National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Comparison of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009
Model-Based Prevalence Estimates for Adults Aged 18 or Older
(50 States and the District of Columbia)

NOTE: The methodology used to conduct significance testing between the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 State estimates is provided in the methodology discussion in "National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Comparison of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 Model-Based Prevalence Estimates (50 States and the District of Columbia)" at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k9State/NSDUHsae2009/Index.aspx.

130115
Table 1 – Illicit Drug Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 7.89a (7.62 - 8.16) 8.24 (7.97 - 8.52) 0.014
Northeast 8.06a (7.56 - 8.60) 8.87 (8.33 - 9.43) 0.000
Midwest 7.51 (7.11 - 7.93) 7.57 (7.17 - 7.98) 0.744
South 7.12 (6.75 - 7.51) 7.32 (6.94 - 7.71) 0.243
West 9.31b (8.72 - 9.94) 9.84   (9.23 - 10.49) 0.052
Alabama 6.59 (5.38 - 8.04) 6.87 (5.67 - 8.30) 0.524
Alaska 11.91a   (9.92 - 14.24) 13.88 (11.70 - 16.38) 0.033
Arizona 8.88   (7.34 - 10.70) 9.44   (7.71 - 11.50) 0.378
Arkansas 7.92 (6.56 - 9.52) 7.65 (6.32 - 9.24) 0.602
California 9.01a (8.11 - 9.99) 9.92   (8.97 - 10.96) 0.021
Colorado 11.69   (9.84 - 13.84) 11.26   (9.44 - 13.37) 0.576
Connecticut 8.04 (6.70 - 9.61) 8.69   (7.23 - 10.41) 0.203
Delaware 9.06   (7.52 - 10.88) 8.47   (7.04 - 10.17) 0.280
District of Columbia 12.27a (10.33 - 14.51) 10.40   (8.63 - 12.48) 0.012
Florida 7.68 (6.85 - 8.60) 7.95 (7.07 - 8.92) 0.485
Georgia 7.16 (5.83 - 8.75) 7.86 (6.43 - 9.56) 0.182
Hawaii 9.93a   (8.02 - 12.23) 12.05   (9.96 - 14.49) 0.009
Idaho 7.81 (6.44 - 9.45) 8.00 (6.65 - 9.59) 0.709
Illinois 7.02b (6.29 - 7.82) 7.54 (6.74 - 8.42) 0.098
Indiana 8.50   (7.08 - 10.18) 8.26 (6.83 - 9.95) 0.652
Iowa 3.74a (2.92 - 4.80) 4.87 (3.93 - 6.02) 0.002
Kansas 6.52   (5.23 - 8.11) 6.81 (5.48 - 8.43) 0.550
Kentucky 8.31b     (6.86 - 10.05) 7.30 (5.94 - 8.95) 0.058
Louisiana 6.96 (5.72 - 8.44) 7.07 (5.81 - 8.58) 0.816
Maine 8.93a     (7.46 - 10.64) 11.16   (9.39 - 13.22) 0.002
Maryland 7.10 (5.82 - 8.65) 6.88 (5.46 - 8.64) 0.639
Massachusetts 8.76a     (7.35 - 10.42) 10.88   (9.19 - 12.85) 0.000
Michigan 8.78 (7.96 - 9.67) 9.36   (8.42 - 10.40) 0.176
Minnesota 8.15a (6.76 - 9.79) 6.79 (5.56 - 8.27) 0.004
Mississippi 6.27 (5.15 - 7.63) 5.89 (4.78 - 7.24) 0.357
Missouri 7.25 (5.97 - 8.78) 7.50 (6.12 - 9.16) 0.622
Montana 9.86     (8.29 - 11.69) 9.45   (7.89 - 11.29) 0.504
Nebraska 6.16 (5.06 - 7.49) 6.48 (5.36 - 7.82) 0.446
Nevada 9.18     (7.46 - 11.24) 9.74   (8.00 - 11.80) 0.410
New Hampshire 10.62     (8.97 - 12.54) 11.17   (9.44 - 13.17) 0.459
New Jersey 6.23 (5.07 - 7.63) 6.54 (5.32 - 8.01) 0.465
New Mexico 8.33   (6.82 - 10.13) 8.72   (7.12 - 10.65) 0.553
New York 8.89a (8.02 - 9.85) 9.65   (8.69 - 10.70) 0.048
North Carolina 7.51 (6.22 - 9.05) 7.92 (6.52 - 9.57) 0.408
North Dakota 5.72 (4.61 - 7.06) 5.41 (4.34 - 6.72) 0.490
Ohio 7.36 (6.65 - 8.15) 7.27 (6.53 - 8.09) 0.765
Oklahoma 7.89 (6.45 - 9.62) 8.89   (7.23 - 10.89) 0.121
Oregon 12.21 (10.30 - 14.42) 12.32 (10.43 - 14.49) 0.890
Pennsylvania 6.68 (5.91 - 7.54) 7.24 (6.40 - 8.18) 0.104
Rhode Island 13.45 (11.50 - 15.68) 12.64 (10.72 - 14.85) 0.302
South Carolina 6.48a (5.31 - 7.89) 8.89   (7.27 - 10.82) 0.000
South Dakota 6.00 (4.87 - 7.37) 5.84 (4.72 - 7.21) 0.733
Tennessee 8.21 (6.81 - 9.86) 7.43 (6.09 - 9.02) 0.136
Texas 5.96 (5.29 - 6.71) 6.44 (5.73 - 7.22) 0.118
Utah 5.97 (4.82 - 7.37) 5.97 (4.79 - 7.41) 0.997
Vermont 11.45   (9.72 - 13.45) 12.36 (10.43 - 14.59) 0.261
Virginia 7.05a (5.82 - 8.53) 5.97 (4.84 - 7.34) 0.010
Washington 9.62   (7.96 - 11.58) 9.06   (7.43 - 11.01) 0.358
West Virginia 6.61a (5.44 - 8.00) 7.67 (6.30 - 9.30) 0.034
Wisconsin 8.56   (7.12 - 10.24) 7.72 (6.40 - 9.29) 0.112
Wyoming 6.47 (5.34 - 7.83) 6.06 (4.92 - 7.45) 0.372
130115
Table 2 – Marijuana Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 9.97a   (9.67 - 10.27) 10.61 (10.30 - 10.93) 0.000
Northeast 10.49a   (9.93 - 11.08) 11.71 (11.17 - 12.28) 0.000
Midwest 9.82   (9.38 - 10.27) 10.08   (9.65 - 10.53) 0.160
South 8.97b (8.57 - 9.39) 9.32 (8.91 - 9.76) 0.055
West 11.27a (10.62 - 11.94) 12.25 (11.62 - 12.90) 0.001
Alabama 7.74 (6.48 - 9.22) 8.31 (7.06 - 9.76) 0.202
Alaska 14.86 (12.67 - 17.36) 16.29 (14.22 - 18.59) 0.128
Arizona 9.97   (8.45 - 11.74) 10.50   (8.88 - 12.38) 0.343
Arkansas 10.53   (9.01 - 12.27) 10.61   (9.08 - 12.37) 0.881
California 11.36a (10.40 - 12.40) 12.65 (11.66 - 13.70) 0.003
Colorado 13.37b (11.44 - 15.56) 14.76 (12.72 - 17.06) 0.075
Connecticut 11.13b   (9.57 - 12.91) 12.20 (10.51 - 14.11) 0.076
Delaware 11.47   (9.76 - 13.44) 11.43   (9.78 - 13.32) 0.950
District of Columbia 15.77b (13.73 - 18.05) 14.33 (12.34 - 16.57) 0.089
Florida 9.42   (8.55 - 10.37) 9.85   (8.90 - 10.90) 0.284
Georgia 10.03   (8.44 - 11.87) 10.84   (9.09 - 12.86) 0.149
Hawaii 10.11a   (8.42 - 12.10) 11.82   (9.95 - 13.99) 0.010
Idaho 8.96a   (7.59 - 10.56) 10.32   (8.86 - 11.98) 0.009
Illinois 9.58b   (8.72 - 10.51) 10.22   (9.36 - 11.16) 0.058
Indiana 9.95   (8.43 - 11.70) 9.99   (8.49 - 11.71) 0.937
Iowa 5.88a (4.79 - 7.19) 7.25 (6.02 - 8.70) 0.003
Kansas 8.64   (7.20 - 10.32) 9.09   (7.70 - 10.70) 0.332
Kentucky 9.49b   (7.98 - 11.25) 8.61   (7.28 - 10.16) 0.071
Louisiana 8.83   (7.43 - 10.47) 8.37 (7.08 - 9.87) 0.361
Maine 11.83a (10.17 - 13.71) 13.49 (11.70 - 15.51) 0.021
Maryland 10.37   (8.73 - 12.27) 10.36   (8.63 - 12.39) 0.988
Massachusetts 11.91a (10.23 - 13.82) 14.39 (12.62 - 16.35) 0.000
Michigan 11.29b (10.42 - 12.23) 11.97 (11.01 - 12.99) 0.094
Minnesota 11.21   (9.52 - 13.15) 10.27   (8.82 - 11.94) 0.119
Mississippi 7.00 (5.79 - 8.43) 7.64 (6.38 - 9.13) 0.136
Missouri 9.18   (7.79 - 10.77) 9.53   (8.08 - 11.21) 0.493
Montana 11.95 (10.35 - 13.76) 11.90 (10.26 - 13.75) 0.933
