10 0.10 0.933
New Mexico 1.97 2.06 0.462 7.12 7.84 0.221 8.57 8.01 0.454 0.11 0.12 0.765
New York 1.70 1.81 0.117 5.72 6.05 0.227 6.73 7.38 0.113 0.13 0.13 0.736
North Carolina 1.72 1.69 0.780 6.46 6.24 0.597 6.43 6.67 0.648 0.14 0.13 0.910
North Dakota 1.71 1.56 0.116 5.11a 4.28 0.023 6.70 6.59 0.856 0.09 0.08 0.706
Ohio 1.79 1.78 0.871 5.97 5.59 0.152 7.03 7.47 0.268 0.13 0.13 0.767
Oklahoma 1.42 1.47 0.595 4.86 4.87 0.987 5.46 5.77 0.574 0.10 0.11 0.721
Oregon 2.23 2.42 0.161 7.09 7.87 0.146 9.47 9.63 0.838 0.17 0.19 0.605
Pennsylvania 1.55 1.61 0.386 5.35 5.37 0.952 6.73 7.47 0.115 0.11 0.10 0.892
Rhode Island 2.44 2.27 0.243 7.46 7.20 0.631 10.66 9.16 0.110 0.16 0.16 0.873
South Carolina 1.37 1.46 0.256 4.80 4.77 0.940 5.52b 6.41 0.093 0.11 0.12 0.880
South Dakota 1.56 1.59 0.729 4.93 5.17 0.544 6.48 6.70 0.694 0.10 0.09 0.885
Tennessee 1.34 1.26 0.258 4.80b 4.11 0.053 5.64 6.00 0.503 0.13 0.12 0.805
Texas 1.45a 1.59 0.032 4.88 5.20 0.238 4.96a 5.86 0.007 0.11 0.11 0.998
Utah 1.19 1.29 0.293 3.82 3.94 0.726 2.96b 3.64 0.093 0.10 0.10 0.975
Vermont 2.37 2.47 0.452 7.52 7.37 0.793 10.49 11.93 0.114 0.14 0.15 0.754
Virginia 1.82 1.90 0.470 5.66 5.98 0.447 6.95 7.59 0.334 0.14 0.13 0.738
Washington 1.79 1.94 0.194 5.38 5.68 0.458 7.14a 8.53 0.047 0.16 0.16 0.993
West Virginia 1.23 1.27 0.585 5.09 5.33 0.530 5.72 5.76 0.941 0.11 0.12 0.742
Wisconsin 1.81 1.92 0.277 6.03 6.16 0.786 7.50 8.39 0.168 0.12 0.12 0.729
Wyoming 1.88 1.92 0.771 6.49 6.47 0.970 7.28 7.70 0.538 0.11 0.11 0.758
130116
Table 6 – Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 3.59 3.54 0.572 4.54 4.47 0.638 7.95 8.10 0.414 2.71 2.63 0.436
Northeast 3.32 3.49 0.211 4.03 4.11 0.700 7.78a 8.90 0.001 2.49 2.50 0.978
Midwest 3.37 3.27 0.294 4.45 4.39 0.711 7.79 7.80 0.970 2.47 2.34 0.309
South 3.54 3.43 0.316 4.51 4.33 0.321 7.78 7.74 0.857 2.70 2.59 0.416
West 4.08 4.00 0.664 5.02 5.03 0.951 8.48 8.32 0.643 3.15 3.08 0.733
Alabama 3.80 3.83 0.929 4.75 4.85 0.870 8.46 9.40 0.259 2.89 2.75 0.717
Alaska 3.94 3.80 0.651 4.79 4.11 0.228 8.31 8.20 0.902 2.98 2.92 0.880
Arizona 4.41 4.17 0.553 5.57 5.02 0.383 9.29 8.66 0.507 3.43 3.29 0.798
Arkansas 4.30b 3.71 0.055 4.72 4.62 0.866 10.10b 8.38 0.057 3.30 2.84 0.248
California 3.96 4.02 0.803 4.81 5.25 0.289 8.03 7.91 0.815 3.07 3.10 0.909
Colorado 4.59a 3.62 0.013 5.42b 4.24 0.059 10.99 9.90 0.243 3.42b 2.50 0.057
Connecticut 3.25 3.41 0.483 4.30 4.45 0.763 7.57 8.62 0.201 2.44 2.46 0.942
Delaware 4.26 3.96 0.365 4.51 4.66 0.793 9.55 9.13 0.625 3.34 3.01 0.431
District of Columbia 4.57 4.01 0.115 4.25 4.39 0.820 7.02 6.60 0.608 4.06 3.39 0.140
Florida 3.49 3.39 0.644 4.45 4.46 0.961 7.59 6.79 0.109 2.79 2.77 0.949
Georgia 3.07 3.12 0.842 3.92 3.96 0.937 7.14 7.85 0.377 2.26 2.20 0.858
Hawaii 4.19b 5.08 0.079 4.79 4.95 0.830 7.80 8.56 0.482 3.55 4.54 0.124
Idaho 3.54 3.82 0.351 4.85 4.81 0.942 7.42 7.59 0.839 2.66 3.01 0.345
Illinois 2.96b 3.24 0.100 3.73 4.24 0.145 6.35 6.70 0.485 2.25 2.48 0.260
Indiana 4.18 3.93 0.437 5.50 5.32 0.794 9.10 8.51 0.457 3.17 2.97 0.634
Iowa 1.81 2.01 0.290 3.17 3.82 0.235 4.70 5.14 0.529 1.12 1.24 0.578
Kansas 3.52 3.33 0.424 4.82 4.39 0.455 7.46 7.30 0.842 2.61 2.45 0.599
Kentucky 4.38 3.97 0.189 4.94 4.70 0.708 10.36 9.08 0.170 3.38 3.08 0.453
Louisiana 3.92 3.79 0.694 4.93 4.07 0.118 7.73b 9.26 0.080 3.03 2.69 0.421
Maine 3.01b 3.44 0.087 4.30 4.46 0.765 8.32 9.78 0.129 2.12 2.45 0.274
Maryland 3.27b 2.81 0.080 4.00 3.79 0.700 7.11 6.43 0.373 2.54 2.07 0.154
Massachusetts 3.37a 4.07 0.013 3.90 4.25 0.508 7.63a 9.92 0.019 2.57 3.01 0.172
Michigan 3.57 3.82 0.205 4.82 4.73 0.814 8.79 9.06 0.602 2.52 2.81 0.240
Minnesota 3.08 2.81 0.223 4.29 3.69 0.220 7.60 7.60 0.994 2.15 1.88 0.324
Mississippi 3.04 3.14 0.690 3.89 4.85 0.135 6.90 7.11 0.795 2.21 2.18 0.919
Missouri 3.89a 3.12 0.006 4.76 4.04 0.209 9.33 8.21 0.186 2.88a 2.16 0.042
Montana 3.90 3.46 0.118 4.91 4.57 0.554 9.27 8.73 0.538 2.87 2.45 0.241
Nebraska 2.87 2.83 0.835 4.18 4.35 0.758 6.76 6.35 0.574 1.96 1.96 0.975
Nevada 4.45 4.82 0.432 5.69 5.53 0.789 9.34 10.47 0.248 3.57 3.89 0.590
New Hampshire 3.56a 4.20 0.035 4.44 4.55 0.825 9.32a 11.48 0.044 2.57 3.05 0.183
New Jersey 2.73 2.78 0.820 3.65 3.61 0.915 7.00 7.76 0.321 1.96 1.91 0.858
New Mexico 3.54 3.78 0.428 5.38 5.39 0.991 7.45 7.70 0.768 2.57 2.85 0.465
New York 3.53 3.65 0.589 3.88 3.90 0.945 7.84a 9.31 0.007 2.73 2.60 0.652
North Carolina 3.50 3.61 0.694 4.48 4.33 0.763 8.20 8.59 0.619 2.62 2.71 0.786
North Dakota 2.29 2.11 0.351 3.70 3.67 0.953 5.41 4.98 0.502 1.40 1.27 0.568
Ohio 3.29 3.21 0.626 4.36 4.30 0.873 7.85 8.42 0.254 2.40 2.22 0.362
Oklahoma 4.85 4.97 0.775 5.67 5.05 0.344 10.67 10.78 0.917 3.67 3.90 0.669
Oregon 5.51 4.89 0.153 6.15 5.37 0.256 11.38 10.39 0.336 4.53 3.98 0.310
Pennsylvania 3.16 3.16 0.996 4.31 4.40 0.814 7.49 7.68 0.709 2.31 2.27 0.872
Rhode Island 5.92 5.51 0.397 5.31 5.64 0.628 12.49 11.62 0.492 4.77 4.35 0.476
South Carolina 3.08a 4.08 0.009 4.30 4.81 0.377 7.04 6.34 0.375 2.27a 3.61 0.005
South Dakota 2.32 2.23 0.665 3.68 3.90 0.698 6.20 5.27 0.167 1.43 1.46 0.890
Tennessee 4.29a 3.55 0.024 4.79 4.33 0.387 9.09 7.82 0.115 3.49b 2.80 0.094
Texas 3.28 3.18 0.566 4.65 4.18 0.228 6.90 7.43 0.251 2.39 2.23 0.467
Utah 3.12a 3.73 0.014 4.59 4.46 0.794 6.85a 8.52 0.035 1.92 2.41 0.111
Vermont 3.99 3.90 0.791 4.83 4.14 0.168 11.12 12.01 0.385 2.73 2.55 0.668
Virginia 3.11a 2.66 0.046 4.29 4.00 0.581 7.22 6.51 0.344 2.27 1.84 0.128
Washington 3.77 3.41 0.266 4.73 4.41 0.571 8.25 7.73 0.559 2.93 2.60 0.406
West Virginia 3.80b 4.42 0.063 4.64 4.89 0.669 9.50b 11.16 0.079 2.88 3.40 0.211
Wisconsin 4.15a 3.39 0.007 5.09 4.66 0.455 9.25 8.90 0.702 3.17a 2.30 0.018
Wyoming 2.96 2.75 0.392 4.62 4.49 0.827 7.40 6.82 0.460 1.96 1.82 0.621
130116
Table 7 – Cocaine Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 2.22a 2.01 0.001 1.38a 1.11 0.000 5.99a 5.46 0.001 1.68b 1.53 0.059
Northeast 2.32 2.38 0.519 1.32a 1.11 0.011 6.34 6.68 0.163 1.77 1.81 0.729
Midwest 2.07a 1.82 0.002 1.27a 1.06 0.005 5.85a 5.12 0.000 1.51 1.34 0.109
South 2.10a 1.81 0.000 1.29a 0.98 0.000 5.37a 4.64 0.000 1.65b 1.44 0.052
West 2.46a 2.21 0.026 1.66a 1.35 0.012 6.75a 6.08 0.007 1.80 1.62 0.224
Alabama 1.56 1.38 0.272 1.03a 0.76 0.010 3.95 3.44 0.131 1.22 1.11 0.548
Alaska 3.07 2.99 0.834 1.71 1.45 0.196 7.82 7.38 0.552 2.38 2.39 0.989
Arizona 3.10a 2.33 0.005 2.06a 1.38 0.003 7.95 6.91 0.113 2.42a 1.68 0.015
Arkansas 2.05a 1.43 0.002 1.23a 0.89 0.009 5.44a 3.52 0.000 1.60a 1.16 0.047
California 2.27 2.12 0.367 1.58 1.39 0.275 6.13 5.57 0.129 1.63 1.56 0.714
Colorado 3.65 3.28 0.296 2.07a 1.37 0.003 10.40b 8.94 0.081 2.72 2.56 0.704
Connecticut 2.27 2.05 0.323 1.62a 1.26 0.025 6.44 6.25 0.723 1.70 1.49 0.407
Delaware 2.65 2.36 0.283 1.12 0.91 0.102 6.68 6.40 0.622 2.17 1.87 0.320
District of Columbia 4.20 3.76 0.406 0.60 0.43 0.120 5.48 5.14 0.550 4.27 3.76 0.466
Florida 2.00 1.80 0.206 1.47a 1.05 0.001 5.55a 4.70 0.012 1.53 1.46 0.668
Georgia 2.08a 1.51 0.003 1.09a 0.81 0.007 4.86a 3.93 0.024 1.74a 1.20 0.012
Hawaii 2.12 1.76 0.152 1.53 1.25 0.169 5.50b 4.39 0.058 1.65 1.40 0.387
Idaho 1.49 1.31 0.194 1.41 1.24 0.298 5.23 4.52 0.114 0.83 0.75 0.548
Illinois 2.08 1.91 0.230 1.17b 0.99 0.081 5.12 4.64 0.122 1.66 1.53 0.475
Indiana 2.18a 1.66 0.009 1.30 1.09 0.159 6.38a 4.97 0.007 1.59b 1.18 0.056
Iowa 1.21 1.11 0.472 1.14 1.11 0.883 4.16 3.64 0.205 0.69 0.66 0.851
Kansas 1.74 1.52 0.195 1.43a 1.11 0.048 5.77b 4.97 0.098 1.03 0.94 0.580
Kentucky 1.84a 1.36 0.002 1.29b 1.02 0.065 5.99a 4.37 0.000 1.26b 0.93 0.052
Louisiana 2.63 2.34 0.238 0.95 0.84 0.360 5.13 4.77 0.393 2.38 2.08 0.305
Maine 2.42 2.30 0.649 1.34 1.13 0.229 7.85 7.67 0.778 1.78 1.69 0.734
Maryland 2.09a 1.57 0.016 1.03 0.87 0.164 4.83b 4.03 0.067 1.77a 1.24 0.034
Massachusetts 2.15 2.45 0.231 1.34 1.18 0.306 6.35 7.16 0.200 1.52 1.76 0.376
Michigan 2.14 2.00 0.335 1.13 1.05 0.469 6.25 5.74 0.140 1.58 1.49 0.608
Minnesota 2.33a 1.77 0.005 1.56a 1.12 0.002 6.38a 5.14 0.011 1.73a 1.27 0.042
Mississippi 1.27 1.36 0.526 0.66 0.63 0.747 3.16 3.15 0.976 1.01 1.14 0.446
Missouri 2.00 2.01 0.977 1.33a 1.00 0.021 5.96 5.74 0.668 1.44 1.52 0.697
Montana 2.26 2.32 0.741 1.29 1.17 0.417 7.72 7.60 0.849 1.46 1.58 0.543
Nebraska 1.46 1.57 0.454 1.21 1.10 0.443 4.56 4.61 0.913 0.91 1.06 0.317
Nevada 2.51 2.34 0.475 2.12a 1.50 0.005 6.95 6.72 0.683 1.90 1.79 0.678
New Hampshire 2.19a 2.75 0.035 1.48 1.23 0.177 7.22a 8.97 0.017 1.51 1.98 0.103
New Jersey 1.72 1.73 0.916 1.19 1.04 0.234 5.09 4.93 0.711 1.27 1.33 0.759
New Mexico 2.02 2.17 0.528 1.65b 1.30 0.089 6.39 6.55 0.792 1.27 1.47 0.420
New York 2.60 2.66 0.759 1.25 1.09 0.202 6.46b 7.31 0.052 2.09 2.02 0.765
North Carolina 2.59b 2.10 0.052 1.06 0.93 0.296 6.12a 4.90 0.016 2.21 1.79 0.137
North Dakota 1.44 1.22 0.152 1.07 1.05 0.881 4.21 3.78 0.329 0.86 0.68 0.204
Ohio 1.89a 1.49 0.004 1.23 1.02 0.122 5.86a 4.51 0.000 1.32b 1.05 0.096
Oklahoma 1.54 1.50 0.804 1.39b 1.14 0.093 4.77 4.70 0.880 0.97 0.97 0.996
Oregon 3.21a 2.63 0.027 1.61a 1.23 0.027 8.81 8.04 0.218 2.54b 1.95 0.052
Pennsylvania 2.19 2.27 0.658 1.39a 1.08 0.016 6.13 5.86 0.476 1.65 1.82 0.386
Rhode Island 4.12 3.89 0.595 1.63b 1.28 0.078 10.05 9.39 0.449 3.32 3.17 0.762
South Carolina 2.33 2.75 0.119 1.05b 0.83 0.071 5.74 4.97 0.113 1.93a 2.62 0.026
South Dakota 1.31 1.17 0.311 1.08 0.95 0.386 4.56 3.91 0.123 0.75 0.71 0.750
Tennessee 2.41a 1.57 0.000 1.16b 0.93 0.070 6.79a 4.31 0.000 1.90a 1.23 0.002
Texas 2.01 1.89 0.424 1.64a 1.16 0.002 5.11 5.09 0.957 1.48 1.40 0.656
Utah 1.81a 1.43 0.036 1.36 1.16 0.263 5.22a 4.14 0.043 1.02 0.80 0.225
Vermont 2.99 3.01 0.947 1.31 1.22 0.610 10.51 10.17 0.675 1.97 2.05 0.804
Virginia 2.15b 1.75 0.052 1.31a 1.02 0.032 5.95a 4.95 0.036 1.61 1.30 0.150
Washington 2.32 2.08 0.285 1.52a 1.20 0.049 6.79 6.24 0.327 1.70 1.51 0.459
West Virginia 2.52 2.51 0.972 1.34b 1.05 0.077 7.87 7.65 0.733 1.87 1.93 0.848
Wisconsin 2.93 2.71 0.441 1.58a 1.19 0.025 7.54 7.27 0.655 2.32 2.13 0.557
Wyoming 1.77 1.46 0.129 1.41b 1.13 0.092 6.20b 5.25 0.057 1.03 0.83 0.418
130116
Table 8 – Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 4.91 4.86 0.568 6.58 6.55 0.845 12.09 12.00 0.706 3.46 3.41 0.656
Northeast 4.22b 4.45 0.077 5.38 5.43 0.863 11.25a 12.24 0.013 2.91 3.02 0.450
Midwest 4.93 4.84 0.367 6.81 6.76 0.802 12.22 12.21 0.976 3.43 3.32 0.408
South 4.88 4.80 0.483 6.71 6.52 0.381 11.91 11.94 0.931 3.46 3.37 0.547
West 5.48 5.30 0.318 7.03 7.21 0.587 12.86a 11.73 0.006 3.93 3.87 0.783
Alabama 5.37 5.10 0.410 7.27 7.54 0.716 13.25 12.98 0.797 3.78 3.45 0.389
Alaska 5.25 5.26 0.978 7.40 7.16 0.746 11.16 11.62 0.665 3.80 3.78 0.961
Arizona 6.12 5.98 0.757 8.43 7.47 0.210 13.89 13.72 0.887 4.50 4.47 0.964
Arkansas 6.32a 5.10 0.004 7.85 7.68 0.808 15.94a 12.36 0.002 4.55b 3.59 0.052
California 5.13 4.76 0.145 6.33 6.77 0.320 12.04a 10.19 0.003 3.65 3.44 0.503
Colorado 5.64 5.67 0.953 7.18 7.34 0.821 14.45 13.63 0.473 3.98 4.14 0.749
Connecticut 3.86 3.78 0.787 5.04 5.04 0.994 10.49 10.56 0.940 2.66 2.55 0.734
Delaware 5.14 5.56 0.284 6.39 6.40 0.980 13.14 13.52 0.723 3.65 4.14 0.323
District of Columbia 3.86 3.65 0.504 4.05 4.38 0.556 8.13 7.82 0.696 2.90 2.65 0.507
Florida 4.10 4.14 0.885 6.48 5.96 0.260 10.90 10.40 0.388 2.84 3.01 0.539
Georgia 5.17b 4.64 0.100 6.31 6.29 0.975 12.35 11.89 0.625 3.78 3.18 0.128
Hawaii 4.55 5.08 0.272 6.02 6.01 0.983 10.06 11.28 0.234 3.51 3.98 0.423
Idaho 5.64 5.84 0.583 7.77 7.94 0.823 12.62 12.86 0.826 4.09 4.31 0.619
Illinois 3.90 4.12 0.265 5.49 5.70 0.637 9.21 9.67 0.420 2.73 2.90 0.456
Indiana 6.04 5.67 0.333 7.64 8.10 0.514 14.16 13.86 0.776 4.46 3.97 0.311
Iowa 3.33 3.62 0.293 5.81 5.85 0.953 8.19 9.25 0.195 2.14 2.35 0.510
Kansas 4.66 5.00 0.267 7.28 7.60 0.641 10.28 11.49 0.200 3.24 3.44 0.587
Kentucky 6.58 6.00 0.159 7.80 7.62 0.817 16.11 15.60 0.670 4.94 4.30 0.201
Louisiana 5.64 5.27 0.334 6.79 6.21 0.409 12.98 13.68 0.521 4.05 3.52 0.252
Maine 4.42 4.68 0.445 6.58 6.32 0.693 12.49 13.62 0.341 3.05 3.27 0.580
Maryland 4.00 3.98 0.943 5.16 5.47 0.618 10.13 10.32 0.838 2.83 2.72 0.748
Massachusetts 5.03 5.31 0.390 5.51 5.47 0.959 13.25 14.18 0.411 3.54 3.71 0.650
Michigan 5.41 5.71 0.238 7.53 7.44 0.838 13.04 13.90 0.181 3.83 4.09 0.412
Minnesota 4.90b 4.39 0.099 6.47 6.08 0.540 12.67 11.64 0.302 3.36 2.94 0.262
Mississippi 4.25 4.66 0.164 5.73a 7.65 0.013 10.36 10.99 0.524 2.90 3.08 0.615
Missouri 4.51 4.38 0.662 6.73 6.15 0.374 11.82 12.32 0.625 3.01 2.85 0.636
Montana 5.54 5.29 0.499 7.68 7.17 0.450 14.87 14.15 0.514 3.69 3.59 0.814
Nebraska 3.31 3.57 0.314 5.29 5.69 0.509 8.57 9.37 0.353 2.05 2.19 0.639
Nevada 6.34 5.82 0.245 8.83 8.26 0.462 15.38 14.20 0.329 4.68 4.27 0.443
New Hampshire 5.34 5.95 0.102 7.07 7.03 0.948 15.13 16.79 0.204 3.64 4.16 0.227
New Jersey 3.54 3.75 0.429 4.67 4.58 0.871 9.86b 11.64 0.072 2.44 2.43 0.990
New Mexico 5.48 5.64 0.728 8.51 8.42 0.920 10.96 11.43 0.632 4.06 4.20 0.797
New York 4.02 4.37 0.108 4.96 5.22 0.518 10.51a 12.09 0.018 2.75 2.87 0.608
North Carolina 4.62 4.99 0.261 7.01 7.14 0.856 11.70 12.39 0.475 3.18 3.53 0.380
North Dakota 3.96 3.91 0.841 6.52 6.21 0.662 9.17 9.38 0.814 2.45 2.40 0.865
Ohio 5.52 5.47 0.845 7.33 7.37 0.941 15.13 14.62 0.460 3.70 3.73 0.914
Oklahoma 6.85a 8.14 0.034 8.61 9.32 0.438 16.71 17.94 0.389 4.81b 6.20 0.058
Oregon 6.60 6.80 0.675 8.27 8.76 0.526 17.87b 15.50 0.070 4.67 5.23 0.320
Pennsylvania 4.35 4.48 0.622 6.16 6.07 0.841 11.35 11.24 0.866 2.98 3.17 0.515
Rhode Island 6.29 6.11 0.686 6.28 6.56 0.690 16.58 15.97 0.660 4.39 4.20 0.730