Nebraska 8.49   (7.08 - 10.14) 9.07   (7.72 - 10.63) 0.230
Nevada 10.30   (8.51 - 12.41) 10.49   (8.77 - 12.50) 0.766
New Hampshire 14.19 (12.30 - 16.32) 14.69 (12.77 - 16.86) 0.556
New Jersey 8.14 (6.77 - 9.75) 8.93   (7.52 - 10.57) 0.116
New Mexico 9.65   (8.13 - 11.42) 10.30   (8.81 - 12.01) 0.260
New York 11.26a (10.29 - 12.31) 12.61 (11.63 - 13.67) 0.002
North Carolina 9.82   (8.30 - 11.59) 10.14   (8.64 - 11.87) 0.558
North Dakota 8.39 (7.13 - 9.84) 8.18 (6.95 - 9.60) 0.666
Ohio 9.84   (9.01 - 10.74) 9.77   (8.95 - 10.66) 0.824
Oklahoma 8.08a (6.66 - 9.79) 9.91   (8.32 - 11.77) 0.001
Oregon 13.78 (11.90 - 15.91) 14.01 (12.16 - 16.10) 0.763
Pennsylvania 8.78a (7.94 - 9.70) 9.75   (8.85 - 10.73) 0.008
Rhode Island 15.58b (13.63 - 17.75) 14.14 (12.25 - 16.28) 0.056
South Carolina 8.30 (6.91 - 9.94) 9.10   (7.63 - 10.82) 0.110
South Dakota 7.94 (6.71 - 9.37) 8.62   (7.33 - 10.12) 0.134
Tennessee 9.90   (8.41 - 11.63) 9.52   (8.06 - 11.20) 0.469
Texas 7.33a (6.61 - 8.12) 7.95 (7.20 - 8.76) 0.036
Utah 6.59 (5.43 - 7.98) 6.83 (5.67 - 8.22) 0.584
Vermont 15.25 (13.35 - 17.37) 15.88 (13.97 - 18.00) 0.407
Virginia 9.52   (8.05 - 11.22) 9.33   (7.90 - 10.97) 0.690
Washington 11.98 (10.19 - 14.03) 12.55 (10.80 - 14.54) 0.351
West Virginia 8.35b (7.01 - 9.91) 9.37   (7.92 - 11.04) 0.066
Wisconsin 10.40   (8.87 - 12.17) 10.33   (8.82 - 12.06) 0.896
Wyoming 9.29   (7.87 - 10.93) 9.43   (8.03 - 11.04) 0.791
130115
Table 3 – Marijuana Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 5.89a (5.67 - 6.13) 6.33 (6.10 - 6.57) 0.000
Northeast 6.28a (5.86 - 6.73) 7.06 (6.63 - 7.51) 0.000
Midwest 5.80 (5.48 - 6.14) 5.97 (5.64 - 6.31) 0.237
South 5.18b (4.88 - 5.50) 5.41 (5.10 - 5.74) 0.080
West 6.80a (6.30 - 7.33) 7.54 (7.03 - 8.09) 0.001
Alabama 4.50 (3.61 - 5.60) 4.97 (4.04 - 6.10) 0.141
Alaska 9.27a   (7.53 - 11.36) 11.81   (9.88 - 14.07) 0.002
Arizona 5.72b (4.56 - 7.15) 6.63 (5.26 - 8.33) 0.054
Arkansas 5.48 (4.43 - 6.76) 6.04 (4.90 - 7.43) 0.174
California 6.63a (5.90 - 7.45) 7.67 (6.87 - 8.56) 0.001
Colorado 9.22   (7.60 - 11.13) 9.72   (7.99 - 11.78) 0.433
Connecticut 6.33b (5.25 - 7.61) 7.14 (5.80 - 8.76) 0.054
Delaware 7.10 (5.80 - 8.67) 6.91 (5.66 - 8.42) 0.678
District of Columbia 9.85a   (8.23 - 11.74) 8.54   (7.07 - 10.27) 0.041
Florida 5.53 (4.84 - 6.31) 5.75 (5.03 - 6.57) 0.449
Georgia 5.45 (4.36 - 6.78) 6.12 (4.96 - 7.54) 0.102
Hawaii 6.66a (5.27 - 8.38) 8.54   (6.88 - 10.55) 0.002
Idaho 5.58 (4.51 - 6.88) 5.69 (4.57 - 7.07) 0.779
Illinois 5.33b (4.70 - 6.03) 5.76 (5.12 - 6.46) 0.076
Indiana 6.08 (4.98 - 7.41) 5.95 (4.83 - 7.30) 0.731
Iowa 3.08a (2.35 - 4.02) 4.23 (3.35 - 5.33) 0.000
Kansas 4.97 (3.92 - 6.27) 4.91 (3.86 - 6.23) 0.881
Kentucky 5.58a (4.53 - 6.86) 4.76 (3.79 - 5.95) 0.018
Louisiana 4.99 (4.00 - 6.21) 5.18 (4.18 - 6.41) 0.603
Maine 8.07a (6.68 - 9.71) 9.94   (8.26 - 11.92) 0.005
Maryland 5.31 (4.26 - 6.59) 5.51 (4.33 - 6.98) 0.600
Massachusetts 6.97a (5.71 - 8.47) 8.70   (7.29 - 10.35) 0.001
Michigan 6.98 (6.25 - 7.77) 7.48 (6.69 - 8.35) 0.153
Minnesota 7.17a (5.87 - 8.72) 6.02 (4.88 - 7.41) 0.012
Mississippi 4.38 (3.47 - 5.53) 4.48 (3.52 - 5.69) 0.767
Missouri 5.30b (4.28 - 6.55) 5.96 (4.80 - 7.38) 0.088
Montana 8.29 (6.86 - 9.99) 8.05 (6.64 - 9.73) 0.680
Nebraska 4.80 (3.84 - 5.98) 5.28 (4.27 - 6.51) 0.162
Nevada 6.08 (4.80 - 7.66) 6.78 (5.44 - 8.41) 0.134
New Hampshire 8.99   (7.60 - 10.61) 9.61   (8.06 - 11.43) 0.317
New Jersey 4.76 (3.80 - 5.94) 4.92 (3.95 - 6.11) 0.629
New Mexico 5.89 (4.73 - 7.32) 6.24 (5.01 - 7.75) 0.483
New York 6.85a (6.14 - 7.64) 7.65 (6.88 - 8.49) 0.010
North Carolina 5.92 (4.80 - 7.28) 6.21 (5.02 - 7.65) 0.465
North Dakota 4.98 (4.00 - 6.18) 4.64 (3.69 - 5.81) 0.361
Ohio 5.68 (5.04 - 6.40) 5.77 (5.13 - 6.49) 0.713
Oklahoma 4.68a (3.65 - 5.97) 5.53 (4.32 - 7.06) 0.032
Oregon 8.55   (7.01 - 10.39) 9.36   (7.76 - 11.25) 0.219
Pennsylvania 4.99a (4.39 - 5.67) 5.67 (5.01 - 6.42) 0.007
Rhode Island 11.03   (9.38 - 12.94) 10.13   (8.44 - 12.11) 0.167
South Carolina 4.94a (3.94 - 6.18) 5.95 (4.77 - 7.39) 0.009
South Dakota 5.16 (4.11 - 6.46) 4.98 (3.96 - 6.24) 0.660
Tennessee 5.80 (4.72 - 7.11) 5.44 (4.41 - 6.71) 0.334
Texas 4.26 (3.72 - 4.88) 4.58 (4.04 - 5.17) 0.144
Utah 4.18a (3.27 - 5.31) 3.44 (2.64 - 4.49) 0.038
Vermont 10.09   (8.49 - 11.96) 10.96   (9.25 - 12.94) 0.200
Virginia 5.66 (4.61 - 6.94) 5.23 (4.20 - 6.49) 0.207
Washington 7.36 (5.97 - 9.03) 7.15 (5.78 - 8.81) 0.666
West Virginia 4.67a (3.73 - 5.82) 5.47 (4.43 - 6.74) 0.029
Wisconsin 6.30 (5.18 - 7.65) 6.09 (4.97 - 7.44) 0.569
Wyoming 5.40 (4.38 - 6.64) 5.19 (4.16 - 6.46) 0.595
130115
Table 4 – Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Once a Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 38.08a (37.48 - 38.69) 36.18 (35.59 - 36.78) 0.000
Northeast 35.51a (34.42 - 36.60) 33.26 (32.14 - 34.39) 0.000
Midwest 36.51a (35.69 - 37.34) 34.37 (33.52 - 35.22) 0.000
South 42.13a (41.27 - 42.99) 40.53 (39.62 - 41.45) 0.000
West 35.28a (34.15 - 36.42) 33.36 (32.25 - 34.49) 0.000
Alabama 44.67a (41.30 - 48.10) 41.31 (37.92 - 44.78) 0.014
Alaska 29.98b (26.82 - 33.35) 27.76 (24.80 - 30.93) 0.069
Arizona 38.74a (35.46 - 42.12) 35.52 (32.15 - 39.03) 0.019
Arkansas 40.96 (37.65 - 44.36) 40.12 (36.69 - 43.66) 0.557
California 36.95a (35.16 - 38.78) 35.25 (33.51 - 37.03) 0.028
Colorado 28.59 (25.80 - 31.56) 26.90 (23.76 - 30.30) 0.172
Connecticut 36.62a (33.46 - 39.89) 33.63 (30.22 - 37.23) 0.029
Delaware 37.37a (34.06 - 40.81) 33.91 (30.48 - 37.52) 0.012
District of Columbia 31.29 (28.08 - 34.68) 29.32 (26.16 - 32.70) 0.138
Florida 43.35 (41.47 - 45.25) 43.03 (41.11 - 44.98) 0.716
Georgia 38.26b (35.01 - 41.63) 35.91 (32.41 - 39.56) 0.082
Hawaii 37.18b (33.49 - 41.02) 34.21 (30.89 - 37.69) 0.052
Idaho 37.18a (34.30 - 40.16) 33.61 (30.54 - 36.82) 0.005
Illinois 38.57a (36.78 - 40.39) 36.41 (34.63 - 38.24) 0.006
Indiana 38.22a (35.08 - 41.46) 35.55 (32.49 - 38.74) 0.039
Iowa 38.01a (34.97 - 41.14) 35.22 (32.20 - 38.36) 0.042
Kansas 38.46 (35.25 - 41.77) 37.06 (33.70 - 40.55) 0.313
Kentucky 43.30 (39.96 - 46.70) 41.66 (38.26 - 45.14) 0.207
Louisiana 44.21 (40.80 - 47.67) 42.25 (39.00 - 45.56) 0.154
Maine 29.82 (26.60 - 33.25) 28.13 (25.06 - 31.41) 0.225
Maryland 36.19 (32.95 - 39.57) 34.87 (31.02 - 38.92) 0.388
Massachusetts 27.59 (24.70 - 30.67) 25.70 (22.79 - 28.85) 0.140
Michigan 34.41a (32.68 - 36.18) 31.59 (29.86 - 33.37) 0.000
Minnesota 30.34 (27.29 - 33.58) 28.45 (25.53 - 31.56) 0.126
Mississippi 49.53 (46.20 - 52.87) 48.02 (44.53 - 51.52) 0.296
Missouri 36.80 (33.77 - 39.93) 36.21 (32.87 - 39.69) 0.673
Montana 31.92 (28.99 - 35.00) 31.17 (27.91 - 34.62) 0.579
Nebraska 40.68a (37.44 - 44.01) 36.76 (33.49 - 40.15) 0.003
Nevada 36.81 (33.38 - 40.38) 35.49 (31.94 - 39.20) 0.345
New Hampshire 25.91 (23.02 - 29.03) 25.58 (22.63 - 28.77) 0.791
New Jersey 39.77b (36.23 - 43.42) 36.99 (33.36 - 40.76) 0.051
New Mexico 40.89 (37.62 - 44.25) 39.91 (36.52 - 43.41) 0.483
New York 36.61a (34.73 - 38.54) 34.69 (32.81 - 36.61) 0.019
North Carolina 38.94a (35.68 - 42.30) 34.52 (31.27 - 37.92) 0.001
North Dakota 37.54 (34.48 - 40.70) 35.89 (32.78 - 39.11) 0.192
Ohio 36.95a (35.13 - 38.80) 34.31 (32.44 - 36.24) 0.003
Oklahoma 42.82a (39.42 - 46.30) 37.72 (34.01 - 41.57) 0.001
Oregon 28.48 (25.38 - 31.79) 26.68 (23.62 - 29.98) 0.135
Pennsylvania 36.96a (35.09 - 38.87) 34.55 (32.59 - 36.57) 0.011
Rhode Island 32.68a (29.61 - 35.90) 28.47 (25.19 - 32.00) 0.002
South Carolina 41.24 (38.06 - 44.49) 40.92 (37.44 - 44.50) 0.822
South Dakota 38.10 (34.93 - 41.38) 38.21 (34.93 - 41.59) 0.936
Tennessee 43.02a (39.91 - 46.18) 39.89 (36.40 - 43.48) 0.026
Texas 45.78 (44.02 - 47.55) 45.19 (43.23 - 47.16) 0.481
Utah 40.47a (37.28 - 43.75) 37.45 (34.40 - 40.60) 0.021
Vermont 28.23a (25.12 - 31.55) 25.35 (22.27 - 28.69) 0.025
Virginia 35.69 (32.42 - 39.10) 35.00 (31.68 - 38.47) 0.599
Washington 27.67 (24.86 - 30.66) 25.98 (23.04 - 29.16) 0.158
West Virginia 44.15 (40.74 - 47.61) 44.59 (41.07 - 48.16) 0.765
Wisconsin 34.91 (31.68 - 38.28) 33.83 (30.56 - 37.27) 0.434
Wyoming 36.73 (33.42 - 40.17) 35.19 (31.76 - 38.77) 0.238
130115
Table 5 – First Use of Marijuana among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Average Annual Rates and P Values from Tests of Differences between Rates, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: The State and census region Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals presented above use a simultaneous solution for the First Use of Marijuana and Never Used Marijuana outcomes, which had age group-specific random effects that were allowed to be correlated across the two outcomes. The associated Markov Chain Monte Carlo chains were used to calculate the posterior variance. Their p values are the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. For "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Average annual marijuana initiation rate = 100 × {[X1 ÷ (0.5 × X1 + X2)] ÷ 2}, where X1 is the number of marijuana initiates in the past 24 months and X2 is the number of persons who never used marijuana. Both of the computation components, X1 and X2, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach. Note that the age group is based on a respondent's age at the time of the interview, not his or her age at first use.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 0.99a (0.93 - 1.06) 1.07 (1.01 - 1.13) 0.017
Northeast 1.01a (0.92 - 1.11) 1.12 (1.02 - 1.22) 0.017
Midwest 1.05b (0.96 - 1.13) 1.12 (1.04 - 1.20) 0.083
South 0.88a (0.80 - 0.96) 0.95 (0.88 - 1.03) 0.048
West 1.13 (1.03 - 1.25) 1.18 (1.07 - 1.30) 0.367
Alabama 0.75b (0.60 - 0.93) 0.87 (0.72 - 1.06) 0.087
Alaska 1.32 (1.07 - 1.64) 1.34 (1.08 - 1.66) 0.923
Arizona 0.97 (0.79 - 1.19) 0.95 (0.77 - 1.17) 0.831
Arkansas 0.92 (0.75 - 1.12) 0.95 (0.78 - 1.16) 0.719
California 1.18 (1.04 - 1.35) 1.23 (1.08 - 1.40) 0.558
Colorado 1.38 (1.11 - 1.71) 1.38 (1.12 - 1.70) 0.983
Connecticut 1.02a (0.84 - 1.25) 1.23 (1.01 - 1.50) 0.039
Delaware 1.13b (0.92 - 1.40) 1.32 (1.09 - 1.59) 0.092
District of Columbia 1.65 (1.34 - 2.03) 1.68 (1.39 - 2.03) 0.800
Florida 0.77 (0.67 - 0.89) 0.83 (0.72 - 0.95) 0.286
Georgia 1.00b (0.81 - 1.22) 1.17 (0.96 - 1.42) 0.055
Hawaii 1.00 (0.78 - 1.27) 1.01 (0.80 - 1.28) 0.908
Idaho 0.89a (0.71 - 1.10) 1.14 (0.94 - 1.38) 0.008
Illinois 1.02 (0.90 - 1.16) 1.07 (0.95 - 1.22) 0.438
Indiana 1.04 (0.86 - 1.26) 1.05 (0.87 - 1.26) 0.951
Iowa 0.83 (0.67 - 1.03) 0.95 (0.78 - 1.17) 0.173
Kansas 1.02 (0.83 - 1.26) 1.06 (0.86 - 1.30) 0.678
Kentucky 0.89 (0.72 - 1.09) 0.86 (0.70 - 1.04) 0.632
Louisiana 0.93 (0.75 - 1.16) 0.91 (0.74 - 1.11) 0.761
Maine 1.05 (0.86 - 1.29) 1.09 (0.90 - 1.32) 0.667
Maryland 1.09 (0.90 - 1.33) 1.17 (0.95 - 1.44) 0.431
Massachusetts 1.30 (1.05 - 1.61) 1.42 (1.17 - 1.73) 0.291
Michigan 1.18a (1.04 - 1.34) 1.33 (1.18 - 1.50) 0.045
Minnesota 1.21 (0.98 - 1.48) 1.20 (0.99 - 1.45) 0.936
Mississippi 0.79 (0.64 - 0.97) 0.88 (0.72 - 1.07) 0.211
Missouri 0.95 (0.78 - 1.17) 1.02 (0.84 - 1.24) 0.413
Montana 1.10 (0.90 - 1.34) 1.25 (1.03 - 1.51) 0.155
Nebraska 0.86a (0.69 - 1.09) 1.05 (0.86 - 1.29) 0.050
Nevada 0.89 (0.72 - 1.11) 0.91 (0.74 - 1.11) 0.858
New Hampshire 1.47 (1.19 - 1.81) 1.44 (1.19 - 1.75) 0.824
New Jersey 0.77a (0.62 - 0.95) 0.96 (0.78 - 1.17) 0.021
New Mexico 1.10 (0.88 - 1.37) 1.09 (0.88 - 1.35) 0.881
New York 1.03 (0.90 - 1.18) 1.12 (0.99 - 1.27) 0.183
North Carolina 0.93 (0.76 - 1.14) 0.96 (0.78 - 1.17) 0.728
North Dakota 1.17 (0.96 - 1.43) 1.15 (0.94 - 1.40) 0.796
Ohio 1.03 (0.90 - 1.17) 1.10 (0.97 - 1.24) 0.280
Oklahoma 0.85 (0.68 - 1.06) 0.91 (0.74 - 1.12) 0.493
Oregon 1.33 (1.09 - 1.61) 1.39 (1.13 - 1.71) 0.576
Pennsylvania 0.92 (0.80 - 1.06) 1.01 (0.87 - 1.16) 0.219
Rhode Island 1.53 (1.24 - 1.89) 1.40 (1.13 - 1.73) 0.288
South Carolina 0.80b (0.65 - 0.99) 0.93 (0.76 - 1.13) 0.100
South Dakota 0.99 (0.81 - 1.21) 1.01 (0.83 - 1.22) 0.835
Tennessee 0.79 (0.64 - 0.97) 0.81 (0.67 - 0.99) 0.734