South Carolina 4.32 4.71 0.228 6.55 6.96 0.519 11.29 11.23 0.952 2.89 3.37 0.224
South Dakota 3.38b 3.82 0.086 5.61 5.88 0.673 8.51 9.77 0.152 2.14 2.49 0.247
Tennessee 6.52a 4.87 0.000 7.72 6.63 0.116 15.38a 12.70 0.016 5.02a 3.46 0.001
Texas 4.43 4.57 0.523 6.50 5.80 0.128 10.16b 11.27 0.065 3.03 3.13 0.725
Utah 4.96 5.34 0.248 6.91 6.82 0.896 10.28b 12.07 0.080 3.27 3.41 0.713
Vermont 4.68 4.61 0.841 6.44 5.81 0.292 13.22 13.65 0.697 3.07 2.99 0.847
Virginia 4.86 4.62 0.446 6.78 6.93 0.813 11.59 11.14 0.665 3.49 3.22 0.474
Washington 6.14 6.11 0.939 7.77 8.06 0.709 14.76 14.48 0.813 4.56 4.53 0.950
West Virginia 4.98a 5.92 0.016 7.11 7.51 0.567 13.62 15.54 0.102 3.50b 4.37 0.058
Wisconsin 6.29a 4.78 0.000 7.89 6.99 0.240 15.45a 12.87 0.020 4.53a 3.14 0.002
Wyoming 4.26 3.89 0.220 7.76 6.77 0.176 11.03 9.94 0.247 2.61 2.46 0.659
130116
Table 9 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012)
Total U.S. 51.39 51.74 0.228 15.38a 14.79 0.011 61.18 61.45 0.458 54.44 54.80 0.307
Northeast 56.11 56.57 0.384 17.14 16.68 0.286 66.42 67.33 0.236 59.22 59.59 0.567
Midwest 54.23 54.26 0.943 16.21a 15.24 0.002 65.74 65.07 0.326 57.26 57.42 0.755
South 47.39 47.74 0.432 14.23 13.75 0.117 57.44 57.62 0.805 50.03 50.43 0.448
West 51.21 51.78 0.295 15.06 14.56 0.245 58.56 59.40 0.287 54.85 55.40 0.415
Alabama 40.39a 42.94 0.033 13.04 12.70 0.710 52.47 54.41 0.283 41.90a 44.84 0.049
Alaska 54.73 54.52 0.863 14.29 14.22 0.950 61.64 60.50 0.537 59.72 59.37 0.812
Arizona 52.79 51.15 0.180 16.05 14.80 0.235 60.49 59.35 0.523 56.45 54.60 0.228
Arkansas 43.16 43.29 0.916 14.77 15.34 0.572 53.96 55.94 0.273 45.07 44.80 0.859
California 49.72 50.65 0.249 14.79 14.11 0.312 57.82b 59.79 0.072 53.18 53.99 0.430
Colorado 62.15 62.22 0.951 19.02 20.22 0.357 71.26 69.51 0.305 65.98 66.11 0.929
Connecticut 60.90 59.32 0.215 18.42 18.56 0.911 69.41 67.86 0.348 65.03 63.08 0.217
Delaware 55.24 56.32 0.422 15.52 16.35 0.451 67.35 68.53 0.455 58.23 59.18 0.575
District of Columbia 60.46 61.55 0.354 15.40 15.63 0.838 72.45 71.82 0.711 62.20 63.53 0.372
Florida 52.60 51.41 0.153 16.15 15.30 0.229 58.32 56.91 0.190 55.87 54.58 0.202
Georgia 47.96 48.89 0.445 13.09 13.56 0.607 54.37a 58.18 0.039 51.76 52.19 0.788
Hawaii 48.20 48.23 0.983 12.64 11.64 0.351 58.61 57.21 0.487 50.68 50.95 0.878
Idaho 42.50a 45.71 0.014 12.31 12.91 0.536 51.20 52.50 0.468 45.32a 49.19 0.018
Illinois 54.67 54.33 0.656 15.96 15.16 0.211 64.84 64.88 0.972 58.06 57.60 0.629
Indiana 49.31 48.06 0.319 15.69 14.41 0.181 58.20 57.94 0.883 52.30 50.82 0.343
Iowa 54.00a 56.70 0.027 15.51 17.34 0.102 66.30 69.06 0.105 56.74b 59.43 0.079
Kansas 51.22a 53.92 0.037 15.49 15.93 0.679 66.01 66.34 0.854 53.31a 56.66 0.040
Kentucky 40.43 38.74 0.180 13.83 12.21 0.119 53.57 50.64 0.114 41.67 40.10 0.313
Louisiana 47.77 48.24 0.689 15.37 15.26 0.921 60.19 61.67 0.393 49.85 50.16 0.839
Maine 52.45b 55.07 0.062 16.46b 14.57 0.081 63.79 65.34 0.358 54.97b 58.08 0.070
Maryland 55.14 54.24 0.510 14.72 14.02 0.503 65.93a 61.74 0.022 58.64 58.09 0.747
Massachusetts 61.10 61.54 0.720 18.10 16.89 0.292 71.09 72.39 0.423 64.52 64.83 0.838
Michigan 54.56 54.65 0.907 15.68b 14.56 0.076 66.27a 63.73 0.016 57.86 58.39 0.582
Minnesota 62.69 60.95 0.137 17.16a 14.70 0.026 73.30a 68.13 0.003 66.74 65.51 0.401
Mississippi 38.11b 40.39 0.060 11.89 12.70 0.393 48.72a 52.99 0.019 39.94 41.96 0.189
Missouri 50.31 50.15 0.900 15.07 13.92 0.268 62.18 61.01 0.470 52.91 52.95 0.980
Montana 58.00 59.07 0.426 18.80a 21.39 0.035 67.70 69.07 0.409 61.28 61.95 0.688
Nebraska 55.71 53.59 0.105 16.36a 13.81 0.015 66.76 64.98 0.318 58.87 56.67 0.185
Nevada 51.84b 54.47 0.054 14.39 15.29 0.380 58.62 60.32 0.345 55.71b 58.63 0.088
New Hampshire 63.07 63.98 0.423 18.46 17.83 0.589 74.75 74.97 0.878 66.90 67.91 0.480
New Jersey 54.07 54.18 0.934 15.17 15.17 0.998 63.48 64.96 0.382 57.56 57.37 0.908
New Mexico 45.82 47.59 0.160 15.29 15.62 0.761 58.25 57.11 0.520 47.70 50.05 0.141
New York 55.29 55.72 0.604 17.41 16.83 0.418 65.52 66.32 0.448 58.20 58.57 0.725
North Carolina 45.43 47.45 0.105 14.15 12.83 0.139 57.52 58.35 0.629 47.45 49.98 0.104
North Dakota 59.47 57.80 0.220 20.43 18.98 0.248 75.46a 71.80 0.030 60.83 59.46 0.439
Ohio 51.30 51.67 0.637 16.25b 14.99 0.053 64.47 65.37 0.377 53.69 54.08 0.687
Oklahoma 41.87a 45.62 0.006 13.19 13.86 0.512 56.88 59.12 0.253 42.94a 47.31 0.010
Oregon 59.02 59.77 0.555 16.79 17.75 0.368 65.22 66.69 0.398 63.08 63.58 0.746
Pennsylvania 53.79 55.06 0.140 16.72 16.73 0.984 64.69 66.31 0.158 56.58 57.81 0.243
Rhode Island 61.62 59.91 0.169 20.74b 18.29 0.055 74.80a 71.17 0.034 64.19 62.78 0.363
South Carolina 46.69 45.89 0.551 13.46 12.45 0.266 53.54 53.32 0.907 49.81 48.82 0.553
South Dakota 57.16 57.81 0.575 17.38 15.85 0.169 71.33 70.66 0.672 59.86 60.93 0.473
Tennessee 40.46 41.06 0.645 12.44 11.39 0.237 53.83 53.40 0.823 41.87 42.77 0.570
Texas 47.04b 48.42 0.071 14.14 14.09 0.933 57.50 58.49 0.380 49.92 51.52 0.103
Utah 27.94 28.11 0.897 7.63 6.73 0.324 30.36 32.09 0.414 30.79 30.72 0.966
Vermont 60.69 60.28 0.769 20.36b 18.40 0.093 73.84 73.56 0.861 63.33 62.87 0.791
Virginia 53.63a 50.79 0.024 14.85b 13.10 0.072 64.43a 60.21 0.012 56.69b 53.83 0.069
Washington 56.56 56.13 0.717 15.92b 14.03 0.066 62.93 60.77 0.190 60.65 60.54 0.940
West Virginia 38.30 38.17 0.923 13.94 13.23 0.487 52.93 53.45 0.779 38.87 38.66 0.899
Wisconsin 60.40 61.78 0.250 18.77 18.62 0.901 71.26 71.81 0.721 63.85 65.42 0.304
Wyoming 53.19 54.21 0.446 17.87 17.06 0.493 64.47 62.33 0.205 55.72 57.41 0.316
130116
Table 10 – Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 23.35 23.53 0.422 9.31a 8.88 0.020 41.55 41.52 0.944 22.07 22.31 0.383
Northeast 24.33 24.82 0.182 10.36 10.08 0.430 44.97 45.49 0.395 22.61 23.11 0.278
Midwest 25.94 25.89 0.876 10.11a 9.44 0.013 46.64 46.00 0.170 24.46 24.55 0.812
South 22.07 22.12 0.876 8.60a 8.01 0.015 38.17 37.95 0.624 21.11 21.25 0.711
West 22.13 22.51 0.288 8.86 8.83 0.934 39.28 39.74 0.436 20.86 21.22 0.436
Alabama 19.16 20.48 0.137 7.95 7.43 0.453 33.94 35.46 0.323 18.12 19.60 0.173
Alaska 24.20 24.28 0.932 8.58 9.73 0.191 41.85 40.20 0.340 23.31 23.44 0.918
Arizona 23.21 23.16 0.958 9.33 8.77 0.498 40.22 41.26 0.516 22.20 22.00 0.864
Arkansas 21.64 20.51 0.191 8.79 9.08 0.695 39.20 38.29 0.598 20.43 19.07 0.201
California 21.61 22.17 0.337 8.73 8.57 0.771 38.06 39.02 0.291 20.34 20.83 0.512
Colorado 26.74 26.30 0.650 10.72 10.89 0.851 49.87 47.39 0.135 24.87 24.66 0.862
Connecticut 26.11 27.05 0.396 13.45 13.31 0.900 47.31 46.92 0.821 24.41 25.62 0.373
Delaware 24.51 26.18 0.119 9.53 9.55 0.987 47.03 48.18 0.480 22.65 24.55 0.155
District of Columbia 29.89 29.67 0.843 7.79 7.35 0.674 49.08 46.47 0.144 27.79 27.97 0.896
Florida 22.84 21.93 0.128 9.59a 8.18 0.009 38.32 37.40 0.304 22.06 21.16 0.223
Georgia 21.73 21.42 0.727 7.20 7.00 0.774 35.46 36.41 0.560 21.43 20.85 0.604
Hawaii 23.04 22.84 0.858 7.07 7.06 0.991 40.79 39.02 0.350 22.08 22.05 0.979
Idaho 18.76 20.10 0.107 7.97 8.55 0.457 35.96 35.72 0.877 17.27 19.00 0.105
Illinois 26.75 26.39 0.547 10.19 9.70 0.348 46.02 46.34 0.750 25.53 24.98 0.480
Indiana 23.10 22.96 0.869 9.87 9.32 0.465 40.29 40.93 0.686 21.96 21.72 0.831
Iowa 27.23 28.65 0.152 10.55 11.15 0.470 48.78 50.33 0.349 25.52 27.00 0.235
Kansas 24.84 25.12 0.768 9.41 9.48 0.925 47.90 45.58 0.180 22.61 23.39 0.510
Kentucky 19.85 20.29 0.621 8.95 8.09 0.253 36.68 37.80 0.471 18.55 19.02 0.667
Louisiana 23.87 23.63 0.802 8.66 8.09 0.437 39.04 38.44 0.696 23.03 22.90 0.914
Maine 21.70 22.12 0.666 9.67a 7.86 0.024 43.17 45.31 0.216 20.08 20.46 0.746
Maryland 22.47 21.67 0.417 9.21 8.53 0.414 41.76b 38.41 0.079 20.99 20.51 0.688
Massachusetts 25.71 25.00 0.453 10.81 10.32 0.586 48.86 46.97 0.269 23.48 22.81 0.562
Michigan 24.42 25.35 0.145 8.95 8.48 0.339 44.28 43.14 0.227 23.15b 24.55 0.086
Minnesota 29.99a 26.89 0.004 10.46a 8.16 0.006 54.04a 47.24 0.000 28.34b 25.77 0.055
Mississippi 19.97 20.30 0.723 6.95 7.23 0.694 32.50 33.51 0.509 19.54 19.70 0.890
Missouri 23.77 24.18 0.666 9.43 8.85 0.470 43.40 42.54 0.581 22.38 23.10 0.539
Montana 26.81 26.92 0.909 11.48a 13.70 0.036 50.61 50.63 0.992 24.70 24.56 0.914
Nebraska 25.30 25.80 0.595 9.62 8.63 0.210 44.51 46.71 0.189 23.77 24.10 0.783
Nevada 24.24b 26.23 0.061 9.19 9.29 0.905 39.46a 43.36 0.018 23.95 25.87 0.147
New Hampshire 25.99 25.36 0.542 12.49 11.18 0.162 53.23 51.34 0.288 23.54 23.12 0.740
New Jersey 22.81 24.37 0.117 9.88 9.24 0.485 41.20b 44.26 0.059 21.64 23.19 0.214
New Mexico 21.88 22.85 0.314 9.42 10.27 0.314 39.05 38.24 0.630 20.41 21.67 0.293
New York 23.25 24.07 0.167 9.79 10.07 0.625 43.09 43.68 0.546 21.41 22.26 0.257
North Carolina 21.42 20.81 0.490 8.21 7.42 0.210 37.54 36.97 0.711 20.51 19.86 0.566
North Dakota 32.67a 29.83 0.006 12.27 12.55 0.792 59.55a 53.56 0.000 29.17b 26.65 0.060
Ohio 25.55 25.31 0.693 10.71b 9.73 0.076 46.78 47.00 0.813 23.99 23.73 0.739
Oklahoma 21.62 22.25 0.483 8.33 9.50 0.161 39.16 38.91 0.884 20.17 20.88 0.530
Oregon 23.46 24.02 0.542 9.15 9.99 0.266 44.44 46.17 0.294 21.93 22.23 0.789
Pennsylvania 25.60 25.53 0.915 10.05 9.72 0.562 46.05 46.94 0.420 24.17 23.91 0.747
Rhode Island 27.69 27.17 0.621 11.77a 9.53 0.013 51.96a 48.24 0.036 25.14 25.32 0.893
South Carolina 21.49 21.78 0.767 7.05 6.41 0.313 34.66 35.82 0.464 21.18 21.38 0.865
South Dakota 28.49 29.60 0.281 10.52 9.58 0.284 53.15 52.19 0.560 26.38 28.12 0.177
Tennessee 18.79 18.75 0.958 7.99 7.19 0.225 34.31 33.46 0.578 17.75 17.90 0.893
Texas 23.19b 24.23 0.083 8.95 8.49 0.361 39.00 38.98 0.983 22.30b 23.74 0.060
Utah 15.19 14.04 0.192 6.03 5.53 0.481 23.88 23.75 0.939 14.52 13.05 0.199
Vermont 25.36 26.08 0.458 12.62b 10.88 0.093 53.33 51.99 0.420 22.31 23.58 0.293
Virginia 23.64 23.63 0.992 9.34 8.55 0.283 43.56 43.16 0.815 22.08 22.16 0.940
Washington 21.12 21.38 0.765 8.58 8.59 0.995 41.51 40.43 0.502 19.43 19.89 0.671
West Virginia 19.35 20.05 0.423 9.00 8.18 0.301 37.80 38.78 0.584 17.81 18.62 0.438
Wisconsin 28.23 29.04 0.471 11.48 10.95 0.574 51.37 51.77 0.817 26.43 27.44 0.472
Wyoming 24.80 23.36 0.142 11.78 11.49 0.829 45.05b 41.82 0.056 22.87 21.57 0.283
130116
Table 11 – Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 41.82 41.75 0.795 39.66 39.82 0.616 33.09 33.08 0.972 43.60 43.50 0.740
Northeast 39.79 39.40 0.414 37.78 37.88 0.871 30.06 30.11 0.932 41.66 41.15 0.395
Midwest 38.54 38.73 0.590 37.17 37.78 0.174 28.35 28.92 0.158 40.48 40.55 0.889
South 44.10 44.06 0.928 41.75 41.74 0.978 36.27 36.12 0.737 45.72 45.70 0.963
West 42.99 42.86 0.784 40.18 40.19 0.994 35.04 34.62 0.496 44.81 44.71 0.872
Alabama 45.86 45.42 0.742 43.55 44.50 0.550 36.67 37.91 0.442 47.72 46.81 0.582
Alaska 38.93a 41.39 0.044 41.68 42.48 0.627 28.38 29.67 0.420 40.49b 43.44 0.061
Arizona 42.31 43.63 0.298 37.51 39.66 0.174 36.52 36.45 0.968 43.94 45.37 0.372
Arkansas 41.19 42.99 0.148 39.14b 41.77 0.094 34.41 33.79 0.701 42.56 44.64 0.173
California 43.79 43.37 0.585 41.60 41.59 0.989 36.48 36.16 0.741 45.49 45.01 0.625
Colorado 38.24b 40.64 0.058 36.58 37.31 0.608 26.06a 29.89 0.014 40.48 42.83 0.130
Connecticut 39.73 40.83 0.389 37.00a 40.24 0.048 30.32 32.29 0.226 41.56 42.25 0.666
Delaware 41.79 40.54 0.323 41.86 40.11 0.265 32.66 31.90 0.676 43.30 42.03 0.425
District of Columbia 41.35 40.62 0.560 44.81 45.98 0.483 31.83 33.15 0.464 43.13 41.81 0.402
Florida 44.03 44.76 0.334 40.91 41.28 0.719 37.09 37.66 0.545 45.40 46.19 0.398
Georgia 45.03 45.64 0.623 45.41 46.07 0.664 36.53 35.97 0.718 46.42 47.23 0.612
Hawaii 41.46 39.73 0.226 41.09 42.44 0.439 31.92 32.35 0.809 43.01 40.60 0.173
Idaho 42.66b 40.42 0.051 36.84 37.35 0.727 33.62 32.13 0.320 45.12b 42.31 0.058
Illinois 40.50 39.94 0.439 39.04 38.81 0.798 31.66 30.38 0.144 42.28 41.82 0.616
Indiana 39.66 39.79 0.913 37.83 38.35 0.739 29.12 29.33 0.885 41.69 41.74 0.975
Iowa 36.94 35.44 0.207 38.65 37.40 0.413 24.00 24.61 0.658 39.04 37.10 0.200
Kansas 37.43 37.98 0.642 35.00 34.20 0.608 24.14 26.16 0.202 40.26 40.69 0.773
Kentucky 42.02 42.45 0.729 43.09 41.60 0.359 32.61 32.98 0.811 43.36 44.03 0.662
Louisiana 45.44 45.60 0.895 44.05 44.21 0.915 39.19 40.49 0.418 46.85 46.77 0.959
Maine 37.98 37.40 0.651 35.63 36.00 0.796 24.88 26.14 0.398 40.08 39.11 0.537
Maryland 42.41 43.21 0.569 41.49 42.88 0.403 36.02 38.27 0.188 43.60 44.09 0.782
Massachusetts 35.20 35.38 0.884 33.46 34.48 0.527 25.14 26.46 0.366 37.15 37.07 0.959
Michigan 39.09 39.24 0.839 36.64a 38.71 0.022 30.35 31.75 0.104 40.91 40.58 0.721
Minnesota 36.51 36.76 0.846 36.33 37.68 0.375 27.89 27.25 0.658 38.03 38.27 0.883
Mississippi 48.23 48.19 0.973 47.10 46.04 0.514 42.23 41.97 0.874 49.51 49.64 0.931
Missouri 39.30 41.30 0.102 36.74a 39.88 0.041 27.09a 30.79 0.011 41.65 43.20 0.319
Montana 39.64 39.06 0.641 34.61 33.80 0.579 28.64 29.71 0.467 42.13 41.26 0.576
Nebraska 36.27 35.20 0.395 35.48 35.16 0.837 26.23 24.90 0.380 38.28 37.16 0.483
Nevada 45.95 45.08 0.504 41.01 41.14 0.932 38.06 35.92 0.206 47.76 46.94 0.621
New Hampshire 32.69a 35.71 0.015 31.53 33.40 0.196 20.09a 23.08 0.030 34.76a 37.92 0.041
New Jersey 43.31b 40.85 0.062 38.84a 35.06 0.015 33.25 31.71 0.368 45.40 42.97 0.136
New Mexico 47.63 45.97 0.234 39.63 37.86 0.239 38.31 36.81 0.370 50.43 48.72 0.335
New York 42.24 41.99 0.758 40.74 41.41 0.501 32.36 31.95 0.686 44.18 43.87 0.761
North Carolina 44.38 43.80 0.630 41.15 39.13 0.204 36.07 35.55 0.734 46.12 45.70 0.783
North Dakota 36.36 34.99 0.246 35.00 34.27 0.610 24.91 25.09 0.903 39.15 37.31 0.233