Texas 0.84b (0.72 - 0.97) 0.95 (0.84 - 1.08) 0.063
Utah 0.71 (0.54 - 0.93) 0.82 (0.63 - 1.05) 0.264
Vermont 1.42 (1.17 - 1.72) 1.56 (1.28 - 1.89) 0.272
Virginia 1.13 (0.92 - 1.38) 1.20 (1.00 - 1.45) 0.457
Washington 1.10 (0.90 - 1.35) 1.24 (1.01 - 1.51) 0.207
West Virginia 0.70 (0.57 - 0.87) 0.72 (0.59 - 0.88) 0.822
Wisconsin 1.06 (0.87 - 1.29) 1.17 (0.96 - 1.42) 0.239
Wyoming 1.07 (0.87 - 1.31) 1.15 (0.94 - 1.39) 0.420
130115
Table 6 – Illicit Drug Use Other Than Marijuana in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs Other Than Marijuana include cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 3.48 (3.31 - 3.66) 3.44 (3.27 - 3.61) 0.637
Northeast 3.25 (2.93 - 3.60) 3.42 (3.10 - 3.77) 0.219
Midwest 3.25 (3.00 - 3.52) 3.15 (2.91 - 3.41) 0.328
South 3.43 (3.17 - 3.71) 3.33 (3.10 - 3.59) 0.402
West 3.97 (3.59 - 4.38) 3.89 (3.50 - 4.31) 0.662
Alabama 3.69 (2.78 - 4.89) 3.71 (2.83 - 4.87) 0.950
Alaska 3.83 (2.84 - 5.15) 3.76 (2.81 - 5.01) 0.843
Arizona 4.28 (3.24 - 5.61) 4.07 (2.97 - 5.56) 0.648
Arkansas 4.26b (3.25 - 5.56) 3.61 (2.71 - 4.80) 0.057
California 3.86 (3.27 - 4.55) 3.88 (3.28 - 4.57) 0.951
Colorado 4.50a (3.45 - 5.86) 3.56 (2.69 - 4.71) 0.024
Connecticut 3.14 (2.34 - 4.19) 3.30 (2.46 - 4.43) 0.510
Delaware 4.23 (3.19 - 5.58) 3.88 (2.89 - 5.19) 0.333
District of Columbia 4.59 (3.43 - 6.13) 3.98 (2.97 - 5.30) 0.105
Florida 3.40 (2.86 - 4.04) 3.29 (2.73 - 3.95) 0.640
Georgia 2.97 (2.19 - 4.03) 3.02 (2.22 - 4.11) 0.847
Hawaii 4.13b (2.96 - 5.74) 5.09 (3.74 - 6.89) 0.082
Idaho 3.38 (2.55 - 4.46) 3.70 (2.79 - 4.89) 0.329
Illinois 2.87 (2.40 - 3.43) 3.13 (2.64 - 3.71) 0.167
Indiana 4.03 (3.08 - 5.25) 3.77 (2.82 - 5.03) 0.461
Iowa 1.66 (1.14 - 2.42) 1.82 (1.25 - 2.65) 0.433
Kansas 3.38 (2.48 - 4.58) 3.21 (2.35 - 4.37) 0.528
Kentucky 4.32 (3.32 - 5.61) 3.89 (2.93 - 5.15) 0.210
Louisiana 3.80 (2.84 - 5.06) 3.75 (2.84 - 4.95) 0.905
Maine 2.88b (2.13 - 3.88) 3.34 (2.51 - 4.44) 0.088
Maryland 3.19b (2.35 - 4.32) 2.70 (1.91 - 3.81) 0.087
Massachusetts 3.32a (2.45 - 4.48) 4.05 (3.10 - 5.27) 0.015
Michigan 3.43 (2.93 - 4.01) 3.72 (3.20 - 4.32) 0.184
Minnesota 2.95 (2.20 - 3.94) 2.71 (2.00 - 3.67) 0.335
Mississippi 2.94 (2.16 - 3.98) 2.94 (2.16 - 4.00) 0.991
Missouri 3.79a (2.89 - 4.97) 3.02 (2.22 - 4.08) 0.010
Montana 3.79 (2.89 - 4.97) 3.35 (2.50 - 4.48) 0.146
Nebraska 2.73 (2.01 - 3.68) 2.66 (1.96 - 3.59) 0.778
Nevada 4.31 (3.19 - 5.81) 4.74 (3.52 - 6.34) 0.407
New Hampshire 3.46a (2.60 - 4.58) 4.17 (3.21 - 5.40) 0.035
New Jersey 2.63 (1.92 - 3.59) 2.70 (1.96 - 3.69) 0.794
New Mexico 3.33 (2.46 - 4.49) 3.61 (2.66 - 4.88) 0.410
New York 3.50 (2.94 - 4.15) 3.63 (3.07 - 4.28) 0.588
North Carolina 3.39 (2.54 - 4.51) 3.53 (2.65 - 4.69) 0.647
North Dakota 2.14 (1.53 - 2.98) 1.95 (1.38 - 2.75) 0.355
Ohio 3.17 (2.70 - 3.72) 3.09 (2.61 - 3.65) 0.652
Oklahoma 4.76 (3.61 - 6.24) 4.96 (3.76 - 6.53) 0.661
Oregon 5.44 (4.19 - 7.04) 4.84 (3.73 - 6.26) 0.201
Pennsylvania 3.03 (2.54 - 3.62) 3.03 (2.51 - 3.65) 0.985
Rhode Island 5.98 (4.62 - 7.72) 5.49 (4.19 - 7.18) 0.361
South Carolina 2.94a (2.17 - 3.98) 4.00 (2.85 - 5.57) 0.012
South Dakota 2.17 (1.59 - 2.95) 2.05 (1.42 - 2.94) 0.592
Tennessee 4.23a (3.26 - 5.48) 3.47 (2.58 - 4.64) 0.032
Texas 3.11 (2.61 - 3.70) 3.06 (2.60 - 3.60) 0.784
Utah 2.93a (2.20 - 3.88) 3.63 (2.83 - 4.66) 0.012
Vermont 3.91 (3.01 - 5.05) 3.88 (2.98 - 5.03) 0.939
Virginia 2.98b (2.21 - 4.02) 2.52 (1.81 - 3.49) 0.059
Washington 3.66 (2.78 - 4.82) 3.31 (2.44 - 4.48) 0.308
West Virginia 3.72b (2.84 - 4.85) 4.38 (3.32 - 5.75) 0.069
Wisconsin 4.05a (3.07 - 5.32) 3.26 (2.43 - 4.35) 0.010
Wyoming 2.78 (2.09 - 3.70) 2.57 (1.87 - 3.52) 0.422
130115
Table 7 – Cocaine Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 2.31a (2.18 - 2.45) 2.11 (1.99 - 2.24) 0.005
Northeast 2.42 (2.15 - 2.73) 2.52 (2.25 - 2.81) 0.422
Midwest 2.15a (1.94 - 2.39) 1.90 (1.70 - 2.12) 0.005
South 2.19a (1.97 - 2.43) 1.90 (1.72 - 2.11) 0.002
West 2.56a (2.27 - 2.89) 2.31 (2.04 - 2.61) 0.049
Alabama 1.61 (1.09 - 2.38) 1.45 (0.95 - 2.21) 0.346
Alaska 3.24 (2.30 - 4.55) 3.18 (2.28 - 4.42) 0.881
Arizona 3.22a (2.33 - 4.45) 2.44 (1.74 - 3.42) 0.009
Arkansas 2.14a (1.48 - 3.07) 1.49 (0.98 - 2.26) 0.003
California 2.35 (1.93 - 2.85) 2.20 (1.81 - 2.68) 0.426
Colorado 3.82 (2.85 - 5.11) 3.47 (2.58 - 4.66) 0.383
Connecticut 2.34 (1.66 - 3.29) 2.14 (1.48 - 3.08) 0.401
Delaware 2.81 (1.99 - 3.95) 2.52 (1.76 - 3.59) 0.308
District of Columbia 4.48 (3.19 - 6.26) 4.01 (2.84 - 5.63) 0.408
Florida 2.05 (1.64 - 2.55) 1.88 (1.50 - 2.35) 0.298
Georgia 2.20a (1.49 - 3.22) 1.60 (1.04 - 2.45) 0.005
Hawaii 2.18 (1.46 - 3.24) 1.81 (1.18 - 2.78) 0.186
Idaho 1.50 (1.02 - 2.19) 1.31 (0.89 - 1.94) 0.235
Illinois 2.18 (1.78 - 2.68) 2.01 (1.61 - 2.50) 0.277
Indiana 2.28a (1.64 - 3.18) 1.72 (1.17 - 2.53) 0.012
Iowa 1.21 (0.80 - 1.83) 1.11 (0.74 - 1.67) 0.474
Kansas 1.78 (1.22 - 2.59) 1.57 (1.06 - 2.31) 0.258
Kentucky 1.90a (1.34 - 2.69) 1.40 (0.95 - 2.06) 0.004
Louisiana 2.83 (1.99 - 4.01) 2.51 (1.75 - 3.59) 0.250
Maine 2.52 (1.83 - 3.46) 2.42 (1.74 - 3.35) 0.690
Maryland 2.21a (1.49 - 3.25) 1.64 (1.03 - 2.61) 0.018
Massachusetts 2.23 (1.56 - 3.18) 2.58 (1.87 - 3.54) 0.213
Michigan 2.25 (1.85 - 2.74) 2.11 (1.73 - 2.57) 0.351
Minnesota 2.41a (1.71 - 3.39) 1.84 (1.27 - 2.66) 0.009
Mississippi 1.34 (0.86 - 2.09) 1.45 (0.94 - 2.23) 0.516
Missouri 2.08 (1.45 - 2.98) 2.12 (1.48 - 3.02) 0.858
Montana 2.36 (1.74 - 3.20) 2.44 (1.77 - 3.36) 0.711
Nebraska 1.49 (1.02 - 2.17) 1.62 (1.13 - 2.33) 0.407
Nevada 2.55 (1.77 - 3.67) 2.43 (1.70 - 3.46) 0.644
New Hampshire 2.27a (1.64 - 3.13) 2.91 (2.13 - 3.95) 0.027
New Jersey 1.77 (1.20 - 2.63) 1.81 (1.22 - 2.68) 0.853
New Mexico 2.07 (1.44 - 2.95) 2.26 (1.61 - 3.17) 0.432
New York 2.75 (2.26 - 3.33) 2.83 (2.36 - 3.38) 0.710
North Carolina 2.75b (1.94 - 3.89) 2.22 (1.54 - 3.21) 0.056
North Dakota 1.48 (1.02 - 2.14) 1.24 (0.83 - 1.85) 0.150
Ohio 1.96a (1.59 - 2.41) 1.54 (1.22 - 1.93) 0.006
Oklahoma 1.56 (1.06 - 2.29) 1.54 (1.02 - 2.32) 0.928
Oregon 3.38a (2.51 - 4.54) 2.77 (2.05 - 3.73) 0.036
Pennsylvania 2.28 (1.86 - 2.79) 2.39 (1.92 - 2.97) 0.550
Rhode Island 4.38 (3.23 - 5.90) 4.15 (3.04 - 5.65) 0.637
South Carolina 2.47 (1.76 - 3.45) 2.95 (2.02 - 4.29) 0.104
South Dakota 1.34 (0.90 - 1.99) 1.20 (0.79 - 1.81) 0.345
Tennessee 2.55a (1.84 - 3.52) 1.64 (1.12 - 2.41) 0.000
Texas 2.05 (1.66 - 2.53) 1.98 (1.62 - 2.42) 0.656
Utah 1.87a (1.31 - 2.67) 1.47 (1.00 - 2.14) 0.046
Vermont 3.17 (2.37 - 4.22) 3.19 (2.39 - 4.24) 0.944
Virginia 2.24b (1.57 - 3.18) 1.83 (1.23 - 2.72) 0.068
Washington 2.40 (1.74 - 3.30) 2.17 (1.53 - 3.06) 0.344
West Virginia 2.63 (1.94 - 3.57) 2.65 (1.91 - 3.66) 0.954
Wisconsin 3.08 (2.24 - 4.22) 2.87 (2.08 - 3.95) 0.510
Wyoming 1.81 (1.29 - 2.54) 1.49 (1.01 - 2.20) 0.164
130115
Table 8 – Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 4.72 (4.54 - 4.91) 4.67 (4.49 - 4.86) 0.617
Northeast 4.10b (3.77 - 4.45) 4.35 (4.01 - 4.72) 0.076
Midwest 4.72 (4.44 - 5.03) 4.62 (4.35 - 4.91) 0.412
South 4.68 (4.39 - 4.98) 4.61 (4.33 - 4.90) 0.600
West 5.30 (4.86 - 5.77) 5.08 (4.67 - 5.52) 0.282
Alabama 5.15 (4.17 - 6.36) 4.83 (3.87 - 6.02) 0.374
Alaska 4.97 (3.83 - 6.41) 5.02 (3.99 - 6.30) 0.895
Arizona 5.86 (4.60 - 7.43) 5.81 (4.58 - 7.35) 0.930
Arkansas 6.15a (4.98 - 7.57) 4.81 (3.82 - 6.04) 0.004
California 4.98 (4.34 - 5.71) 4.53 (3.94 - 5.20) 0.104
Colorado 5.48 (4.35 - 6.89) 5.49 (4.39 - 6.85) 0.977
Connecticut 3.73 (2.95 - 4.70) 3.65 (2.81 - 4.73) 0.798
Delaware 5.01 (3.96 - 6.31) 5.47 (4.37 - 6.84) 0.282
District of Columbia 3.85 (2.97 - 4.98) 3.60 (2.73 - 4.73) 0.461
Florida 3.87 (3.32 - 4.51) 3.96 (3.41 - 4.60) 0.722
Georgia 5.03 (3.99 - 6.32) 4.45 (3.55 - 5.57) 0.102
Hawaii 4.40 (3.30 - 5.85) 4.99 (3.79 - 6.54) 0.262
Idaho 5.38 (4.36 - 6.63) 5.59 (4.53 - 6.88) 0.610
Illinois 3.72 (3.21 - 4.30) 3.94 (3.41 - 4.55) 0.298
Indiana 5.86 (4.74 - 7.23) 5.40 (4.36 - 6.67) 0.282
Iowa 3.06 (2.33 - 4.00) 3.38 (2.61 - 4.38) 0.278
Kansas 4.35 (3.38 - 5.59) 4.71 (3.76 - 5.88) 0.309
Kentucky 6.45 (5.17 - 8.03) 5.83 (4.67 - 7.25) 0.169
Louisiana 5.51 (4.39 - 6.90) 5.16 (4.14 - 6.42) 0.420
Maine 4.20 (3.30 - 5.34) 4.53 (3.57 - 5.72) 0.394
Maryland 3.87 (3.03 - 4.93) 3.82 (2.93 - 4.96) 0.868
Massachusetts 4.98 (3.94 - 6.27) 5.29 (4.26 - 6.56) 0.382
Michigan 5.17 (4.58 - 5.83) 5.51 (4.88 - 6.23) 0.215
Minnesota 4.73 (3.74 - 5.98) 4.21 (3.34 - 5.28) 0.130
Mississippi 4.07 (3.24 - 5.10) 4.31 (3.40 - 5.44) 0.458
Missouri 4.26 (3.39 - 5.34) 4.19 (3.34 - 5.24) 0.825
Montana 5.31 (4.34 - 6.48) 5.10 (4.09 - 6.34) 0.605
Nebraska 3.09 (2.34 - 4.07) 3.33 (2.60 - 4.26) 0.385
Nevada 6.05 (4.76 - 7.66) 5.55 (4.42 - 6.95) 0.307
New Hampshire 5.15b (4.19 - 6.32) 5.84 (4.77 - 7.13) 0.097
New Jersey 3.42 (2.64 - 4.42) 3.66 (2.84 - 4.71) 0.409
New Mexico 5.13 (3.95 - 6.64) 5.33 (4.15 - 6.81) 0.696
New York 3.92 (3.39 - 4.53) 4.28 (3.72 - 4.92) 0.130
North Carolina 4.36 (3.41 - 5.56) 4.76 (3.78 - 5.99) 0.273
North Dakota 3.70 (2.89 - 4.72) 3.68 (2.91 - 4.63) 0.943
Ohio 5.32 (4.74 - 5.97) 5.27 (4.65 - 5.96) 0.848
Oklahoma 6.66a (5.38 - 8.20) 8.01 (6.40 - 9.99) 0.041
Oregon 6.43 (5.22 - 7.89) 6.61 (5.33 - 8.16) 0.740
Pennsylvania 4.16 (3.62 - 4.78) 4.31 (3.71 - 5.00) 0.585
Rhode Island 6.30 (5.08 - 7.78) 6.06 (4.87 - 7.52) 0.645
South Carolina 4.07 (3.20 - 5.16) 4.47 (3.52 - 5.66) 0.271
South Dakota 3.12b (2.42 - 4.02) 3.60 (2.82 - 4.58) 0.096
Tennessee 6.39a (5.19 - 7.85) 4.68 (3.70 - 5.90) 0.000
Texas 4.17 (3.63 - 4.79) 4.42 (3.85 - 5.07) 0.313
Utah 4.70 (3.76 - 5.87) 5.14 (4.18 - 6.32) 0.231
Vermont 4.50 (3.59 - 5.62) 4.49 (3.55 - 5.66) 0.985
Virginia 4.66 (3.69 - 5.87) 4.37 (3.43 - 5.56) 0.427
Washington 5.97 (4.86 - 7.31) 5.91 (4.75 - 7.32) 0.894
West Virginia 4.78a (3.83 - 5.95) 5.77 (4.64 - 7.16) 0.020
Wisconsin 6.11a (4.92 - 7.58) 4.54 (3.62 - 5.68) 0.000
Wyoming 3.88 (3.05 - 4.94) 3.58 (2.78 - 4.61) 0.365
130115
Table 9 – Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 55.42 (54.81 - 56.04) 55.78 (55.17 - 56.39) 0.260
Northeast 60.25 (59.06 - 61.44) 60.71 (59.31 - 62.09) 0.443
Midwest 58.51 (57.54 - 59.47) 58.55 (57.33 - 59.75) 0.936
South 51.10 (50.14 - 52.05) 51.47 (50.27 - 52.66) 0.459
West 55.41 (54.16 - 56.66) 56.01 (54.61 - 57.41) 0.330
Alabama 43.43a (40.01 - 46.92) 46.22 (42.75 - 49.74) 0.033
Alaska 60.03 (56.40 - 63.54) 59.54 (56.05 - 62.94) 0.715
Arizona 57.04 (53.52 - 60.49) 55.29 (51.63 - 58.90) 0.193
Arkansas 46.32 (42.92 - 49.76) 46.36 (42.80 - 49.95) 0.980
California 53.92 (51.95 - 55.87) 54.92 (52.93 - 56.90) 0.263
Colorado 66.74 (63.39 - 69.93) 66.60 (63.23 - 69.81) 0.916
Connecticut 65.63 (62.25 - 68.86) 63.73 (60.11 - 67.21) 0.173
Delaware 59.53 (55.75 - 63.21) 60.52 (56.76 - 64.15) 0.504
District of Columbia 64.05 (60.64 - 67.32) 65.04 (61.58 - 68.35) 0.429
Florida 56.19 (54.30 - 58.07) 54.88 (52.80 - 56.94) 0.154
Georgia 52.14 (48.63 - 55.64) 53.06 (49.47 - 56.61) 0.504
Hawaii 51.77 (48.04 - 55.48) 51.81 (48.27 - 55.33) 0.978
Idaho 46.21a (42.88 - 49.57) 49.68 (46.36 - 53.00) 0.017
Illinois 59.09 (57.19 - 60.96) 58.72 (56.74 - 60.67) 0.656
Indiana 53.16 (49.59 - 56.69) 51.85 (48.41 - 55.27) 0.344
Iowa 58.19a (54.94 - 61.36) 60.87 (57.60 - 64.05) 0.044
Kansas 55.32a (51.66 - 58.91) 58.18 (54.49 - 61.78) 0.044
Kentucky 43.28 (39.83 - 46.81) 41.52 (38.06 - 45.07) 0.203
Louisiana 51.53 (48.02 - 55.03) 52.02 (48.63 - 55.38) 0.711
Maine 56.06b (52.47 - 59.58) 58.97 (55.36 - 62.49) 0.057
Maryland 59.69 (56.22 - 63.06) 58.62 (54.54 - 62.59) 0.480
Massachusetts 65.49 (62.03 - 68.79) 65.97 (62.55 - 69.23) 0.720
Michigan 59.08 (57.20 - 60.93) 59.17 (57.20 - 61.11) 0.917
Minnesota 67.71 (64.34 - 70.89) 65.90 (62.38 - 69.24) 0.160
Mississippi 41.31b (37.87 - 44.84) 43.68 (40.19 - 47.23) 0.078
Missouri 54.23 (50.92 - 57.50) 54.09 (50.37 - 57.77) 0.924
Montana 62.21 (58.77 - 65.53) 62.97 (59.17 - 66.62) 0.604
Nebraska 60.12 (56.44 - 63.69) 57.99 (54.53 - 61.37) 0.140
Nevada 56.09b (52.23 - 59.87) 58.85 (54.94 - 62.66) 0.067