Ohio 38.89 39.27 0.611 37.02 37.29 0.777 27.70 27.96 0.748 40.97 41.38 0.672
Oklahoma 44.04 42.90 0.408 39.54 39.20 0.839 33.84 34.06 0.895 46.51 44.99 0.387
Oregon 38.38 38.76 0.745 33.66 34.80 0.448 28.44 27.09 0.354 40.47 41.03 0.706
Pennsylvania 37.17 36.95 0.783 35.77 36.17 0.678 28.82 28.84 0.986 38.71 38.37 0.736
Rhode Island 38.58 38.31 0.836 39.80 39.12 0.654 29.42 30.96 0.345 40.13 39.60 0.742
South Carolina 44.20 45.76 0.228 41.80 41.33 0.767 35.92a 39.03 0.048 45.86 47.40 0.341
South Dakota 35.06 34.49 0.649 33.34 32.71 0.683 23.11 24.70 0.254 37.48 36.49 0.540
Tennessee 45.44a 42.59 0.029 41.48 40.99 0.741 35.91 33.55 0.119 47.38a 44.17 0.048
Texas 44.27 43.78 0.541 40.69 40.72 0.979 37.01 35.81 0.224 46.17 45.73 0.667
Utah 51.40 49.79 0.249 49.86a 45.50 0.023 44.82a 39.00 0.003 53.35 53.23 0.945
Vermont 36.77 36.29 0.714 33.86 33.75 0.938 21.23 22.51 0.362 39.65 38.82 0.615
Virginia 42.43 41.86 0.662 40.16 40.33 0.912 33.32 32.27 0.491 44.25 43.67 0.727
Washington 41.15 40.94 0.866 37.43 36.26 0.430 30.83 30.17 0.652 43.27 43.25 0.990
West Virginia 41.13b 43.55 0.072 39.89 38.84 0.544 33.68 32.12 0.319 42.35a 45.69 0.043
Wisconsin 35.10 36.21 0.352 36.21 35.77 0.774 25.75 27.88 0.129 36.54 37.67 0.458
Wyoming 40.29 39.80 0.700 36.94 38.88 0.207 27.64 29.11 0.425 42.96 41.81 0.472
130116
Table 12 – Alcohol Use and Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 12 to 20, by State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2007-2008)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2008-2009)
Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(P Value)
Binge Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2007-2008)
Binge Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(2008-2009)
Binge Alcohol Use in
Past Month
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 27.22 26.83 0.216 18.13 17.85 0.303
Northeast 30.67 30.69 0.961 20.63 20.36 0.523
Midwest 28.55a 27.60 0.004 19.84b 19.31 0.085
South 25.33 25.18 0.633 16.40 16.18 0.436
West 26.29 25.76 0.245 17.33 17.20 0.726
Alabama 22.75 23.65 0.408 14.33 14.61 0.727
Alaska 26.16 25.51 0.608 18.36 18.70 0.741
Arizona 27.33a 24.59 0.018 16.82 16.07 0.423
Arkansas 24.06 23.06 0.361 15.46 14.65 0.342
California 25.66 25.24 0.551 16.95 16.79 0.786
Colorado 31.88 32.89 0.428 20.75 20.42 0.728
Connecticut 32.46 31.02 0.258 24.36 23.61 0.539
Delaware 30.30b 32.60 0.076 21.44 22.39 0.433
District of Columbia 35.11a 31.66 0.037 22.78a 17.91 0.001
Florida 27.54 26.62 0.161 17.61b 16.59 0.067
Georgia 23.66 24.21 0.603 14.52 14.87 0.647
Hawaii 22.64 23.87 0.322 15.54 16.53 0.341
Idaho 20.80a 23.93 0.006 14.33b 15.95 0.084
Illinois 28.08 28.38 0.664 19.85 19.64 0.730
Indiana 25.53b 23.50 0.074 17.41 16.97 0.619
Iowa 28.04 29.93 0.118 20.51 21.29 0.423
Kansas 26.84b 28.91 0.066 18.55 19.22 0.491
Kentucky 24.59 23.65 0.440 16.53 16.53 0.998
Louisiana 28.98 29.69 0.499 17.28 17.74 0.558
Maine 28.38 26.61 0.123 19.23a 17.12 0.016
Maryland 28.82b 26.66 0.073 18.40 17.25 0.227
Massachusetts 33.48 32.97 0.668 23.21 22.39 0.429
Michigan 28.80a 26.72 0.002 18.41 17.86 0.326
Minnesota 29.76b 27.61 0.074 21.90a 19.58 0.020
Mississippi 21.46a 24.28 0.014 14.13b 15.70 0.093
Missouri 27.11a 24.24 0.010 18.51b 16.84 0.054
Montana 32.58 34.33 0.166 22.79 24.27 0.165
Nebraska 28.21 26.45 0.154 18.74 18.35 0.703
Nevada 23.81 24.63 0.479 16.65 17.12 0.595
New Hampshire 34.34 34.84 0.670 25.05 24.50 0.588
New Jersey 26.26 27.22 0.436 17.72 18.37 0.506
New Mexico 26.61 25.80 0.501 17.27 17.39 0.891
New York 31.54 32.01 0.549 20.11 20.06 0.946
North Carolina 24.12 22.42 0.120 14.98b 13.63 0.086
North Dakota 38.10 36.44 0.233 27.94 26.56 0.249
Ohio 29.05 28.41 0.339 20.84 20.53 0.616
Oklahoma 24.55 25.90 0.272 16.72 17.52 0.394
Oregon 31.26 31.36 0.933 20.55 20.14 0.658
Pennsylvania 29.14 29.02 0.874 19.97 19.74 0.734
Rhode Island 37.74a 34.78 0.025 25.25a 22.50 0.010
South Carolina 23.06 21.88 0.296 13.83 13.52 0.682
South Dakota 31.23 32.31 0.358 22.76 22.94 0.861
Tennessee 21.37 20.16 0.296 14.68 13.56 0.208
Texas 25.55 26.46 0.164 17.00 17.17 0.769
Utah 13.49 14.34 0.497 11.82 11.60 0.831
Vermont 38.27 36.53 0.185 27.20a 24.69 0.028
Virginia 26.21 25.83 0.744 17.91 18.49 0.555
Washington 29.74a 27.00 0.022 18.48 18.36 0.906
West Virginia 23.98 22.75 0.300 16.34 15.93 0.665
Wisconsin 31.80 30.83 0.413 22.01 21.63 0.702
Wyoming 30.58 30.54 0.978 22.61 21.62 0.428
130116
Table 13 – Tobacco Product Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 28.54a 28.06 0.045 11.99b 11.64 0.098 41.63 41.53 0.776 28.46a 27.85 0.036
Northeast 26.50 26.45 0.916 11.51 11.37 0.691 40.57 41.23 0.245 26.01 25.78 0.691
Midwest 31.24b 30.55 0.051 13.82b 13.24 0.061 46.94 46.33 0.201 30.83b 30.06 0.096
South 30.22b 29.54 0.051 12.29a 11.53 0.010 42.23 41.69 0.242 30.53b 29.79 0.096
West 24.95 24.67 0.516 10.19 10.55 0.347 36.64 37.12 0.419 24.87 24.31 0.318
Alabama 32.64 32.94 0.791 14.74 13.26 0.112 47.38 45.41 0.241 32.47 33.33 0.551
Alaska 29.74 29.41 0.762 13.63 13.46 0.870 44.63 44.60 0.987 29.45 28.91 0.702
Arizona 27.90a 25.71 0.037 11.09 10.17 0.289 41.31 39.80 0.370 27.91b 25.39 0.060
Arkansas 35.82 35.26 0.637 15.02 14.99 0.976 48.45 47.74 0.675 36.45 35.81 0.669
California 22.56 22.79 0.722 8.37b 9.47 0.053 33.12 34.37 0.185 22.59 22.43 0.857
Colorado 30.21a 27.37 0.012 14.13 13.30 0.408 48.09a 43.67 0.009 29.22a 26.37 0.044
Connecticut 26.34 25.34 0.375 11.40 11.01 0.691 42.81 41.49 0.437 25.67 24.58 0.433
Delaware 30.30 30.13 0.874 12.46 13.07 0.538 43.88 45.53 0.306 30.29 29.65 0.648
District of Columbia 29.40 27.62 0.122 9.34 9.48 0.882 37.47 34.96 0.137 29.56 27.66 0.183
Florida 28.58a 26.78 0.010 11.37 10.61 0.209 40.38a 38.36 0.033 28.79a 26.85 0.026
Georgia 31.38a 28.86 0.020 13.36b 11.68 0.057 42.17 40.80 0.438 32.07a 29.20 0.038
Hawaii 24.09 22.31 0.102 9.97 9.93 0.970 38.85 37.26 0.418 23.39 21.32 0.121
Idaho 25.27 26.80 0.121 10.89 10.75 0.875 37.83 39.73 0.237 25.12 26.82 0.179
Illinois 29.65 29.01 0.331 12.90 12.45 0.437 44.27 44.24 0.980 29.28 28.44 0.313
Indiana 32.89 31.88 0.340 15.15 13.97 0.237 47.41 46.31 0.511 32.81 31.80 0.454
Iowa 28.81 30.23 0.198 12.66 12.41 0.790 41.49 44.08 0.107 28.62 30.01 0.319
Kansas 30.52 30.69 0.879 13.29 13.11 0.854 49.30 47.46 0.282 29.33 29.91 0.690
Kentucky 38.41 38.08 0.786 18.00 16.82 0.328 54.32 52.70 0.306 38.45 38.37 0.960
Louisiana 30.80 30.67 0.909 11.65 10.72 0.267 41.54 41.06 0.761 31.37 31.40 0.987
Maine 29.93 29.82 0.929 12.78 12.13 0.509 46.31 47.65 0.445 29.60 29.28 0.835
Maryland 25.08 23.84 0.267 9.38 9.04 0.671 36.75 35.70 0.532 25.18 23.72 0.294
Massachusetts 24.36 25.06 0.499 10.82 10.50 0.706 39.25 41.42 0.169 23.40 23.85 0.729
Michigan 30.30 30.47 0.810 13.10 12.88 0.702 45.72 45.86 0.877 30.02 30.17 0.867
Minnesota 29.91a 27.59 0.020 13.79 12.49 0.156 49.22 47.57 0.293 28.65a 26.07 0.041
Mississippi 31.24 31.60 0.751 11.26 12.10 0.351 41.91 43.29 0.399 32.16 32.19 0.982
Missouri 32.58 32.65 0.949 13.97 14.57 0.563 47.03 47.19 0.925 32.60 32.55 0.970
Montana 30.37 31.17 0.480 15.60 15.59 0.995 48.77 49.20 0.793 29.11 30.03 0.518
Nebraska 29.03 29.00 0.977 13.38 12.29 0.226 43.81 42.14 0.308 28.33 28.71 0.790
Nevada 29.65 28.44 0.343 11.70 11.98 0.774 40.22 40.40 0.912 30.42 28.78 0.303
New Hampshire 26.75 28.12 0.207 12.38 12.55 0.843 42.81 45.16 0.175 26.11 27.40 0.334
New Jersey 25.52 24.81 0.548 9.60 9.81 0.825 37.07 38.34 0.422 25.78 24.58 0.415
New Mexico 26.82 26.72 0.928 13.11 12.82 0.782 43.85 42.62 0.481 25.56 25.62 0.964
New York 24.41 24.57 0.821 10.44 10.73 0.616 38.42 39.13 0.491 23.67 23.64 0.964
North Carolina 31.57 31.32 0.816 13.59b 12.01 0.079 44.05 43.70 0.819 31.84 31.72 0.927
North Dakota 30.28 30.37 0.941 14.71 13.46 0.266 49.53b 46.39 0.052 27.90 28.87 0.497
Ohio 33.88a 32.29 0.021 14.82 14.11 0.297 51.03 49.54 0.109 33.53a 31.76 0.045
Oklahoma 33.07 34.82 0.173 14.49 13.78 0.529 46.54 48.56 0.265 33.07 35.07 0.218
Oregon 29.83 30.12 0.788 14.50 14.94 0.673 42.21b 45.09 0.087 29.74 29.56 0.891
Pennsylvania 30.88 30.97 0.892 14.45 13.84 0.379 44.93 45.29 0.718 30.60 30.67 0.936
Rhode Island 28.80a 26.34 0.019 12.57a 10.30 0.012 46.43a 41.51 0.006 27.52 25.41 0.101
South Carolina 31.73 31.30 0.713 12.19 11.78 0.643 44.59 44.29 0.860 32.13 31.59 0.714
South Dakota 30.33 31.32 0.356 14.72 14.94 0.830 49.99 49.54 0.772 28.82 30.16 0.327
Tennessee 33.69 33.55 0.908 13.81 12.46 0.136 45.67 46.98 0.431 34.30 34.05 0.865
Texas 27.74 27.05 0.321 10.52 10.01 0.375 38.81 38.36 0.646 28.20 27.41 0.381
Utah 17.84 18.44 0.538 7.51 6.72 0.351 24.01 24.94 0.562 18.03 18.80 0.547
Vermont 28.87 27.61 0.284 14.74a 12.66 0.045 46.21 44.28 0.251 27.72 26.58 0.444
Virginia 27.02 27.48 0.645 11.72 11.74 0.987 40.26 41.54 0.447 26.71 27.03 0.801
Washington 26.91 26.86 0.963 12.66 11.87 0.377 40.64 41.46 0.610 26.50 26.35 0.906
West Virginia 36.79 38.41 0.207 16.79 16.88 0.935 53.30 54.20 0.601 36.61 38.44 0.241
Wisconsin 31.69 30.21 0.155 14.38 12.88 0.137 46.55 45.41 0.488 31.38 29.79 0.229
Wyoming 35.32 34.32 0.410 19.62 18.41 0.354 51.44 49.70 0.286 34.48 33.58 0.557
130116
Table 14 – Cigarette Use in the Past Month, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 24.12a 23.63 0.034 9.53a 9.09 0.019 35.97 35.80 0.633 23.99a 23.40 0.034
Northeast 22.57 22.40 0.689 9.07 8.82 0.407 34.91b 35.95 0.086 22.18 21.75 0.430
Midwest 26.26b 25.66 0.099 11.01a 10.45 0.034 40.70b 39.92 0.100 25.77 25.16 0.198
South 25.43b 24.80 0.066 9.96a 9.12 0.001 36.58 35.96 0.176 25.57 24.92 0.147
West 21.24 20.86 0.360 7.84 7.97 0.670 31.48 31.69 0.729 21.23 20.62 0.266
Alabama 27.14 26.82 0.760 11.32 10.40 0.271 38.40 38.16 0.877 27.29 26.98 0.818
Alaska 24.28 24.21 0.945 9.14 9.37 0.772 38.79 38.26 0.771 23.92 23.78 0.913
Arizona 23.90a 21.97 0.034 9.35 8.70 0.398 34.67 33.07 0.330 24.05b 21.85 0.058
Arkansas 31.10 30.28 0.474 13.16 12.05 0.256 43.81 42.83 0.569 31.35 30.56 0.586
California 19.37 19.28 0.882 6.63 7.05 0.331 28.54 29.58 0.235 19.46 19.02 0.582
Colorado 25.16a 22.33 0.004 9.87 9.69 0.820 42.18a 36.42 0.001 24.22a 21.52 0.030
Connecticut 21.91 21.47 0.649 9.00 8.67 0.668 37.06 36.51 0.735 21.19 20.69 0.682
Delaware 26.34 25.41 0.408 9.67 9.74 0.935 40.09 39.95 0.930 26.15 24.90 0.376
District of Columbia 26.95a 23.85 0.004 6.88 6.30 0.385 34.38a 30.11 0.007 27.27a 24.08 0.020
Florida 24.03a 22.66 0.050 9.13 8.30 0.103 34.56a 32.61 0.028 24.15 22.76 0.114
Georgia 26.04 24.48 0.132 9.81 8.95 0.256 36.83 35.71 0.470 26.48 24.72 0.182
Hawaii 21.67 20.24 0.185 6.92 7.60 0.338 35.83 34.07 0.323 21.14 19.46 0.204
Idaho 21.61 23.14 0.113 8.79 9.05 0.729 33.11 35.00 0.227 21.43 23.07 0.187
Illinois 25.23 24.93 0.651 10.26 10.01 0.628 39.00 38.97 0.972 24.78 24.37 0.628
Indiana 27.51 26.78 0.477 12.00 10.84 0.167 42.13 40.95 0.438 27.10 26.49 0.639
Iowa 23.73 24.90 0.283 10.38 10.17 0.798 34.76 37.13 0.140 23.47 24.58 0.411
Kansas 25.24 25.04 0.846 11.04 10.80 0.778 42.11 39.71 0.159 24.00 24.19 0.886
Kentucky 32.16 31.94 0.857 14.39b 12.44 0.071 47.06b 44.22 0.087 32.02 32.38 0.822
Louisiana 26.50 26.54 0.968 9.50 8.41 0.137 35.62 36.03 0.786 27.10 27.20 0.940
Maine 26.29 25.64 0.572 10.97 9.72 0.130 42.70 42.51 0.911 25.74 25.03 0.619
Maryland 21.10 19.82 0.215 7.80 7.61 0.787 31.80 31.15 0.690 21.06 19.45 0.212
Massachusetts 19.88 20.99 0.238 7.83 7.63 0.766 31.40a 34.67 0.049 19.32 20.13 0.501
Michigan 25.47 26.12 0.334 10.43 10.34 0.872 39.66 39.79 0.888 25.10 25.87 0.371
Minnesota 25.17b 23.49 0.082 11.07b 9.72 0.086 43.04 41.01 0.207 23.89 22.22 0.176
Mississippi 25.28 26.35 0.309 9.06 9.66 0.474 35.42 36.57 0.439 25.75 26.82 0.428
Missouri 27.29 26.31 0.348 11.40 10.98 0.624 39.84 39.48 0.817 27.27 26.09 0.375
Montana 23.26 24.75 0.160 10.84 11.24 0.659 38.25 39.49 0.424 22.29 23.91 0.222
Nebraska 24.59 24.27 0.744 10.45 9.36 0.138 37.43 36.05 0.383 24.06 24.00 0.961
Nevada 26.55b 24.45 0.083 9.95 9.44 0.514 35.04 33.92 0.475 27.44 24.97 0.103
New Hampshire 22.33 23.36 0.319 9.47 10.23 0.298 36.53 39.18 0.107 21.78 22.53 0.554
New Jersey 22.29 20.88 0.196 7.34 7.59 0.696 33.49 35.13 0.313 22.47 20.33 0.115
New Mexico 22.67 22.74 0.941 10.51 10.06 0.599 38.26 36.12 0.191 21.46 21.95 0.700
New York 21.28 21.30 0.979 8.30 8.21 0.863 33.36 34.38 0.271 20.76 20.55 0.802
North Carolina 26.61 26.45 0.890 10.99a 9.16 0.022 38.97 37.96 0.516 26.59 26.73 0.919
North Dakota 25.07 24.70 0.743 11.56 10.42 0.194 40.35a 36.38 0.012 23.33 23.86 0.716
Ohio 28.13a 26.71 0.034 11.37 10.93 0.413 43.25 41.85 0.141 27.82b 26.23 0.063
Oklahoma 27.40 28.24 0.476 12.19 11.31 0.382 40.29 41.18 0.610 27.06 28.10 0.490
Oregon 24.46 25.01 0.599 9.53 10.32 0.326 34.57b 37.51 0.072 24.67 24.78 0.937
Pennsylvania 25.80 25.69 0.883 11.78 11.13 0.293 38.22 38.72 0.613 25.49 25.30 0.832
Rhode Island 24.71a 22.58 0.041 9.79a 7.93 0.018 39.66a 35.37 0.014 23.77 21.93 0.168
South Carolina 27.25 26.94 0.782 10.10 9.52 0.456 39.26 37.73 0.370 27.47 27.33 0.920
South Dakota 24.56 25.04 0.637 11.67 11.43 0.776 40.50 39.83 0.679 23.36 24.14 0.548
Tennessee 28.29 28.20 0.937 11.22b 9.69 0.063 38.75 39.48 0.651 28.78 28.71 0.960
Texas 23.40 22.51 0.136 8.78 8.17 0.230 33.77 33.64 0.884 23.60 22.51 0.157
Utah 15.42 16.42 0.254 5.86 5.39 0.502 21.77 22.29 0.734 15.45 16.83 0.235
Vermont 22.49 22.31 0.872 10.44a 8.73 0.029 38.79 38.02 0.631 21.27 21.29 0.989
Virginia 23.21 23.23 0.991 10.08 9.56 0.492 35.35 35.65 0.848 22.82 22.79 0.983