New Hampshire 67.94 (64.63 - 71.08) 68.85 (65.51 - 72.01) 0.469
New Jersey 58.35 (54.49 - 62.11) 58.39 (54.40 - 62.27) 0.980
New Mexico 49.34 (45.78 - 52.91) 51.15 (47.67 - 54.61) 0.194
New York 59.30 (57.34 - 61.24) 59.75 (57.64 - 61.83) 0.628
North Carolina 48.84b (45.33 - 52.37) 51.15 (47.69 - 54.60) 0.094
North Dakota 63.53 (60.13 - 66.80) 61.71 (58.40 - 64.92) 0.225
Ohio 55.22 (53.42 - 57.00) 55.67 (53.67 - 57.66) 0.602
Oklahoma 45.10a (41.45 - 48.79) 49.13 (45.30 - 52.96) 0.007
Oregon 63.37 (59.75 - 66.85) 64.00 (60.48 - 67.38) 0.651
Pennsylvania 57.72 (55.73 - 59.68) 59.01 (56.84 - 61.14) 0.175
Rhode Island 65.85 (62.49 - 69.06) 64.10 (60.57 - 67.49) 0.196
South Carolina 50.34 (46.87 - 53.80) 49.46 (45.83 - 53.08) 0.549
South Dakota 61.63 (58.34 - 64.82) 62.41 (58.96 - 65.74) 0.545
Tennessee 43.46 (40.07 - 46.91) 44.18 (40.80 - 47.62) 0.607
Texas 51.13b (49.27 - 52.98) 52.63 (50.67 - 54.58) 0.081
Utah 30.69 (27.57 - 34.00) 30.98 (27.82 - 34.34) 0.846
Vermont 64.80 (61.06 - 68.38) 64.37 (60.75 - 67.84) 0.776
Virginia 57.81a (54.29 - 61.25) 54.75 (51.13 - 58.33) 0.028
Washington 60.97 (57.57 - 64.27) 60.58 (57.13 - 63.92) 0.764
West Virginia 40.65 (37.26 - 44.14) 40.53 (36.91 - 44.25) 0.932
Wisconsin 64.92 (61.50 - 68.20) 66.34 (62.82 - 69.69) 0.286
Wyoming 57.04 (53.50 - 60.51) 58.15 (54.50 - 61.71) 0.452
130115
Table 10 – Binge Alcohol Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Binge Alcohol Use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 24.93 (24.46 - 25.40) 25.14 (24.66 - 25.62) 0.401
Northeast 25.81 (24.94 - 26.70) 26.34 (25.42 - 27.29) 0.188
Midwest 27.73 (27.00 - 28.47) 27.70 (26.99 - 28.43) 0.948
South 23.57 (22.92 - 24.25) 23.66 (22.99 - 24.34) 0.790
West 23.67 (22.78 - 24.59) 24.07 (23.17 - 24.98) 0.329
Alabama 20.41 (18.13 - 22.90) 21.90 (19.55 - 24.45) 0.126
Alaska 26.25 (23.49 - 29.21) 26.10 (23.42 - 28.96) 0.890
Arizona 24.81 (22.30 - 27.50) 24.80 (22.07 - 27.73) 0.986
Arkansas 23.07 (20.63 - 25.70) 21.76 (19.42 - 24.30) 0.172
California 23.16 (21.73 - 24.66) 23.76 (22.37 - 25.21) 0.355
Colorado 28.45 (25.82 - 31.23) 27.91 (25.20 - 30.79) 0.612
Connecticut 27.52 (24.89 - 30.31) 28.53 (25.59 - 31.67) 0.402
Delaware 26.12 (23.42 - 29.02) 27.92 (24.99 - 31.07) 0.127
District of Columbia 31.65 (28.78 - 34.66) 31.36 (28.45 - 34.42) 0.813
Florida 24.14 (22.63 - 25.71) 23.25 (21.81 - 24.74) 0.170
Georgia 23.47 (20.96 - 26.18) 23.12 (20.53 - 25.92) 0.719
Hawaii 24.64 (21.69 - 27.84) 24.38 (21.66 - 27.33) 0.832
Idaho 20.09 (17.89 - 22.49) 21.50 (19.19 - 24.01) 0.128
Illinois 28.64 (27.15 - 30.19) 28.25 (26.80 - 29.76) 0.562
Indiana 24.62 (22.13 - 27.29) 24.49 (22.01 - 27.15) 0.897
Iowa 29.04 (26.46 - 31.77) 30.50 (27.93 - 33.20) 0.181
Kansas 26.61 (23.84 - 29.58) 26.88 (24.24 - 29.69) 0.799
Kentucky 21.01 (18.64 - 23.60) 21.56 (19.09 - 24.26) 0.572
Louisiana 25.64 (23.02 - 28.44) 25.41 (22.90 - 28.10) 0.830
Maine 22.91 (20.46 - 25.56) 23.49 (21.07 - 26.10) 0.580
Maryland 23.96 (21.37 - 26.76) 23.11 (20.32 - 26.15) 0.430
Massachusetts 27.23 (24.61 - 30.02) 26.45 (23.83 - 29.25) 0.450
Michigan 26.22 (24.78 - 27.70) 27.25 (25.80 - 28.75) 0.144
Minnesota 32.14a (29.24 - 35.19) 28.90 (26.22 - 31.73) 0.007
Mississippi 21.56 (19.15 - 24.19) 21.85 (19.41 - 24.50) 0.776
Missouri 25.36 (22.86 - 28.04) 25.85 (23.27 - 28.61) 0.641
Montana 28.45 (25.75 - 31.31) 28.29 (25.46 - 31.31) 0.892
Nebraska 27.06 (24.34 - 29.96) 27.70 (25.03 - 30.55) 0.536
Nevada 25.94b (23.16 - 28.93) 28.13 (25.21 - 31.24) 0.064
New Hampshire 27.46 (24.90 - 30.18) 26.86 (24.22 - 29.68) 0.595
New Jersey 24.23 (21.47 - 27.22) 26.00 (23.25 - 28.96) 0.107
New Mexico 23.31 (20.79 - 26.04) 24.25 (21.65 - 27.05) 0.378
New York 24.68 (23.17 - 26.25) 25.52 (23.99 - 27.13) 0.196
North Carolina 22.87 (20.33 - 25.62) 22.24 (19.83 - 24.84) 0.525
North Dakota 34.79a (31.98 - 37.72) 31.57 (28.97 - 34.30) 0.005
Ohio 27.22 (25.72 - 28.76) 27.01 (25.51 - 28.58) 0.766
Oklahoma 23.11 (20.57 - 25.86) 23.66 (21.10 - 26.41) 0.585
Oregon 24.94 (22.39 - 27.67) 25.44 (22.85 - 28.21) 0.618
Pennsylvania 27.25 (25.75 - 28.80) 27.16 (25.51 - 28.86) 0.901
Rhode Island 29.34 (26.54 - 32.31) 28.94 (26.09 - 31.97) 0.730
South Carolina 23.08 (20.61 - 25.75) 23.41 (20.81 - 26.23) 0.749
South Dakota 30.51 (27.82 - 33.34) 31.79 (28.92 - 34.81) 0.260
Tennessee 19.95 (17.74 - 22.36) 19.97 (17.61 - 22.55) 0.985
Texas 24.96b (23.52 - 26.46) 26.15 (24.69 - 27.67) 0.074
Utah 16.43 (14.24 - 18.87) 15.19 (13.15 - 17.49) 0.209
Vermont 26.66 (24.09 - 29.39) 27.56 (24.85 - 30.46) 0.395
Virginia 25.18 (22.55 - 28.00) 25.21 (22.57 - 28.04) 0.971
Washington 22.48 (20.09 - 25.07) 22.73 (20.38 - 25.27) 0.792
West Virginia 20.34 (18.08 - 22.81) 21.16 (18.80 - 23.74) 0.390
Wisconsin 30.05 (27.22 - 33.03) 30.95 (28.10 - 33.95) 0.466
Wyoming 26.22 (23.56 - 29.06) 24.62 (22.08 - 27.34) 0.136
130115
Table 11 – Perceptions of Great Risk of Having Five or More Drinks of an Alcoholic Beverage Once or Twice a Week among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 42.06 (41.47 - 42.65) 41.96 (41.41 - 42.52) 0.732
Northeast 40.00 (38.89 - 41.13) 39.56 (38.43 - 40.69) 0.392
Midwest 38.69 (37.85 - 39.54) 38.83 (37.97 - 39.71) 0.716
South 44.36 (43.48 - 45.24) 44.32 (43.51 - 45.13) 0.919
West 43.32 (42.22 - 44.42) 43.16 (41.93 - 44.39) 0.770
Alabama 46.12 (42.74 - 49.53) 45.52 (42.43 - 48.64) 0.681
Alaska 38.57a (35.23 - 42.02) 41.26 (38.12 - 44.46) 0.046
Arizona 42.87 (39.58 - 46.22) 44.08 (40.74 - 47.47) 0.383
Arkansas 41.42 (38.27 - 44.64) 43.12 (40.06 - 46.24) 0.206
California 44.06 (42.26 - 45.87) 43.58 (41.69 - 45.49) 0.576
Colorado 38.42b (35.33 - 41.60) 40.98 (37.65 - 44.41) 0.061
Connecticut 40.03 (36.90 - 43.25) 40.89 (37.61 - 44.26) 0.536
Delaware 41.78 (38.43 - 45.21) 40.58 (37.21 - 44.05) 0.389
District of Columbia 41.08 (37.86 - 44.38) 40.22 (36.83 - 43.70) 0.518
Florida 44.34 (42.54 - 46.16) 45.10 (43.32 - 46.88) 0.357
Georgia 44.98 (41.73 - 48.28) 45.59 (42.22 - 49.01) 0.659
Hawaii 41.50 (37.89 - 45.19) 39.47 (36.10 - 42.94) 0.190
Idaho 43.38a (40.37 - 46.45) 40.79 (37.88 - 43.76) 0.042
Illinois 40.67 (38.94 - 42.42) 40.06 (38.30 - 41.85) 0.447
Indiana 39.87 (36.89 - 42.92) 39.95 (36.87 - 43.11) 0.950
Iowa 36.76 (33.85 - 39.77) 35.23 (32.39 - 38.18) 0.238
Kansas 37.71 (34.52 - 41.00) 38.40 (35.41 - 41.48) 0.590
Kentucky 41.91 (38.61 - 45.27) 42.53 (39.45 - 45.68) 0.638
Louisiana 45.60 (42.36 - 48.88) 45.76 (42.68 - 48.86) 0.905
Maine 38.22 (35.04 - 41.51) 37.53 (34.39 - 40.78) 0.625
Maryland 42.52 (39.21 - 45.89) 43.24 (39.49 - 47.08) 0.633
Massachusetts 35.38 (32.19 - 38.69) 35.47 (32.39 - 38.67) 0.945
Michigan 39.38 (37.66 - 41.11) 39.30 (37.62 - 41.01) 0.922
Minnesota 36.53 (33.34 - 39.85) 36.66 (33.48 - 39.96) 0.925
Mississippi 48.37 (45.12 - 51.63) 48.45 (45.26 - 51.65) 0.954
Missouri 39.59 (36.51 - 42.75) 41.45 (38.15 - 44.83) 0.168
Montana 40.18 (37.04 - 43.40) 39.60 (36.45 - 42.85) 0.671
Nebraska 36.36 (33.21 - 39.64) 35.21 (31.97 - 38.59) 0.400
Nevada 46.51 (43.01 - 50.05) 45.52 (41.93 - 49.17) 0.492
New Hampshire 32.82a (29.87 - 35.91) 35.96 (32.74 - 39.31) 0.022
New Jersey 43.80 (40.25 - 47.42) 41.47 (37.95 - 45.08) 0.104
New Mexico 48.55 (45.27 - 51.84) 46.87 (43.46 - 50.31) 0.272
New York 42.40 (40.49 - 44.33) 42.05 (40.21 - 43.91) 0.692
North Carolina 44.73 (41.31 - 48.20) 44.29 (41.30 - 47.33) 0.739
North Dakota 36.51 (33.43 - 39.70) 35.07 (32.16 - 38.09) 0.262
Ohio 39.09 (37.32 - 40.90) 39.49 (37.67 - 41.34) 0.636
Oklahoma 44.54 (41.03 - 48.11) 43.31 (39.65 - 47.04) 0.413
Oregon 38.86 (35.61 - 42.21) 39.16 (35.96 - 42.46) 0.818
Pennsylvania 37.32 (35.46 - 39.22) 37.03 (35.19 - 38.91) 0.740
Rhode Island 38.45 (35.26 - 41.74) 38.23 (35.05 - 41.51) 0.873
South Carolina 44.46 (41.33 - 47.64) 46.23 (42.83 - 49.66) 0.211
South Dakota 35.26 (32.15 - 38.50) 34.69 (31.67 - 37.83) 0.679
Tennessee 45.86a (42.64 - 49.12) 42.76 (39.58 - 46.00) 0.030
Texas 44.71 (42.84 - 46.60) 44.16 (42.33 - 46.00) 0.527
Utah 51.61 (48.24 - 54.95) 50.37 (46.97 - 53.77) 0.418
Vermont 37.07 (33.82 - 40.44) 36.54 (33.47 - 39.72) 0.710
Virginia 42.67 (39.45 - 45.95) 42.02 (38.91 - 45.19) 0.647
Washington 41.55 (38.42 - 44.75) 41.44 (38.35 - 44.60) 0.932
West Virginia 41.25b (38.00 - 44.58) 43.99 (40.68 - 47.35) 0.059
Wisconsin 34.98 (31.93 - 38.16) 36.26 (32.88 - 39.77) 0.331
Wyoming 40.65 (37.39 - 44.00) 39.89 (36.76 - 43.12) 0.585
130115
Table 12 – Tobacco Product Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Tobacco Products include cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (i.e., chewing tobacco or snuff), cigars, or pipe tobacco.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 30.39a (29.85 - 30.94) 29.86 (29.33 - 30.40) 0.041
Northeast 28.09 (27.08 - 29.13) 28.01 (26.99 - 29.06) 0.872
Midwest 33.20b (32.40 - 34.01) 32.45 (31.60 - 33.32) 0.054
South 32.22b (31.43 - 33.02) 31.51 (30.69 - 32.34) 0.062
West 26.67 (25.68 - 27.68) 26.27 (25.28 - 27.29) 0.411
Alabama 34.63 (31.69 - 37.69) 35.08 (32.43 - 37.82) 0.721
Alaska 31.85 (28.97 - 34.88) 31.40 (28.59 - 34.34) 0.711
Arizona 29.85a (27.14 - 32.70) 27.48 (24.76 - 30.38) 0.044
Arkansas 38.13 (35.13 - 41.23) 37.48 (34.47 - 40.59) 0.619
California 24.26 (22.76 - 25.84) 24.35 (22.88 - 25.89) 0.904
Colorado 31.92a (29.04 - 34.95) 28.84 (26.19 - 31.64) 0.014
Connecticut 28.00 (25.38 - 30.78) 26.89 (24.23 - 29.72) 0.370
Delaware 32.23 (29.25 - 35.36) 31.92 (29.09 - 34.88) 0.800
District of Columbia 30.99 (28.11 - 34.03) 28.99 (26.28 - 31.87) 0.106
Florida 30.28a (28.63 - 31.97) 28.33 (26.79 - 29.93) 0.011
Georgia 33.54a (30.51 - 36.71) 30.89 (28.14 - 33.79) 0.028
Hawaii 25.50b (22.80 - 28.42) 23.51 (20.93 - 26.30) 0.097
Idaho 27.04 (24.55 - 29.68) 28.75 (26.30 - 31.34) 0.123
Illinois 31.56 (29.98 - 33.19) 30.87 (29.35 - 32.43) 0.339
Indiana 34.92 (32.06 - 37.90) 33.89 (31.18 - 36.71) 0.384
Iowa 30.57 (27.90 - 33.37) 32.12 (29.51 - 34.85) 0.201
Kansas 32.49 (29.69 - 35.43) 32.67 (29.84 - 35.62) 0.891
Kentucky 40.60 (37.48 - 43.80) 40.31 (37.23 - 43.47) 0.830
Louisiana 33.03 (30.10 - 36.10) 32.96 (30.23 - 35.80) 0.956
Maine 31.65 (28.67 - 34.80) 31.52 (28.68 - 34.51) 0.925
Maryland 26.84 (24.12 - 29.74) 25.46 (22.66 - 28.47) 0.262
Massachusetts 25.74 (23.06 - 28.62) 26.50 (23.96 - 29.20) 0.507
Michigan 32.30 (30.73 - 33.91) 32.45 (30.84 - 34.10) 0.846
Minnesota 31.69a (29.03 - 34.47) 29.20 (26.73 - 31.80) 0.025
Mississippi 33.68 (30.85 - 36.63) 33.92 (31.14 - 36.81) 0.851
Missouri 34.65 (31.87 - 37.54) 34.62 (31.78 - 37.57) 0.981
Montana 31.96 (29.20 - 34.84) 32.78 (30.04 - 35.64) 0.510
Nebraska 30.78 (28.03 - 33.69) 30.85 (28.05 - 33.79) 0.961
Nevada 31.68 (28.61 - 34.91) 30.28 (27.26 - 33.49) 0.323
New Hampshire 28.32 (25.72 - 31.07) 29.76 (27.16 - 32.51) 0.231
New Jersey 27.27 (24.29 - 30.47) 26.42 (23.57 - 29.48) 0.518
New Mexico 28.40 (25.64 - 31.33) 28.26 (25.70 - 30.98) 0.915
New York 25.90 (24.32 - 27.54) 26.00 (24.43 - 27.63) 0.890
North Carolina 33.53 (30.66 - 36.53) 33.38 (30.67 - 36.21) 0.901
North Dakota 31.90 (29.27 - 34.65) 32.07 (29.38 - 34.89) 0.892
Ohio 36.01a (34.43 - 37.62) 34.27 (32.63 - 35.95) 0.023
Oklahoma 35.16 (32.08 - 38.37) 37.14 (33.93 - 40.47) 0.164
Oregon 31.41 (28.65 - 34.31) 31.65 (28.90 - 34.53) 0.840
Pennsylvania 32.62 (30.96 - 34.32) 32.74 (31.00 - 34.52) 0.879
Rhode Island 30.48a (27.70 - 33.40) 27.95 (25.18 - 30.90) 0.028
South Carolina 33.88 (31.03 - 36.84) 33.37 (30.47 - 36.41) 0.700
South Dakota 32.09 (29.49 - 34.81) 33.12 (30.48 - 35.87) 0.384
Tennessee 35.81 (33.05 - 38.66) 35.77 (32.80 - 38.86) 0.979
Texas 29.88 (28.29 - 31.53) 29.15 (27.57 - 30.77) 0.338
Utah 19.24 (16.82 - 21.91) 20.02 (17.62 - 22.66) 0.478
Vermont 30.31 (27.47 - 33.30) 29.07 (26.29 - 32.01) 0.336
Virginia 28.66 (26.05 - 31.43) 29.13 (26.47 - 31.95) 0.674
Washington 28.45 (25.80 - 31.27) 28.44 (25.98 - 31.04) 0.993
West Virginia 38.72 (35.66 - 41.87) 40.43 (37.28 - 43.66) 0.222
Wisconsin 33.58 (30.63 - 36.66) 32.04 (29.33 - 34.88) 0.184