Washington 22.70 22.91 0.832 9.39 8.89 0.471 34.67 35.68 0.503 22.46 22.56 0.928
West Virginia 29.07 30.76 0.175 13.01 13.14 0.894 46.05 47.13 0.533 28.37 30.30 0.209
Wisconsin 27.41 25.74 0.110 11.81 10.57 0.159 42.38 40.34 0.212 26.86 25.15 0.197
Wyoming 27.28 26.58 0.525 13.01 12.60 0.673 41.66b 39.19 0.099 26.56 26.09 0.737
130116
Table 15 – Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 73.64a 72.23 0.000 69.14a 67.53 0.000 69.77a 66.79 0.000 74.89a 73.77 0.000
Northeast 76.16a 74.20 0.000 71.49a 69.97 0.005 72.57a 69.19 0.000 77.33a 75.55 0.001
Midwest 70.76a 68.83 0.000 67.89a 66.50 0.002 66.02a 63.18 0.000 71.96a 70.11 0.000
South 72.80a 71.95 0.019 67.70a 66.07 0.000 69.10a 66.21 0.000 74.09 73.68 0.351
West 75.69a 74.32 0.003 70.77a 68.91 0.001 72.11a 69.11 0.000 77.01b 75.99 0.074
Alabama 68.44 68.17 0.814 63.20 61.94 0.413 66.00a 62.06 0.016 69.54 69.99 0.757
Alaska 71.63 70.76 0.461 70.97 69.17 0.225 66.82b 63.91 0.081 72.64 72.29 0.819
Arizona 74.74b 72.49 0.061 71.34a 66.39 0.002 69.55a 65.76 0.018 76.08 74.44 0.275
Arkansas 69.59 68.18 0.238 65.90 64.64 0.395 66.62a 62.49 0.009 70.55 69.55 0.510
California 76.99b 75.81 0.085 71.03b 69.43 0.077 73.87a 71.50 0.010 78.43 77.53 0.297
Colorado 75.18 73.80 0.214 69.54 68.42 0.448 69.46b 66.96 0.096 76.84 75.60 0.376
Connecticut 77.49a 74.30 0.006 71.81 70.44 0.339 73.45a 69.13 0.005 78.86a 75.60 0.025
Delaware 75.54 74.35 0.315 72.41 70.25 0.114 71.82b 69.30 0.078 76.55 75.70 0.569
District of Columbia 78.79 77.59 0.252 67.56 67.92 0.809 76.04a 72.15 0.011 80.49 79.72 0.558
Florida 75.37 75.34 0.964 70.32a 68.43 0.050 70.47 69.66 0.404 76.65 76.93 0.744
Georgia 72.53 72.78 0.823 68.70 67.93 0.594 69.29 68.19 0.447 73.62 74.23 0.670
Hawaii 73.53 73.88 0.774 72.93b 70.29 0.081 71.05 68.55 0.137 73.99 75.14 0.453
Idaho 74.67a 69.73 0.000 70.76a 67.64 0.038 70.85a 64.40 0.000 75.92a 70.97 0.001
Illinois 73.93a 70.62 0.000 69.18a 66.95 0.013 69.51a 65.49 0.000 75.37a 72.03 0.000
Indiana 70.09a 67.54 0.031 68.36b 65.94 0.097 67.33a 62.29 0.001 70.80 68.64 0.148
Iowa 69.15a 65.39 0.002 67.40a 64.08 0.024 63.89a 58.22 0.000 70.31a 66.82 0.017
Kansas 69.78 68.14 0.197 65.66a 62.25 0.036 63.14 63.01 0.944 71.59 69.89 0.286
Kentucky 65.00a 62.10 0.026 64.30 64.01 0.858 58.92a 53.72 0.001 66.04b 63.18 0.079
Louisiana 73.35 72.45 0.408 67.22 66.63 0.694 70.38a 67.14 0.025 74.78 74.27 0.713
Maine 71.95 70.40 0.177 69.47 68.55 0.513 65.48b 62.82 0.077 73.14 71.65 0.296
Maryland 73.56 75.14 0.201 68.75 68.10 0.672 69.05 69.49 0.776 74.94 77.00 0.185
Massachusetts 73.42 73.02 0.729 69.79 70.47 0.654 71.61b 68.84 0.061 74.17 74.07 0.944
Michigan 71.20a 68.92 0.002 66.30 64.94 0.139 65.75a 63.41 0.013 72.79a 70.37 0.011
Minnesota 71.65a 69.12 0.030 69.34 68.04 0.377 65.80a 62.56 0.035 72.97b 70.37 0.078
Mississippi 71.14 69.89 0.292 66.05a 62.92 0.039 67.05a 63.79 0.032 72.63 71.99 0.671
Missouri 69.35 68.66 0.574 66.90 67.26 0.810 64.66b 61.95 0.096 70.44 69.95 0.747
Montana 72.77a 69.10 0.001 67.83 65.93 0.193 68.23a 62.23 0.000 74.15a 70.63 0.017
Nebraska 70.96b 68.84 0.079 67.27 65.58 0.262 65.40a 61.22 0.008 72.50 70.71 0.242
Nevada 73.26 72.82 0.724 70.58b 67.64 0.053 69.33 68.94 0.814 74.18 74.05 0.933
New Hampshire 74.59a 71.91 0.019 66.38 65.23 0.424 68.37b 65.74 0.093 76.56a 73.66 0.045
New Jersey 77.07a 74.62 0.033 73.53b 70.76 0.057 72.85b 69.88 0.059 78.16 75.83 0.104
New Mexico 76.05 75.07 0.384 69.24a 66.03 0.043 73.22a 68.48 0.002 77.50 77.48 0.985
New York 79.58a 77.81 0.013 73.30 72.56 0.416 75.80a 72.89 0.002 81.04b 79.33 0.055
North Carolina 74.64a 71.74 0.014 70.99 69.47 0.292 70.25a 66.40 0.009 75.81b 72.88 0.051
North Dakota 69.69 67.73 0.104 69.59a 65.81 0.010 66.84 65.75 0.499 70.36 68.42 0.210
Ohio 69.80 69.43 0.625 68.82 67.58 0.150 65.02a 63.10 0.040 70.71 70.70 0.995
Oklahoma 70.32 68.62 0.189 64.75b 61.81 0.072 67.19b 64.24 0.098 71.63 70.31 0.420
Oregon 72.70 71.68 0.381 67.97 67.01 0.509 68.83a 63.03 0.000 73.85 73.56 0.837
Pennsylvania 71.83a 69.68 0.007 68.52a 65.72 0.002 68.27a 63.82 0.000 72.82b 71.12 0.083
Rhode Island 75.89a 71.88 0.001 73.22a 69.12 0.006 73.86a 68.71 0.001 76.60a 72.81 0.010
South Carolina 72.08 71.49 0.619 66.63 65.74 0.550 67.76b 65.10 0.100 73.49 73.25 0.875
South Dakota 69.91 68.12 0.154 68.09 67.88 0.890 66.76 65.40 0.387 70.73 68.65 0.195
Tennessee 70.92a 67.13 0.002 64.83 63.11 0.240 67.06a 61.67 0.001 72.26a 68.45 0.013
Texas 73.37 73.23 0.841 66.69a 64.28 0.010 71.17a 67.65 0.000 74.78 75.58 0.376
Utah 77.21 75.54 0.105 76.88 74.94 0.170 73.38b 70.51 0.058 78.25 76.91 0.332
Vermont 77.35a 74.88 0.044 73.21a 69.15 0.006 72.08a 67.27 0.003 78.70 76.78 0.207
Virginia 74.27 73.00 0.265 69.65 69.00 0.656 69.30a 65.17 0.008 75.69 74.82 0.542
Washington 73.65 72.32 0.228 68.84 68.79 0.974 69.65a 65.47 0.004 74.90 73.85 0.448
West Virginia 68.67a 65.84 0.030 66.60a 62.91 0.018 64.22a 59.35 0.003 69.54 67.09 0.128
Wisconsin 67.67 67.21 0.705 66.45 68.09 0.249 63.13 63.02 0.942 68.60 67.80 0.610
Wyoming 71.27 69.98 0.273 70.32 68.90 0.317 66.15a 62.70 0.032 72.31 71.41 0.543
130116
Table 16 – Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 7.47 7.42 0.699 5.16a 4.76 0.002 17.13 16.76 0.134 6.11 6.16 0.731
Northeast 7.24 7.42 0.313 4.93 4.73 0.353 17.71 17.81 0.840 5.78 5.99 0.340
Midwest 8.16a 7.84 0.044 5.71a 5.14 0.004 19.02a 18.24 0.048 6.60 6.39 0.291
South 6.95 6.90 0.772 4.57a 4.14 0.009 15.46 15.18 0.470 5.82 5.86 0.874
West 7.81 7.86 0.803 5.71 5.37 0.164 17.44 16.97 0.322 6.36 6.54 0.475
Alabama 6.29 6.40 0.774 4.56 4.12 0.359 13.10 13.75 0.488 5.35 5.45 0.848
Alaska 7.74 8.06 0.520 5.58 5.31 0.641 17.35 16.94 0.734 6.27 6.80 0.401
Arizona 7.90 7.73 0.714 6.03 5.40 0.282 17.52 18.24 0.543 6.52 6.26 0.643
Arkansas 6.93 6.75 0.645 5.30 4.90 0.448 16.30 15.57 0.492 5.61 5.54 0.894
California 7.62 7.87 0.438 5.59 5.27 0.403 16.78 16.36 0.554 6.18 6.61 0.291
Colorado 9.11 8.97 0.800 6.87 6.32 0.432 22.46 21.03 0.286 7.16 7.28 0.843
Connecticut 8.20 8.64 0.408 6.23 5.92 0.638 19.40 19.92 0.690 6.69 7.19 0.435
Delaware 7.29 7.88 0.225 4.71 4.86 0.765 17.58 18.98 0.214 5.90 6.40 0.411
District of Columbia 9.53 9.26 0.632 3.26 3.04 0.580 18.99 17.04 0.116 8.05 8.10 0.948
Florida 7.21 6.93 0.420 4.79 4.33 0.183 15.36 14.60 0.247 6.28 6.08 0.628
Georgia 6.41 6.68 0.548 3.85 3.38 0.242 13.67 15.02 0.208 5.54 5.72 0.742
Hawaii 8.30 7.58 0.260 5.66 5.83 0.832 17.66 16.34 0.378 7.13 6.38 0.320
Idaho 7.13 7.14 0.992 5.68 5.16 0.343 16.88 16.35 0.641 5.61 5.79 0.694
Illinois 8.25a 7.58 0.033 5.17a 4.32 0.021 18.64 17.59 0.151 6.80 6.19 0.115
Indiana 6.94 6.99 0.902 5.24 5.01 0.667 16.43 17.00 0.587 5.56 5.57 0.987
Iowa 8.28 8.64 0.490 6.30 6.67 0.562 18.55 19.79 0.309 6.70 6.92 0.726
Kansas 8.27 8.06 0.653 5.97 5.68 0.631 20.28 19.37 0.474 6.32 6.27 0.924
Kentucky 5.69 5.98 0.457 4.09 3.83 0.587 13.36 14.21 0.408 4.68 4.95 0.564
Louisiana 7.14 7.02 0.767 4.08 3.63 0.289 14.38 14.96 0.566 6.17 5.95 0.686
Maine 6.90 6.76 0.760 5.14a 4.06 0.031 18.08 17.72 0.774 5.53 5.52 0.983
Maryland 7.73 7.05 0.197 4.61b 3.70 0.063 17.39b 15.17 0.065 6.52 6.10 0.511
Massachusetts 8.18 7.42 0.123 5.29 4.74 0.310 19.31 18.97 0.787 6.59 5.68 0.126
Michigan 7.71 7.63 0.808 5.41 4.90 0.160 17.58 16.79 0.287 6.34 6.43 0.821
Minnesota 9.97 9.20 0.150 6.70 5.77 0.137 23.42b 21.08 0.059 8.06 7.60 0.478
Mississippi 6.27 6.29 0.960 3.82 3.68 0.742 14.10 13.24 0.376 5.18 5.38 0.673
Missouri 7.71 7.63 0.843 5.73 5.15 0.277 18.45 17.62 0.441 6.19 6.29 0.847
Montana 9.16 9.78 0.255 7.03b 8.23 0.097 23.44 24.59 0.417 7.01 7.49 0.463
Nebraska 8.56 8.50 0.898 6.32 5.65 0.270 19.40 19.05 0.770 6.82 6.88 0.914
Nevada 7.92 7.61 0.497 6.09 5.40 0.213 17.54 16.76 0.490 6.73 6.53 0.718
New Hampshire 7.75 7.50 0.576 5.63 5.09 0.316 20.42 19.31 0.386 6.09 5.98 0.841
New Jersey 6.77 6.61 0.711 4.44 3.71 0.102 16.77 15.87 0.401 5.54 5.54 0.999
New Mexico 7.89 8.64 0.119 5.88 6.64 0.268 18.96 18.71 0.837 6.12 7.05 0.118
New York 7.09a 7.88 0.009 4.76 5.31 0.139 17.01 18.10 0.154 5.62a 6.36 0.046
North Carolina 6.86 6.27 0.164 4.25a 3.40 0.034 16.31 14.65 0.136 5.67 5.28 0.443
North Dakota 9.34a 8.38 0.038 6.86a 5.29 0.006 22.24 20.61 0.186 6.74 6.03 0.209
Ohio 7.94 7.62 0.303 5.57 5.19 0.299 18.12 17.80 0.666 6.58 6.26 0.410
Oklahoma 6.99 7.55 0.186 4.75 4.96 0.694 16.84 16.78 0.955 5.48 6.21 0.151
Oregon 7.81 8.54 0.137 5.85 6.33 0.426 17.93 18.71 0.511 6.48 7.22 0.210
Pennsylvania 6.97 6.91 0.841 4.82b 4.21 0.085 17.74 17.07 0.410 5.47 5.56 0.816
Rhode Island 7.78 8.26 0.316 5.33 4.86 0.346 17.93 18.03 0.936 6.20 6.84 0.269
South Carolina 7.38 7.90 0.329 4.41 3.98 0.349 15.84 16.24 0.719 6.37 7.03 0.319
South Dakota 9.05 9.68 0.240 6.42 6.74 0.643 22.51 23.35 0.530 6.94 7.59 0.321
Tennessee 6.69 6.18 0.242 4.42a 3.28 0.011 15.84 14.18 0.123 5.57 5.30 0.606
Texas 6.89 6.98 0.763 4.87 4.63 0.496 14.86 14.76 0.877 5.68 5.85 0.613
Utah 6.48 6.07 0.344 4.14b 3.31 0.079 12.74 12.42 0.760 5.29 4.96 0.544
Vermont 7.47 7.84 0.467 5.49 4.92 0.304 19.45 20.15 0.561 5.75 6.16 0.489
Virginia 7.76 8.04 0.556 5.17 5.07 0.850 18.98 19.44 0.713 6.20 6.47 0.637
Washington 7.98a 7.08 0.021 5.46 4.74 0.168 18.47a 16.26 0.036 6.61 5.88 0.128
West Virginia 6.43 6.54 0.787 4.67 4.45 0.655 16.40 15.43 0.387 5.17 5.48 0.529
Wisconsin 8.82 8.06 0.105 6.56b 5.43 0.062 21.99b 19.67 0.055 6.88 6.43 0.434
Wyoming 8.81 8.51 0.570 7.38 6.96 0.561 19.49 19.54 0.968 7.09 6.75 0.583
130116
Table 17 – Alcohol Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 3.47 3.54 0.402 2.04 1.92 0.143 7.28a 6.96 0.048 3.01 3.16 0.131
Northeast 3.43 3.53 0.418 1.96 1.96 0.964 7.39 7.51 0.688 2.95 3.05 0.541
Midwest 3.54 3.51 0.774 2.13 1.96 0.144 7.55 7.54 0.952 3.04 3.02 0.894
South 3.36 3.44 0.505 1.93b 1.73 0.051 6.73b 6.37 0.091 2.98 3.16 0.211
West 3.62 3.74 0.386 2.19 2.13 0.709 7.76a 6.89 0.006 3.07b 3.39 0.077
Alabama 3.11 3.17 0.816 1.99 1.75 0.403 5.80 6.31 0.395 2.80 2.81 0.956
Alaska 3.77 3.88 0.709 2.06 1.80 0.338 7.64 6.85 0.259 3.31 3.63 0.395
Arizona 3.44 3.50 0.829 2.30 2.03 0.410 7.32 7.40 0.900 2.94 3.04 0.787
Arkansas 3.49 3.25 0.333 1.95 1.75 0.510 7.80 6.67 0.111 2.99 2.88 0.735
California 3.64 3.83 0.379 2.17 2.17 0.997 7.80a 6.54 0.009 3.07b 3.55 0.083
Colorado 3.75 3.74 0.974 2.26 1.95 0.322 8.76a 6.98 0.018 3.10 3.42 0.365
Connecticut 3.49 3.48 0.965 2.13 2.06 0.834 7.84 7.27 0.423 2.99 3.06 0.825
Delaware 3.33 3.47 0.621 1.96 1.72 0.408 6.80 6.67 0.839 2.93 3.15 0.524
District of Columbia 4.92 4.61 0.446 1.27 1.23 0.873 9.43a 7.75 0.034 4.28 4.22 0.914
Florida 3.48 3.60 0.606 2.01 1.74 0.220 6.73 6.14 0.191 3.17 3.43 0.367
Georgia 3.33 3.55 0.460 1.79 1.47 0.239 5.91 6.19 0.643 3.10 3.39 0.467
Hawaii 3.45 3.22 0.430 1.71 2.03 0.407 7.74 7.02 0.394 2.98 2.74 0.523
Idaho 3.15 3.25 0.659 2.25 2.11 0.663 6.89 7.04 0.830 2.61 2.75 0.643
Illinois 3.70 3.66 0.838 1.97 1.67 0.145 8.07 7.94 0.796 3.15 3.14 0.983
Indiana 3.33 3.31 0.944 2.11 2.21 0.751 7.40 7.61 0.762 2.80 2.73 0.833
Iowa 3.43 3.41 0.926 2.42 2.41 0.962 6.65 7.01 0.571 2.99 2.90 0.784
Kansas 3.70 3.40 0.262 2.16 1.97 0.504 8.21 6.98 0.101 3.06 2.92 0.685
Kentucky 3.12 3.03 0.739 1.97 1.75 0.463 6.71 6.02 0.291 2.69 2.71 0.953
Louisiana 3.53 3.55 0.950 1.74 1.49 0.293 6.29 6.32 0.969 3.25 3.30 0.882
Maine 3.34 3.25 0.754 2.02 1.71 0.263 7.83 6.87 0.184 2.86 2.92 0.864
Maryland 3.66 3.67 0.964 1.74 1.68 0.811 7.89b 6.50 0.053 3.20 3.45 0.549
Massachusetts 3.51 3.62 0.670 2.07 2.04 0.920 7.69 7.96 0.709 2.95 3.03 0.810
Michigan 3.39 3.43 0.857 2.01 1.94 0.735 6.90 6.85 0.921 2.98 3.04 0.828
Minnesota 3.92 4.17 0.437 2.32 1.98 0.275 7.50 7.72 0.754 3.51 3.84 0.416
Mississippi 3.30 3.35 0.847 1.63 1.59 0.844 7.10 6.21 0.176 2.84 3.07 0.490
Missouri 3.18 3.29 0.689 2.11 1.91 0.476 6.53 6.67 0.825 2.76 2.90 0.668
Montana 4.18 3.99 0.532 2.10 2.60 0.178 11.31 10.69 0.544 3.23 3.03 0.596
Nebraska 3.43 3.54 0.679 2.28 2.10 0.551 7.78 7.42 0.621 2.77 2.99 0.488
Nevada 3.44 3.61 0.546 2.34 2.21 0.686 6.54 6.84 0.675 3.12 3.30 0.601
New Hampshire 3.46 3.41 0.850 2.29 2.36 0.814 7.90 8.32 0.573 2.93 2.78 0.662
New Jersey 3.06 3.09 0.904 1.97 1.76 0.482 5.59 6.03 0.479 2.81 2.80 0.984
New Mexico 3.72 4.16 0.195 2.33 2.41 0.841 8.89 8.37 0.523 2.96 3.62 0.115
New York 3.63 3.86 0.302 1.96 2.24 0.228 7.82 8.36 0.303 3.10 3.24 0.595
North Carolina 3.44 3.52 0.792 1.72 1.49 0.333 7.01 6.50 0.443 3.08 3.29 0.595
North Dakota 3.64 3.36 0.275 2.48 2.13 0.312 8.18 7.67 0.501 2.77 2.55 0.507
Ohio 3.56 3.35 0.281 2.07 1.93 0.483 7.76 7.80 0.942 3.06 2.80 0.298
Oklahoma 3.43 3.28 0.547 2.05 1.88 0.544 7.54 7.33 0.761 2.86 2.72 0.674
Oregon 3.59b 4.25 0.062 2.04 2.18 0.662 7.48 7.70 0.749 3.17b 3.95 0.072
Pennsylvania 3.28 3.26 0.940 1.78 1.62 0.413 7.48 6.84 0.212 2.78 2.87 0.703
Rhode Island 3.78 4.27 0.177 2.02 1.75 0.383 7.00 7.60 0.454 3.40 3.94 0.233
South Carolina 3.61 4.09 0.190 1.99 1.56 0.136 6.50 6.43 0.908 3.34 4.02 0.136
South Dakota 3.59 3.68 0.763 2.01 2.17 0.622 9.05 9.13 0.913 2.81 2.89 0.811
Tennessee 3.28 3.29 0.959 1.89 1.63 0.325 6.97 6.62 0.590 2.88 2.98 0.772
Texas 3.12 3.17 0.806 2.06 1.92 0.539 6.23 5.83 0.318 2.69 2.85 0.529
Utah 3.41 3.25 0.507 1.93 1.81 0.693 6.53 5.90 0.308 2.88 2.83 0.897
Vermont 3.76 3.84 0.833 2.25 1.93 0.297 7.88 7.46 0.550 3.27 3.46 0.663
Virginia 3.52 3.63 0.671 2.06 1.91 0.574 7.67 7.85 0.802 3.00 3.12 0.716
Washington 3.74 3.48 0.295 2.28 2.07 0.510 7.90 7.44 0.516 3.26 3.02 0.441
West Virginia 3.25 3.37 0.670 2.08 2.03 0.872 7.29 6.62 0.328 2.79 3.04 0.459
Wisconsin 3.71 3.62 0.784 2.43 2.12 0.322 8.08 8.25 0.816 3.13 3.03 0.797
Wyoming 3.43 3.48 0.848 2.70 2.50 0.575 6.60b 7.93 0.068 2.96 2.81 0.677
130116
Table 18 – Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 2.79 2.82 0.681 4.48 4.47 0.922 7.90 7.80 0.545 1.69 1.74 0.452
Northeast 2.83b 3.02 0.060 4.19 4.33 0.498 8.81 9.03 0.515 1.67 1.84 0.129
Midwest 2.67 2.64 0.703 4.66 4.57 0.585 7.47 7.32 0.518 1.57 1.58 0.939
South 2.81 2.74 0.400 4.31 4.20 0.481 7.64 7.32 0.163 1.80 1.78 0.817
West 2.83 2.95 0.262 4.79 4.91 0.627 8.01 8.01 0.998 1.63 1.76 0.253
Alabama 3.06 2.74 0.162 4.14 4.18 0.924 7.93 7.29 0.341 2.09 1.79 0.270
Alaska 2.91 2.94 0.879 4.75 4.35 0.411 7.92 7.67 0.769 1.68 1.84 0.476
Arizona 3.12 2.98 0.542 4.71 4.53 0.718 8.75 8.53 0.786 1.94 1.83 0.666
Arkansas 2.94 2.86 0.728 4.69 4.66 0.962 7.73 7.17 0.469 1.93 1.93 0.997
California 2.65a 2.94 0.043 4.61 4.96 0.329 7.66 7.80 0.782 1.42b 1.73 0.071
Colorado 3.36 2.96 0.106 5.34 5.65 0.621 9.52 8.48 0.209 2.08 1.71 0.199
Connecticut 2.87 2.94 0.740 4.31 4.38 0.888 9.32 9.18 0.871 1.66 1.77 0.665
Delaware 3.06 2.87 0.393 4.61 4.61 0.998 9.19 8.86 0.700 1.85 1.66 0.452
District of Columbia 4.47 4.37 0.829 3.75 3.84 0.860 10.00 8.84 0.204 3.31 3.42 0.846
Florida 2.68 2.71 0.865 4.29 4.30 0.975 7.60 7.24 0.445 1.78 1.87 0.666
Georgia 3.05a 2.55 0.022 3.93 3.80 0.769 8.11 7.01 0.116 2.06b 1.62 0.087
Hawaii 2.51 2.93 0.131 4.87 3.95 0.157 6.79 7.50 0.437 1.56b 2.08 0.100
Idaho 2.78 3.03 0.227 5.08 5.08 0.996 7.64 7.79 0.840 1.59 1.91 0.177
Illinois 2.39b 2.61 0.100 4.21 4.47 0.428 6.61 7.12 0.283 1.39 1.54 0.296
Indiana 3.08 3.05 0.890 5.45 5.10 0.510 8.44 7.91 0.484 1.85 1.96 0.694
Iowa 1.70 1.89 0.228 3.69 4.18 0.357 4.92 5.42 0.417 0.87 0.98 0.484
Kansas 2.08 2.29 0.201 4.45 4.08 0.458 5.60 6.58 0.157 1.09 1.25 0.344
Kentucky 3.45 3.24 0.360 4.59 4.24 0.471 9.85 9.28 0.534 2.30 2.17 0.620
Louisiana 2.88 2.91 0.900 3.74 3.73 0.974 7.39 7.71 0.668 1.88 1.87 0.963
Maine 2.91 2.88 0.900 4.56 4.47 0.856 10.03 9.83 0.839 1.73 1.74 0.952
Maryland 2.82 2.79 0.886 3.86 3.83 0.953 7.96 7.98 0.983 1.83 1.77 0.852
Massachusetts 3.10 3.48 0.155 4.29 4.43 0.791 10.33 9.86 0.640 1.70b 2.23 0.079
Michigan 2.93 2.99 0.682 4.79 4.67 0.707 8.25 8.20 0.915 1.77 1.89 0.522
Minnesota 2.78a 2.37 0.022 4.73 4.33 0.398 8.03b 6.69 0.054 1.62 1.39 0.253
Mississippi 2.38 2.51 0.494 3.37 3.84 0.346 6.70 6.93 0.725 1.44 1.51 0.757
Missouri 2.78 2.51 0.132 4.76 4.37 0.410 7.97 7.41 0.423 1.66 1.46 0.353
Montana 2.89 2.74 0.403 4.61 4.50 0.824 8.90 8.14 0.365 1.66 1.62 0.840
Nebraska 2.12 2.05 0.683 4.40 4.51 0.823 5.86 5.49 0.543 1.11 1.07 0.860
Nevada 3.22 3.46 0.389 5.45 4.97 0.385 8.66 8.89 0.798 2.13 2.46 0.306
New Hampshire 2.99 3.41 0.125 5.06 5.28 0.696 8.87 10.04 0.233 1.84 2.17 0.300
New Jersey 2.37 2.49 0.500 4.25 4.11 0.766 7.36 7.30 0.936 1.37 1.54 0.386
New Mexico 3.34 3.07 0.285 5.86 5.91 0.941 9.08 8.33 0.418 1.95 1.72 0.449
New York 3.11 3.14 0.834 4.16 4.31 0.661 9.11 9.66 0.323 1.91 1.83 0.663
North Carolina 2.44 2.49 0.799 4.03 4.21 0.663 7.20 6.90 0.663 1.47 1.56 0.706
North Dakota 2.06 2.24 0.299 4.09 4.33 0.647 5.64 6.28 0.302 0.99 1.07 0.619
Ohio 3.01 2.80 0.153 5.07 4.64 0.189 8.67 8.00 0.196 1.81 1.71 0.579
Oklahoma 2.68b 3.05 0.081 4.29 4.70 0.458 6.88 7.55 0.374 1.69 2.02 0.191
Oregon 3.43 3.43 0.993 4.97 4.81 0.750 9.67 9.54 0.885 2.28 2.32 0.902
Pennsylvania 2.43a 2.85 0.010 3.91 4.30 0.232 7.77 8.18 0.439 1.37a 1.80 0.024
Rhode Island 4.40 4.14 0.524 4.93 4.81 0.851 12.54 10.79 0.167 2.83 2.82 0.980
South Carolina 3.12 3.00 0.661 4.56 4.10 0.288 7.93 7.16 0.270 2.14 2.18 0.914
South Dakota 2.28b 2.61 0.068 4.46 4.94 0.374 6.78 7.07 0.657 1.17b 1.50 0.082
Tennessee 2.85a 2.33 0.008 4.13 3.75 0.358 8.25a 6.40 0.006 1.86 1.53 0.140
Texas 2.71 2.73 0.875 4.79 4.43 0.315 6.86 7.04 0.692 1.61 1.67 0.721
Utah 3.04 2.95 0.637 5.05 4.60 0.405 7.09 7.48 0.614 1.67 1.54 0.532
Vermont 2.80 3.07 0.211 4.56 4.16 0.392 9.53 10.12 0.495 1.49 1.79 0.213
Virginia 2.84 2.77 0.738 4.44 4.32 0.809 8.37 7.79 0.488 1.71 1.73 0.917
Washington 2.54 2.48 0.787 4.69 4.52 0.740 7.58 7.79 0.792 1.46 1.38 0.711
West Virginia 2.84 3.18 0.157 4.36 4.13 0.639 8.07 8.62 0.481 1.92 2.30 0.180
Wisconsin 2.55 2.48 0.724 4.34 4.71 0.512 6.95 7.03 0.905 1.57 1.44 0.534
Wyoming 2.40 2.33 0.689 4.59 4.91 0.534 6.99 6.61 0.594 1.29 1.24 0.784
130116
Table 19 – Illicit Drug Dependence in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 1.92 1.95 0.675 2.43 2.46 0.781 5.57 5.56 0.943 1.23 1.26 0.659
Northeast 1.98a 2.24 0.005 2.35 2.52 0.231 6.14a 6.70 0.037 1.24b 1.45 0.065
Midwest 1.85 1.81 0.625 2.55 2.46 0.430 5.32 5.16 0.416 1.15 1.15 0.998
South 1.91 1.82 0.208 2.30 2.25 0.712 5.39 5.10 0.136 1.28 1.21 0.459
West 1.96 2.04 0.381 2.59 2.72 0.392 5.66 5.76 0.711 1.21 1.27 0.551
Alabama 1.91 1.94 0.829 2.31 2.29 0.951 5.33 5.39 0.911 1.28 1.31 0.841
Alaska 2.07 1.90 0.331 2.73 2.32 0.214 5.60 5.23 0.560 1.30 1.21 0.635
Arizona 1.99 2.08 0.577 2.51 2.52 0.951 5.92 6.46 0.387 1.25 1.28 0.877
Arkansas 2.01 2.05 0.792 2.53 2.52 0.975 5.35 5.19 0.795 1.39 1.48 0.658
California 1.92 2.04 0.324 2.42 2.69 0.258 5.67 5.69 0.945 1.14 1.25 0.441
Colorado 2.10 1.87 0.222 2.87 3.04 0.691 5.78 5.37 0.502 1.39 1.14 0.260
Connecticut 1.95 1.87 0.616 2.54 2.56 0.954 6.23 5.86 0.546 1.20 1.15 0.791
Delaware 2.07 2.01 0.719 2.43 2.42 0.964 6.13 6.49 0.585 1.35 1.21 0.483
District of Columbia 3.04 3.04 0.994 1.94 2.04 0.728 7.01 6.56 0.528 2.27 2.34 0.860
Florida 1.83 1.76 0.600 2.28 2.18 0.674 5.34 5.01 0.407 1.26 1.24 0.852
Georgia 2.05a 1.61 0.005 2.14 2.03 0.698 5.33b 4.37 0.053 1.48a 1.08 0.044
Hawaii 1.69 1.88 0.369 2.80 2.38 0.282 4.63 4.93 0.660 1.09 1.34 0.322
Idaho 1.88b 2.19 0.077 3.01 3.17 0.662 5.23 5.44 0.722 1.12b 1.48 0.070
Illinois 1.70 1.73 0.820 2.41 2.12 0.246 4.76 4.92 0.676 1.06 1.10 0.759
Indiana 2.00 2.12 0.510 2.81 2.80 0.966 5.64 5.73 0.867 1.27 1.42 0.493
Iowa 1.33 1.23 0.433 2.18 2.37 0.598 3.91 3.41 0.264 0.77 0.70 0.659
Kansas 1.55 1.50 0.722 2.48 2.29 0.533 4.19 4.29 0.827 0.93 0.88 0.742
Kentucky 2.26 2.35 0.630 2.56 2.36 0.539 6.58 7.19 0.381 1.55 1.60 0.830
Louisiana 2.13 2.18 0.792 2.08 2.13 0.859 5.66 5.90 0.703 1.45 1.47 0.936
Maine 1.94 2.15 0.247 2.52 2.52 0.992 6.75 7.53 0.326 1.21 1.36 0.425
Maryland 1.98 2.03 0.817 2.00 2.16 0.569 5.43 5.88 0.525 1.40 1.36 0.871
Massachusetts 2.14b 2.51 0.078 2.50 2.65 0.679 6.71 6.96 0.747 1.30b 1.71 0.089
Michigan 1.98 2.06 0.554 2.71 2.70 0.957 5.66 5.92 0.534 1.26 1.32 0.692
Minnesota 1.84a 1.54 0.028 2.70 2.26 0.177 5.60a 4.51 0.036 1.07 0.94 0.357
Mississippi 1.70 1.70 0.999 2.01 2.16 0.578 4.72 4.81 0.867 1.10 1.06 0.836
Missouri 1.91 1.83 0.631 2.70 2.59 0.744 5.58 5.57 0.996 1.20 1.12 0.665
Montana 1.93 1.90 0.859 2.41 2.40 0.988 5.67 5.46 0.722 1.23 1.24 0.968
Nebraska 1.60 1.40 0.204 2.52 2.64 0.737 4.41b 3.60 0.089 0.94 0.82 0.475
Nevada 1.93 2.12 0.297 2.78 2.96 0.625 5.75 5.88 0.843 1.25 1.45 0.341
New Hampshire 2.13b 2.53 0.082 2.86 3.20 0.364 6.20 7.04 0.255 1.42 1.75 0.199
New Jersey 1.63a 1.95 0.044 2.29 2.42 0.594 4.96 5.72 0.201 1.05 1.31 0.145
New Mexico 2.26 2.13 0.554 3.35 3.12 0.647 6.20 6.07 0.859 1.38 1.28 0.655
New York 2.22 2.38 0.267 2.26 2.51 0.273 6.66 7.34 0.141 1.43 1.47 0.813
North Carolina 1.75 1.62 0.382 2.34 2.35 0.978 5.21 4.81 0.452 1.11 1.02 0.557
North Dakota 1.44 1.44 0.968 2.28 2.34 0.853 3.98 4.07 0.855 0.76 0.74 0.873
Ohio 2.04 2.04 0.978 2.48 2.40 0.743 6.24 5.84 0.360 1.29 1.36 0.588
Oklahoma 1.85 1.94 0.596 2.46 2.66 0.564 5.04 4.89 0.806 1.18 1.31 0.523
Oregon 2.46 2.69 0.359 2.88 2.95 0.855 6.78 7.33 0.478 1.75 1.94 0.500
Pennsylvania 1.69a 2.08 0.006 2.30 2.44 0.547 5.43 6.10 0.113 1.01a 1.38 0.023
Rhode Island 3.03 3.04 0.962 2.79 2.74 0.910 8.35 7.95 0.693 2.07 2.15 0.801
South Carolina 1.83 1.79 0.794 2.18 1.98 0.492 5.07 4.84 0.656 1.26 1.26 0.990
South Dakota 1.50 1.58 0.528 2.23 2.37 0.680 4.63 4.61 0.972 0.83 0.94 0.490
Tennessee 1.95a 1.45 0.001 2.31 2.09 0.434 5.90a 4.14 0.002 1.31b 0.97 0.052
Texas 1.84 1.79 0.682 2.36 2.31 0.827 5.06 4.99 0.858 1.15 1.11 0.778
Utah 1.95 1.79 0.289 2.49 2.33 0.633 4.96 4.76 0.730 1.08 0.95 0.411
Vermont 1.85 2.06 0.210 2.30 2.26 0.885 6.21 6.79 0.392 1.09 1.27 0.337
Virginia 1.95 1.79 0.341 2.42 2.43 0.975 5.87 4.94 0.115 1.23 1.18 0.798
Washington 1.82 1.87 0.774 2.87 2.77 0.770 5.17 5.74 0.371 1.15 1.13 0.928
West Virginia 2.13 2.45 0.117 2.56 2.52 0.912 6.25 6.71 0.523 1.49 1.83 0.153
Wisconsin 1.91 1.68 0.212 2.48 2.64 0.648 5.30 4.83 0.373 1.26 1.04 0.277
Wyoming 1.62 1.43 0.213 2.68 2.78 0.803 4.67 4.01 0.193 0.95 0.80 0.418
130116
Table 20 – Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 8.99 8.98 0.885 7.68a 7.37 0.043 20.86 20.54 0.252 7.12 7.19 0.687
Northeast 8.81 9.10 0.155 7.32 7.35 0.914 21.91 22.16 0.620 6.80 7.11 0.235
Midwest 9.57b 9.23 0.054 8.19a 7.63 0.011 22.39a 21.55 0.037 7.53 7.31 0.323
South 8.55 8.47 0.661 7.11a 6.63 0.024 19.27 18.96 0.443 6.93 6.94 0.973
West 9.29 9.43 0.562 8.34 8.26 0.810 21.05 20.76 0.578 7.31 7.53 0.440
Alabama 7.93 8.16 0.613 7.10 6.95 0.801 16.75 17.66 0.398 6.54 6.70 0.774
Alaska 9.35 9.55 0.691 8.24 7.29 0.144 21.32 20.55 0.577 7.27 7.82 0.387
Arizona 9.55 9.19 0.459 8.72 7.86 0.215 21.75 22.24 0.702 7.60 7.15 0.463
Arkansas 8.62 8.29 0.447 7.87 7.62 0.693 20.14 19.14 0.393 6.84 6.61 0.670
California 8.95 9.48 0.123 8.04 8.20 0.737 20.31 20.21 0.897 6.93 7.61 0.122
Colorado 10.87 10.43 0.456 9.55 9.82 0.757 26.02 24.51 0.277 8.50 8.16 0.629
Connecticut 9.42 9.82 0.475 8.39 7.79 0.386 23.05 23.56 0.713 7.41 7.89 0.473
Delaware 9.10 9.61 0.324 7.08 7.69 0.350 22.79 23.68 0.503 7.08 7.50 0.486
District of Columbia 11.60 11.29 0.640 5.45 5.44 0.976 23.75b 21.20 0.063 9.51 9.62 0.891
Florida 8.67 8.49 0.602 7.35 6.95 0.361 18.78 18.03 0.292 7.34 7.25 0.842
Georgia 8.42 8.53 0.811 6.50 5.83 0.215 18.70 20.05 0.279 6.93 6.94 0.987
Hawaii 9.63 8.98 0.328 8.68 8.00 0.496 20.37 19.62 0.620 8.04 7.39 0.410
Idaho 8.63 8.87 0.591 8.33 8.15 0.772 20.53 20.05 0.696 6.56 7.00 0.413
Illinois 9.48 9.06 0.226 7.45 7.03 0.349 21.84 21.13 0.397 7.53 7.14 0.361
Indiana 8.55 8.50 0.912 8.19 7.73 0.498 20.26 20.10 0.887 6.62 6.65 0.947
Iowa 9.12 9.29 0.729 8.13 8.24 0.870 20.47 21.45 0.404 7.22 7.27 0.933
Kansas 9.46 9.06 0.365 8.17 7.63 0.407 22.39 21.24 0.359 7.20 6.98 0.694
Kentucky 7.97 7.97 0.992 6.99 6.23 0.185 18.88 19.31 0.710 6.38 6.40 0.967
Louisiana 8.65 8.73 0.851 6.08 5.69 0.431 17.73 19.40 0.162 7.24 7.10 0.788
Maine 8.61 8.39 0.639 7.89 6.89 0.127 22.43 21.79 0.623 6.76 6.69 0.897
Maryland 9.24 8.53 0.177 6.93 6.06 0.162 20.15 18.66 0.252 7.72 7.13 0.358
Massachusetts 9.96 9.64 0.572 7.73 7.43 0.647 24.30 23.82 0.736 7.74 7.38 0.606
Michigan 9.45 9.38 0.849 8.34 7.75 0.188 21.57 20.76 0.284 7.54 7.66 0.782
Minnesota 10.84 10.12 0.170 8.80 7.66 0.102 25.71b 23.35 0.057 8.53 8.17 0.578
Mississippi 7.56 7.58 0.968 5.76 5.97 0.708 17.97 16.63 0.218 5.90 6.14 0.658
Missouri 9.38 9.00 0.417 8.00 7.27 0.250 23.04 21.26 0.137 7.29 7.21 0.877
Montana 10.06 10.60 0.307 8.97b 10.48 0.065 25.37 26.74 0.347 7.61 7.92 0.622
Nebraska 9.62 9.52 0.834 8.25 7.66 0.359 21.85 21.22 0.608 7.50 7.56 0.918
Nevada 9.49 9.57 0.856 8.92 8.76 0.827 21.32 21.01 0.806 7.82 7.98 0.780
New Hampshire 9.67 9.73 0.914 8.63 8.82 0.781 24.57 24.80 0.870 7.53 7.54 0.993
New Jersey 8.03 8.05 0.966 6.68 6.32 0.521 20.32 19.61 0.552 6.33 6.48 0.778
New Mexico 9.88 10.31 0.455 9.28 10.44 0.164 22.64 22.03 0.637 7.62 8.14 0.463
New York 8.83a 9.52 0.047 7.24 7.89 0.135 21.46b 22.92 0.077 6.78 7.30 0.217
North Carolina 8.09 7.69 0.353 6.62 5.98 0.222 19.42 17.51 0.103 6.46 6.31 0.788
North Dakota 10.36 9.63 0.151 9.08 8.09 0.142 24.08 23.05 0.422 7.42 6.83 0.334
Ohio 9.63 9.10 0.110 8.41a 7.48 0.033 22.23 21.61 0.422 7.71 7.25 0.271
Oklahoma 8.46b 9.30 0.080 6.94 7.51 0.377 20.44 20.33 0.934 6.46b 7.53 0.075
Oregon 9.84 10.09 0.650 9.01 9.12 0.886 21.80 22.18 0.772 8.09 8.33 0.722
Pennsylvania 8.31 8.57 0.446 7.06 6.90 0.729 21.42 20.80 0.453 6.32 6.76 0.285
Rhode Island 10.36 10.50 0.807 8.40 8.05 0.618 24.12 22.69 0.333 8.05 8.51 0.505
South Carolina 9.00 9.34 0.543 6.82 6.24 0.318 19.79 19.23 0.633 7.52 8.10 0.385
South Dakota 10.04 10.77 0.160 8.59 9.31 0.345 24.83 25.57 0.587 7.53 8.30 0.229
Tennessee 8.35 7.61 0.112 6.76a 5.31 0.012 20.28a 17.74 0.038 6.72 6.33 0.493
Texas 8.50 8.49 0.979 7.69 7.26 0.314 18.30 18.60 0.690 6.76 6.76 0.989
Utah 8.57 8.02 0.229 7.45a 6.14 0.035 16.84 16.71 0.904 6.65 6.17 0.416
Vermont 9.19 9.39 0.687 8.33 7.41 0.162 23.72 24.90 0.376 6.92 7.09 0.785
Virginia 9.33 9.38 0.920 7.69 7.28 0.526 23.60 23.02 0.676 7.13 7.32 0.747
Washington 9.39a 8.49 0.042 8.07 7.31 0.224 21.89 20.19 0.156 7.55 6.75 0.142
West Virginia 8.10 8.32 0.608 7.07 6.75 0.606 20.36 19.72 0.588 6.43 6.85 0.427
Wisconsin 10.13 9.54 0.257 8.71 8.78 0.921 24.62 23.57 0.439 7.86 7.26 0.353
Wyoming 10.07 9.28 0.116 9.81 9.27 0.482 22.22 21.27 0.458 7.94 7.16 0.210
130116
Table 21 – Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for illicit drugs, but not receiving treatment for an illicit drug problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens, heroin, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 2.52 2.54 0.791 4.19 4.18 0.943 7.37 7.16 0.219 1.47 1.53 0.393
Northeast 2.49 2.63 0.129 3.90 4.03 0.486 8.04 8.07 0.933 1.39 1.54 0.145
Midwest 2.36 2.38 0.719 4.25 4.20 0.785 6.99 6.81 0.411 1.31 1.39 0.345
South 2.55 2.48 0.434 4.05 3.95 0.522 7.10 6.75 0.137 1.59 1.58 0.922
West 2.67 2.71 0.705 4.54 4.60 0.784 7.61 7.40 0.525 1.52 1.61 0.501
Alabama 2.63 2.46 0.416 3.57 3.84 0.509 7.36 6.83 0.415 1.70 1.54 0.500
Alaska 2.73 2.90 0.493 4.44 4.11 0.466 7.24 6.98 0.737 1.61 1.95 0.245
Arizona 2.94 2.73 0.404 4.55 4.34 0.688 7.95 7.80 0.842 1.87 1.66 0.455
Arkansas 2.59 2.65 0.766 4.49 4.45 0.937 7.15 6.88 0.718 1.59 1.73 0.566
California 2.55 2.76 0.181 4.42 4.71 0.397 7.49 7.34 0.763 1.34 1.60 0.141
Colorado 3.23b 2.73 0.061 5.17 5.25 0.892 9.12 8.09 0.226 2.00 1.53 0.112
Connecticut 2.50 2.54 0.854 3.96 4.05 0.847 8.19 7.88 0.712 1.42 1.51 0.702
Delaware 2.87 2.58 0.225 4.25 4.28 0.950 8.48 7.93 0.485 1.76 1.48 0.310
District of Columbia 3.70 3.31 0.171 3.77 3.65 0.803 9.37b 8.00 0.079 2.44 2.23 0.526
Florida 2.54 2.47 0.744 4.08 4.08 0.981 7.10 6.73 0.382 1.69 1.67 0.922
Georgia 2.79a 2.35 0.033 3.75 3.61 0.730 7.66b 6.49 0.083 1.83 1.47 0.136
Hawaii 2.46 2.64 0.530 4.49 3.60 0.128 6.23 6.60 0.659 1.63 1.89 0.423
Idaho 2.68 2.84 0.467 4.61 4.71 0.833 7.15 7.31 0.833 1.60 1.79 0.462
Illinois 2.11a 2.36 0.040 3.87 4.11 0.460 6.21 6.79 0.196 1.14 1.33 0.143
Indiana 2.69 2.67 0.910 5.08 4.68 0.444 7.84 7.30 0.453 1.50 1.62 0.629
Iowa 1.56b 1.83 0.089 3.12 3.80 0.173 4.63 5.17 0.346 0.82 0.99 0.272
Kansas 1.82 2.03 0.179 3.76 3.61 0.746 5.28 6.09 0.221 0.90 1.07 0.273
Kentucky 2.81 2.95 0.559 4.24 3.97 0.563 8.19 8.35 0.840 1.79 1.98 0.470
Louisiana 2.59 2.59 0.996 3.42 3.56 0.731 6.73 6.94 0.769 1.67 1.62 0.838
Maine 2.72 2.73 0.962 4.31 4.12 0.684 9.28 8.97 0.752 1.63 1.72 0.725
Maryland 2.55 2.42 0.589 3.53 3.54 0.980 7.28 7.22 0.940 1.63 1.47 0.522
Massachusetts 2.66 3.04 0.124 4.04 4.21 0.740 9.59 9.04 0.544 1.29a 1.85 0.042
Michigan 2.51 2.63 0.376 4.49 4.44 0.854 7.69 7.36 0.451 1.36 1.59 0.162
Minnesota 2.34 2.17 0.327 3.81 3.78 0.935 6.99 6.10 0.177 1.35 1.30 0.800
Mississippi 1.96b 2.29 0.063 3.02 3.54 0.235 6.05 6.50 0.480 1.04 1.34 0.120
Missouri 2.57 2.33 0.224 4.36 3.99 0.393 7.66 6.83 0.223 1.50 1.38 0.612
Montana 2.74 2.46 0.183 4.14 4.24 0.851 8.31 7.19 0.141 1.62 1.46 0.465
Nebraska 2.03 1.90 0.460 3.99 4.17 0.709 5.56 5.03 0.354 1.10 1.00 0.603
Nevada 3.09 3.10 0.970 5.25 4.82 0.424 8.35 8.38 0.970 2.03 2.09 0.850
New Hampshire 2.82 3.04 0.433 4.92 5.06 0.793 8.35 9.19 0.350 1.71 1.85 0.663
New Jersey 2.05 2.10 0.805 3.88 3.89 0.981 6.73 6.50 0.728 1.11 1.19 0.626
New Mexico 3.38b 2.87 0.065 5.87 5.63 0.709 8.81 7.95 0.321 2.04 1.58 0.136
New York 2.77 2.80 0.845 3.98 3.96 0.935 8.36 8.76 0.453 1.63 1.59 0.824
North Carolina 2.22 2.24 0.951 3.65 3.92 0.542 6.73 6.25 0.457 1.32 1.38 0.780
North Dakota 1.80 2.07 0.120 3.36 3.77 0.384 5.02 5.80 0.195 0.87 1.02 0.352
Ohio 2.73 2.58 0.313 4.85 4.32 0.109 8.34 7.64 0.166 1.52 1.54 0.942
Oklahoma 2.44 2.73 0.183 3.93 4.35 0.422 6.38 6.59 0.771 1.52 1.81 0.223
Oregon 2.98 3.02 0.874 4.73 4.39 0.482 8.91 8.30 0.488 1.86 2.05 0.531
Pennsylvania 2.07a 2.37 0.031 3.47 4.01 0.115 6.90 7.01 0.815 1.10a 1.41 0.041
Rhode Island 3.94 3.51 0.206 4.91 4.59 0.587 12.00b 9.83 0.061 2.33 2.20 0.735
South Carolina 2.73 2.59 0.605 4.38 3.90 0.280 7.42 6.39 0.132 1.75 1.81 0.849
South Dakota 1.95 2.24 0.119 3.59 4.29 0.173 5.96 6.32 0.566 1.00 1.24 0.214
Tennessee 2.44 2.15 0.127 3.86 3.51 0.365 7.48a 5.87 0.011 1.50 1.42 0.717
Texas 2.56 2.55 0.957 4.62 4.20 0.212 6.62 6.71 0.854 1.48 1.52 0.778
Utah 2.65 2.48 0.441 4.54 4.17 0.446 5.96 6.15 0.774 1.49 1.28 0.384
Vermont 2.58 2.84 0.247 4.16 3.92 0.561 8.63 8.94 0.719 1.40 1.72 0.203
Virginia 2.56 2.44 0.567 4.14 4.06 0.854 7.60 7.02 0.435 1.51 1.47 0.850
Washington 2.21 2.23 0.932 4.10 3.96 0.764 6.83 6.92 0.901 1.23 1.26 0.895
West Virginia 2.52 2.89 0.115 4.08 3.92 0.739 7.51 7.71 0.784 1.62b 2.08 0.088
Wisconsin 2.21 2.19 0.923 3.83 4.35 0.331 6.42 6.42 0.998 1.30 1.22 0.713
Wyoming 2.27 2.13 0.466 4.20 4.33 0.793 6.56 6.17 0.561 1.25 1.14 0.573
130116
Table 22 – Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 12+
(2007-2008)
12+
(2008-2009)
12+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for alcohol, but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 7.10 7.03 0.536 4.98a 4.57 0.002 16.52b 16.07 0.063 5.75 5.78 0.822
Northeast 6.85 7.01 0.400 4.76 4.58 0.370 17.04 17.07 0.937 5.41 5.61 0.393
Midwest 7.70a 7.36 0.032 5.42a 4.89 0.003 18.17a 17.30 0.014 6.19 5.97 0.265
South 6.67 6.60 0.665 4.47a 4.07 0.016 14.97 14.63 0.316 5.55 5.57 0.928
West 7.39 7.39 0.985 5.49b 5.04 0.080 16.93 16.31 0.206 5.93 6.09 0.533
Alabama 5.88 6.11 0.551 4.34 4.17 0.720 12.50 13.16 0.468 4.95 5.17 0.657
Alaska 7.09 7.41 0.494 5.13 4.89 0.626 16.63 16.04 0.611 5.61 6.15 0.335
Arizona 7.62 7.27 0.419 5.85 5.08 0.179 17.10 17.54 0.700 6.25 5.83 0.406
Arkansas 6.56 6.43 0.753 5.19 4.82 0.461 15.16 14.52 0.538 5.33 5.32 0.987
California 7.24 7.47 0.463 5.46 4.94 0.195 16.37 15.85 0.473 5.76 6.22 0.245
Colorado 8.57 8.30 0.579 6.45 5.94 0.451 21.97 20.24 0.168 6.60 6.59 0.986
Connecticut 7.81 8.28 0.368 6.05 5.74 0.611 18.56 19.46 0.459 6.34 6.83 0.442
Delaware 6.87 7.29 0.359 4.61 4.70 0.850 16.82 17.88 0.348 5.50 5.85 0.525
District of Columbia 8.96 8.54 0.403 3.20 3.19 0.988 18.54b 16.52 0.081 7.40 7.25 0.815
Florida 6.93 6.66 0.372 4.70 4.30 0.231 14.74 14.20 0.414 6.03 5.81 0.539
Georgia 6.21 6.43 0.570 3.82 3.38 0.233 13.80 14.70 0.366 5.25 5.44 0.694
Hawaii 7.96 7.23 0.267 5.15 5.34 0.797 17.56 16.18 0.362 6.77 6.02 0.333
Idaho 6.67 6.69 0.953 5.21 4.69 0.281 15.85 15.65 0.854 5.25 5.40 0.743
Illinois 7.99a 7.26 0.026 5.00a 4.17 0.016 18.47b 17.09 0.066 6.51 5.88 0.128
Indiana 6.23 6.44 0.594 4.86 4.47 0.397 15.40 15.89 0.637 4.86 5.10 0.614
Iowa 7.87 8.02 0.761 5.94 6.24 0.631 17.80 18.15 0.753 6.35 6.46 0.856
Kansas 7.85 7.57 0.512 5.41 5.27 0.791 19.91 18.32 0.206 5.92 5.86 0.920
Kentucky 5.36 5.78 0.267 4.03 3.88 0.742 12.09 13.49 0.151 4.47 4.80 0.464
Louisiana 6.96 6.80 0.705 4.09 3.70 0.334 14.09 14.53 0.672 5.97 5.74 0.651
Maine 6.58 6.41 0.676 5.06a 4.10 0.042 17.14 16.79 0.759 5.27 5.22 0.908
Maryland 7.38 6.65 0.115 4.52b 3.70 0.083 17.15b 14.86 0.059 6.12 5.64 0.374
Massachusetts 7.76 7.00 0.125 5.10 4.58 0.344 18.86 18.41 0.737 6.15 5.26 0.112
Michigan 7.31 7.10 0.495 5.23 4.76 0.161 16.82 15.78 0.124 5.98 5.93 0.915
Minnesota 9.37 8.67 0.182 6.25 5.47 0.202 22.39 20.55 0.149 7.52 7.05 0.461
Mississippi 5.93 6.02 0.807 3.81 3.71 0.793 13.30 12.60 0.457 4.88 5.13 0.569
Missouri 7.16 7.11 0.916 5.39 4.98 0.428 17.33 16.47 0.435 5.70 5.84 0.767
Montana 8.31 9.15 0.109 6.25b 7.58 0.051 21.77 23.16 0.311 6.29 7.00 0.262
Nebraska 8.19 8.19 0.990 6.05 5.45 0.304 18.32 18.52 0.870 6.57 6.59 0.972
Nevada 7.65 7.31 0.467 5.72 5.16 0.306 17.40 16.34 0.347 6.46 6.25 0.708
New Hampshire 7.50 7.23 0.536 5.47 5.19 0.596 19.81 18.70 0.355 5.88 5.72 0.768
New Jersey 6.45 6.25 0.606 4.25 3.68 0.193 16.35 15.18 0.266 5.23 5.19 0.937
New Mexico 7.62 8.11 0.307 5.60 6.21 0.364 18.56 17.78 0.497 5.88 6.58 0.237
New York 6.66a 7.42 0.015 4.64 5.06 0.252 16.38 17.28 0.181 5.19b 5.93 0.054
North Carolina 6.52 6.05 0.270 4.11b 3.38 0.065 15.45 13.98 0.159 5.39 5.10 0.567
North Dakota 8.76a 7.86 0.049 6.23a 4.98 0.017 20.79 19.53 0.292 6.35 5.61 0.163
Ohio 7.49 7.20 0.360 5.39 4.99 0.273 16.90 16.81 0.900 6.21 5.90 0.431
Oklahoma 6.63 7.10 0.277 4.54 4.72 0.713 16.33 16.02 0.785 5.13 5.79 0.203
Oregon 7.27 7.61 0.448 5.47 5.82 0.506 16.09 16.31 0.844 6.13 6.47 0.520
Pennsylvania 6.58 6.50 0.790 4.60 4.09 0.143 16.74 16.30 0.569 5.16 5.18 0.963
Rhode Island 7.57 7.76 0.664 5.27 4.72 0.282 17.88 17.11 0.497 5.93 6.38 0.423
South Carolina 7.03 7.43 0.426 4.24 3.98 0.549 15.06 15.22 0.881 6.07 6.58 0.414
South Dakota 8.40 8.83 0.381 5.81 5.96 0.798 21.40 21.77 0.766 6.37 6.87 0.397
Tennessee 6.45 6.04 0.310 4.44a 3.37 0.017 15.29 13.67 0.123 5.35 5.19 0.748
Texas 6.75 6.79 0.893 4.77 4.45 0.379 14.66 14.40 0.674 5.54 5.69 0.668
Utah 6.26 5.87 0.356 4.03 3.33 0.132 12.91 12.49 0.702 4.95 4.65 0.576
Vermont 7.11 7.47 0.437 5.40 4.92 0.337 18.22 18.76 0.634 5.50 5.92 0.459
Virginia 7.29 7.31 0.951 4.88 4.66 0.642 18.36 18.41 0.960 5.72 5.75 0.956
Washington 7.35b 6.60 0.054 5.17 4.49 0.159 17.59a 15.58 0.047 5.99 5.41 0.221
West Virginia 5.98 5.87 0.776 4.55 4.29 0.561 15.39 14.33 0.318 4.77 4.82 0.920
Wisconsin 8.26b 7.49 0.097 6.11 5.20 0.113 20.65b 18.38 0.051 6.44 5.93 0.371
Wyoming 8.24 7.82 0.406 6.87 6.38 0.487 18.83 18.43 0.735 6.53 6.12 0.498
130116
Table 23 – Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year, by Age Group and State: Percentages and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 18+
(2007-2008)
18+
(2008-2009)
18+
(P Value)
12-17
(2007-2008)
12-17
(2008-2009)
12-17
(P Value)
18-25
(2007-2008)
18-25
(2008-2009)
18-25
(P Value)
26+
(2007-2008)
26+
(2008-2009)
26+
(P Value)
NOTE: State and census region estimates are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Major depressive episode (MDE) is defined as in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms. For details, see Section A.11 in Appendix A of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs.
NOTE: There are minor wording differences in the questions in the adult and adolescent major depressive episode modules. Therefore, data from youths aged 12 to 17 were not combined with data from persons aged 18 or older to produce an estimate for those aged 12 or older.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 6.60 6.53 0.548 8.24 8.22 0.901 8.21 8.21 0.960 6.33 6.24 0.540
Northeast 6.44 6.42 0.937 8.08 7.92 0.560 8.12 8.06 0.829 6.16 6.15 0.960
Midwest 6.74 6.72 0.890 8.39 8.35 0.874 8.53 8.50 0.890 6.43 6.41 0.912
South 6.61 6.44 0.339 8.20 8.07 0.567 7.82 7.79 0.875 6.40 6.22 0.349
West 6.60 6.57 0.902 8.28 8.53 0.407 8.57 8.67 0.775 6.24 6.19 0.843
Alabama 5.84 6.35 0.303 8.36 7.99 0.582 7.60 7.35 0.713 5.54 6.19 0.265
Alaska 6.32 5.86 0.404 7.74 7.70 0.952 7.85 7.31 0.534 6.03 5.59 0.482
Arizona 7.06 6.94 0.817 8.92 8.99 0.924 9.06 8.88 0.819 6.72 6.61 0.852
Arkansas 7.38 7.86 0.441 8.77 9.03 0.723 8.50 8.98 0.526 7.20 7.67 0.507
California 6.12 6.05 0.838 7.83 8.14 0.484 8.37 8.50 0.781 5.69 5.58 0.775
Colorado 6.84 7.56 0.187 8.90 9.16 0.725 8.42 8.40 0.985 6.58 7.41 0.176
Connecticut 6.78 5.95 0.112 8.20 8.03 0.795 8.62 8.11 0.490 6.50 5.61 0.137
Delaware 6.22 6.43 0.673 8.17 7.86 0.654 7.74 8.55 0.302 5.97 6.08 0.844
District of Columbia 6.60 5.93 0.170 7.19 6.93 0.728 7.97 7.39 0.430 6.30 5.60 0.236
Florida 6.56 6.40 0.675 7.71b 8.53 0.071 7.73 7.93 0.649 6.39 6.17 0.623
Georgia 6.54 6.26 0.576 8.26 7.88 0.572 7.41 7.65 0.708 6.40 6.02 0.527
Hawaii 5.90 6.15 0.657 8.26 8.08 0.813 8.15 8.68 0.529 5.55 5.74 0.753
Idaho 7.44 7.47 0.958 8.59 8.90 0.682 8.46 9.19 0.344 7.25 7.16 0.886
Illinois 5.91 6.17 0.446 7.53 7.48 0.924 7.78 7.93 0.762 5.57 5.85 0.481
Indiana 8.23 8.14 0.884 8.86 9.25 0.616 9.31 8.51 0.324 8.05 8.08 0.960
Iowa 6.25 5.87 0.413 7.79 8.07 0.674 8.17 7.75 0.584 5.91 5.54 0.487
Kansas 7.28 6.61 0.201 9.03 8.58 0.531 8.36 8.38 0.978 7.08 6.29 0.188
Kentucky 7.66 7.14 0.355 9.35 8.42 0.226 8.34 7.98 0.601 7.56 7.00 0.398
Louisiana 6.21 5.75 0.345 8.03 7.67 0.574 7.16 6.97 0.785 6.02 5.51 0.371
Maine 7.38 6.81 0.302 8.49 8.08 0.572 9.27 8.78 0.560 7.11 6.53 0.347
Maryland 6.17 6.17 0.990 7.24 7.31 0.913 8.37 8.18 0.789 5.80 5.83 0.953
Massachusetts 6.57 6.77 0.684 8.42 8.03 0.578 8.43 8.51 0.906 6.24 6.47 0.709
Michigan 6.60 6.65 0.876 8.24 8.21 0.963 9.20 9.15 0.922 6.15 6.23 0.858
Minnesota 7.04 7.55 0.351 9.46 8.60 0.238 8.43 8.87 0.562 6.80 7.33 0.399
Mississippi 5.40 5.80 0.400 7.39 7.26 0.846 6.56 6.60 0.961 5.19 5.66 0.402
Missouri 7.04 7.03 0.977 8.64 8.91 0.723 9.06 9.15 0.892 6.71 6.68 0.958
Montana 6.76 6.76 0.992 8.61 9.07 0.551 9.25 8.85 0.622 6.34 6.41 0.921
Nebraska 5.63 6.31 0.178 7.62 8.20 0.402 7.32 7.59 0.697 5.31 6.07 0.198
Nevada 7.02 6.88 0.818 8.16 7.38 0.254 9.60 8.89 0.334 6.64 6.58 0.937
New Hampshire 7.75 7.61 0.816 8.90 8.80 0.887 8.68 8.88 0.807 7.61 7.41 0.777
New Jersey 5.87 5.98 0.823 7.85 7.35 0.441 7.24 8.12 0.192 5.66 5.65 0.981
New Mexico 7.36 6.47 0.142 8.86 8.95 0.913 8.85 8.56 0.710 7.09 6.08 0.153
New York 6.52 6.64 0.727 7.99 8.22 0.613 8.21 7.84 0.444 6.22 6.42 0.608
North Carolina 7.06 6.85 0.686 8.96 8.43 0.456 8.46 8.07 0.566 6.84 6.65 0.759
North Dakota 6.58 6.26 0.550 8.72 9.03 0.673 8.14 7.21 0.210 6.22 6.05 0.783
Ohio 6.61 6.18 0.212 8.34 8.31 0.961 8.29 8.16 0.789 6.33 5.85 0.228
Oklahoma 7.93 7.40 0.383 8.38 8.04 0.637 9.45 9.47 0.987 7.65 7.03 0.379
Oregon 7.01 7.44 0.447 9.35 10.18 0.264 9.55 9.83 0.756 6.62 7.07 0.480
Pennsylvania 6.21 5.92 0.433 7.99 7.54 0.350 7.96 7.64 0.541 5.92 5.64 0.495
Rhode Island 7.55a 9.34 0.009 8.48 9.35 0.273 9.04a 10.87 0.030 7.27a 9.05 0.026
South Carolina 6.23 7.02 0.184 8.73 8.90 0.822 7.65 8.43 0.271 6.00 6.79 0.244
South Dakota 6.07 5.71 0.466 8.37 8.47 0.892 7.65 6.90 0.263 5.79 5.50 0.616
Tennessee 7.63 6.83 0.198 8.76 8.53 0.743 7.30 7.19 0.878 7.68 6.78 0.201
Texas 6.05 5.97 0.820 7.62 7.49 0.774 7.25 7.25 0.993 5.82 5.73 0.821
Utah 7.07 7.51 0.386 9.15 8.43 0.295 8.33 8.37 0.954 6.74 7.29 0.372
Vermont 6.52 6.52 0.999 8.13 8.10 0.967 8.57 9.43 0.273 6.18 6.04 0.821
Virginia 6.88 6.30 0.276 9.56 8.78 0.279 9.10 8.57 0.481 6.51 5.92 0.338
Washington 7.63 7.19 0.420 8.59 9.39 0.299 8.56 9.07 0.517 7.48 6.88 0.344
West Virginia 8.51 7.77 0.250 9.05 8.39 0.345 9.78 8.81 0.237 8.33 7.62 0.333
Wisconsin 7.35 7.28 0.900 9.16 8.83 0.641 9.20 9.55 0.657 7.03 6.89 0.830
Wyoming 7.85 7.37 0.415 9.99a 8.50 0.048 9.99 9.50 0.538 7.47 6.99 0.485


Methodology Used to Estimate the Bayes Posterior Probability of
No Change between the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 Small Area Estimates

Comparisons between State small area estimates displayed in Tables 1 to 23 in this document are based on the 2007 through 2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs). The moving average State prevalence estimates for the overlapping 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 time periods were obtained from independent applications of the survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes (SWHB) methodology; that is, the 2008-2009 models were fit independently of the previously fitted 2007-2008 models. This independent analysis approach was followed because there was no desire to revise the previously published 2007-2008 estimates. Moreover, the same fixed predictor variables were used in the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 models, but annual updates were made when more current versions became available.1 The age group-specific fixed predictor variables were defined at five levels (namely, the person level, census block group level, tract level, county level, and State level). Also, each age group model had 51 State-level random effects and 300 "within-State" area-level random effects.

To estimate change in State estimates, let pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a denote the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 prevalence rates, respectively, for State-s and age group-a. The change between pi 1 sub s and a and pi 2 sub s and a is defined in terms of the log-odds ratio (lor sub s and a) as opposed to the simple difference because the posterior distribution of the lor sub s and a is closer to Gaussian than the posterior distribution of the simple difference (Pi 2 sub s and a minus pi 1 sub s and a represents the simple difference between the 2008-2009 and 2007-2008 prevalence rates). The lor sub s and a is defined as

Equation 1,     D


where ln denotes the natural logarithm. The p value given is computed to test the null hypothesis of no change (i.e.,Pi 2 sub s and a is equal to pi 1 sub s and a or equivalently, Log-odds ratio lor sub s and a is equal to zero). An estimate of Log-odds ratio, lor sub s and a is given by

Equation 2,     D


where the p 1 sub s and a are previously published 2007-2008 State estimates and the p 2 sub s and a are the 2008-2009 State estimates. To compute the variance of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, that is, variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a let Theta 1 hat equal the ratio of p 1 sub s and a and 1 minus p 1 sub s and a and Theta 2 hat equal the ratio of p 2 sub s and a and 1 minus p 2 sub s and a, then


Equation 3,     D

where covariance between the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat denotes the covariance between natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat. This covariance is defined in terms of the associated correlation as follows:

Equation 4.     D

Note that variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and variance v of the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat used here to calculate variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a are the same variances used in calculating the previously published 2007-2008 Bayesian confidence intervals and the 2008-2009 Bayesian confidence intervals, respectively.

The correlation between natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat was obtained by simultaneously modeling the 2007, 2008, and 2009 NSDUH data. This simultaneous modeling approach was adopted based on the results of the validation study2 conducted for measuring change in the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 State estimates. For this simultaneous model, 4 age groups (12 to 17, 18 to 25, 26 to 34, and 35 or older) by 3 years (2007, 2008, and 2009), that is, 12 subpopulation-specific models, were fitted, each with its own set of fixed and random effects. In this case, the general covariance matrices for the State and within-State random effects were 12 × 12 matrices corresponding to the 12 element (age group × year) vectors of random effects. Note that the survey-weighted, Bernoulli-type log likelihood employed in the SWHB methodology was appropriate for this simultaneous model because the 12 age group × year subpopulations were nonoverlapping. The correlation the natural logarithm of Theta 1 hat and the natural logarithm of Theta 2 hat was approximated by the correlation calculated using the posterior distributions of the natural logarithm of pi 1 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 1 sub s and a and the natural logarithm of pi 2 sub s and a divided by 1 minus pi 2 sub s and a from the simultaneous model.

To calculate the p value for testing the null hypothesis of no difference Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero, it is assumed that the posterior distribution of lor is normal with Mean is equal to estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a and Variance is equal to variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a. With the null value of Log-odds ratio lor is equal to zero, the Bayes p value or posterior probability of no difference is The p value is equal to 2 times the probability of realizing a standard normal variate greater than or equal to the absolute value of a quantity z, where Z is a standard normal random variate, Quantity z is the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a, divided by the square root of the variance v of the estimate of the log-odds ratio, lor hat sub s and a., and absolute value of quantity z denotes the absolute value of z.


During regular data collection and processing checks for the 2011 NSDUH, data errors were identified. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006 to 2010) and Maryland (2008 and 2009). Cases with erroneous data were removed from the data files, and the remaining cases were reweighted to provide representative estimates. Therefore, some estimates using 2006 to 2010 NSDUH data (including the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 small area estimates shown in these tables) will differ from corresponding estimates found in some previous reports.3 All of the source lines in these tables have a note that includes the text "(Revised March 2012)" to indicate that the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 small area estimates are based on revised NSDUH data. However, the correlation shown in the covariance term above was not based on revised data. All other estimates used in the p value calculations, including the prevalence rates and variances, were based on revised data. Tests based on several outcome measures indicated that revising the correlations did not affect the p values greatly; hence, a decision was made by SAMHSA's Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality not to redo the correlations.

End Notes

1 For details, see Section B.3 in the "2010-2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Guide to State Tables and Summary of Small Area Estimation Methodology" at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k11State/NSDUHsae2011/Index.aspx.

2 See Appendix E, Section E.2, of the following report: Wright, D. (2003). State estimates of substance use from the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume II. Individual state tables and technical appendices (HHS Publication No. SMA 03-3826, NHSDA Series H-20). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.

3 For more details on the impact of the data errors on national and State estimates, see Section 1.5 of the following report: Hughes, A., Muhuri, P., Sathe, N., & Spagnola, K. (2012). State estimates of substance use and mental disorders from the 2009-2010 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 12-4703, NSDUH Series H-43). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality.

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