Wyoming 37.04 (34.06 - 40.12) 36.01 (32.97 - 39.16) 0.443
130115
Table 13 – Cigarette Use in the Past Month among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 25.75a (25.23 - 26.27) 25.23 (24.73 - 25.73) 0.037
Northeast 24.00 (23.08 - 24.95) 23.81 (22.84 - 24.80) 0.669
Midwest 27.97 (27.18 - 28.78) 27.33 (26.49 - 28.19) 0.108
South 27.16b (26.39 - 27.94) 26.52 (25.71 - 27.34) 0.089
West 22.80 (21.82 - 23.81) 22.32 (21.36 - 23.31) 0.303
Alabama 28.90 (26.20 - 31.76) 28.60 (26.03 - 31.31) 0.800
Alaska 26.27 (23.56 - 29.18) 26.07 (23.50 - 28.81) 0.860
Arizona 25.59a (23.01 - 28.35) 23.48 (21.17 - 25.96) 0.039
Arkansas 33.10 (30.15 - 36.18) 32.28 (29.49 - 35.19) 0.520
California 20.90 (19.47 - 22.42) 20.71 (19.32 - 22.18) 0.780
Colorado 26.79a (24.16 - 29.60) 23.65 (21.24 - 26.25) 0.004
Connecticut 23.35 (20.97 - 25.91) 22.85 (20.36 - 25.55) 0.644
Delaware 28.14 (25.23 - 31.24) 27.05 (24.38 - 29.91) 0.383
District of Columbia 28.54a (25.76 - 31.50) 25.17 (22.56 - 27.98) 0.004
Florida 25.49b (23.94 - 27.11) 24.03 (22.50 - 25.64) 0.057
Georgia 27.99 (25.36 - 30.79) 26.32 (23.67 - 29.14) 0.147
Hawaii 23.15 (20.33 - 26.23) 21.47 (19.07 - 24.09) 0.159
Idaho 23.19 (20.84 - 25.73) 24.85 (22.54 - 27.32) 0.124
Illinois 26.94 (25.41 - 28.54) 26.60 (25.06 - 28.21) 0.645
Indiana 29.28 (26.69 - 32.02) 28.58 (26.04 - 31.26) 0.533
Iowa 25.18 (22.80 - 27.71) 26.46 (23.99 - 29.09) 0.287
Kansas 26.87 (24.20 - 29.71) 26.63 (24.06 - 29.38) 0.842
Kentucky 34.07 (31.03 - 37.24) 33.98 (31.11 - 36.97) 0.951
Louisiana 28.48 (25.76 - 31.36) 28.62 (26.00 - 31.39) 0.904
Maine 27.83 (25.06 - 30.77) 27.17 (24.51 - 30.01) 0.604
Maryland 22.60 (20.16 - 25.25) 21.15 (18.52 - 24.04) 0.207
Massachusetts 21.10 (18.76 - 23.66) 22.32 (20.00 - 24.82) 0.246
Michigan 27.22 (25.70 - 28.78) 27.89 (26.40 - 29.44) 0.363
Minnesota 26.72b (24.29 - 29.30) 24.96 (22.58 - 27.50) 0.100
Mississippi 27.26 (24.59 - 30.10) 28.34 (25.74 - 31.09) 0.358
Missouri 29.06 (26.42 - 31.84) 27.98 (25.40 - 30.72) 0.352
Montana 24.60 (22.11 - 27.27) 26.14 (23.55 - 28.92) 0.182
Nebraska 26.18 (23.55 - 28.99) 25.91 (23.47 - 28.52) 0.813
Nevada 28.43b (25.25 - 31.83) 26.13 (23.26 - 29.22) 0.088
New Hampshire 23.74 (21.22 - 26.45) 24.74 (22.45 - 27.19) 0.376
New Jersey 23.93 (21.16 - 26.94) 22.32 (19.77 - 25.09) 0.178
New Mexico 24.07 (21.57 - 26.75) 24.15 (21.71 - 26.77) 0.938
New York 22.66 (21.19 - 24.20) 22.66 (21.16 - 24.22) 0.996
North Carolina 28.31 (25.55 - 31.24) 28.30 (25.71 - 31.04) 0.995
North Dakota 26.47 (23.83 - 29.29) 26.14 (23.63 - 28.81) 0.787
Ohio 30.01a (28.48 - 31.59) 28.43 (26.89 - 30.03) 0.034
Oklahoma 29.11 (26.22 - 32.17) 30.11 (27.21 - 33.18) 0.446
Oregon 26.00 (23.36 - 28.83) 26.49 (23.94 - 29.20) 0.669
Pennsylvania 27.28 (25.76 - 28.85) 27.19 (25.56 - 28.88) 0.908
Rhode Island 26.25b (23.58 - 29.12) 24.05 (21.52 - 26.78) 0.057
South Carolina 29.13 (26.46 - 31.95) 28.80 (26.24 - 31.50) 0.786
South Dakota 26.01 (23.47 - 28.72) 26.53 (24.15 - 29.05) 0.642
Tennessee 30.11 (27.41 - 32.94) 30.14 (27.42 - 33.02) 0.977
Texas 25.22 (23.75 - 26.75) 24.27 (22.83 - 25.77) 0.154
Utah 16.72 (14.53 - 19.16) 17.91 (15.66 - 20.40) 0.227
Vermont 23.72 (21.15 - 26.50) 23.64 (21.09 - 26.39) 0.944
Virginia 24.63 (22.09 - 27.35) 24.66 (22.15 - 27.36) 0.977
Washington 24.15 (21.76 - 26.71) 24.38 (22.00 - 26.94) 0.822
West Virginia 30.61 (27.91 - 33.44) 32.42 (29.52 - 35.47) 0.186
Wisconsin 29.11 (26.36 - 32.02) 27.35 (24.84 - 30.01) 0.127
Wyoming 28.83 (26.15 - 31.67) 28.06 (25.46 - 30.81) 0.526
130115
Table 14 – Perceptions of Great Risk of Smoking One or More Packs of Cigarettes per Day among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 74.14a (73.64 - 74.64) 72.74 (72.25 - 73.23) 0.000
Northeast 76.65a (75.68 - 77.60) 74.63 (73.60 - 75.64) 0.000
Midwest 71.08a (70.22 - 71.93) 69.09 (68.17 - 70.00) 0.000
South 73.37a (72.57 - 74.16) 72.60 (71.76 - 73.42) 0.050
West 76.26a (75.20 - 77.29) 74.94 (73.86 - 75.98) 0.009
Alabama 69.02 (66.03 - 71.87) 68.84 (65.80 - 71.73) 0.888
Alaska 71.71 (68.57 - 74.66) 70.96 (67.89 - 73.85) 0.560
Arizona 75.14 (72.20 - 77.86) 73.18 (69.99 - 76.15) 0.138
Arkansas 70.00 (67.02 - 72.81) 68.57 (65.37 - 71.59) 0.274
California 77.70 (76.08 - 79.25) 76.56 (74.93 - 78.11) 0.128
Colorado 75.78 (73.11 - 78.27) 74.37 (71.46 - 77.07) 0.243
Connecticut 78.12a (75.45 - 80.58) 74.72 (71.68 - 77.53) 0.007
Delaware 75.88 (72.90 - 78.62) 74.78 (71.79 - 77.56) 0.395
District of Columbia 79.68 (76.90 - 82.20) 78.33 (75.57 - 80.86) 0.226
Florida 75.87 (74.20 - 77.46) 76.00 (74.38 - 77.55) 0.860
Georgia 72.99 (70.07 - 75.73) 73.35 (70.42 - 76.09) 0.769
Hawaii 73.59 (70.29 - 76.64) 74.23 (71.23 - 77.02) 0.631
Idaho 75.15a (72.47 - 77.65) 69.98 (67.20 - 72.62) 0.000
Illinois 74.47a (72.87 - 76.02) 71.03 (69.28 - 72.71) 0.000
Indiana 70.29a (67.20 - 73.21) 67.72 (64.72 - 70.59) 0.049
Iowa 69.34a (66.52 - 72.03) 65.53 (62.49 - 68.45) 0.003
Kansas 70.25 (67.14 - 73.19) 68.81 (65.57 - 71.87) 0.299
Kentucky 65.08a (61.84 - 68.18) 61.90 (58.50 - 65.19) 0.026
Louisiana 74.06 (71.22 - 76.72) 73.11 (70.21 - 75.83) 0.426
Maine 72.20 (69.30 - 74.93) 70.58 (67.69 - 73.31) 0.193
Maryland 74.10 (71.15 - 76.85) 75.91 (72.75 - 78.81) 0.182
Massachusetts 73.79 (70.82 - 76.56) 73.28 (70.43 - 75.94) 0.678
Michigan 71.77a (70.07 - 73.40) 69.36 (67.63 - 71.05) 0.004
Minnesota 71.91a (69.09 - 74.57) 69.23 (66.22 - 72.09) 0.037
Mississippi 71.76 (68.76 - 74.58) 70.71 (67.84 - 73.43) 0.421
Missouri 69.62 (66.64 - 72.45) 68.82 (65.71 - 71.77) 0.549
Montana 73.30a (70.39 - 76.02) 69.43 (66.27 - 72.41) 0.002
Nebraska 71.38b (68.38 - 74.19) 69.20 (66.21 - 72.03) 0.100
Nevada 73.56 (70.45 - 76.45) 73.40 (70.26 - 76.32) 0.903
New Hampshire 75.48a (72.71 - 78.06) 72.61 (69.73 - 75.32) 0.023
New Jersey 77.46b (74.36 - 80.29) 75.04 (72.04 - 77.81) 0.054
New Mexico 76.84 (74.05 - 79.41) 76.08 (73.28 - 78.67) 0.540
New York 80.25a (78.66 - 81.74) 78.35 (76.76 - 79.86) 0.015
North Carolina 75.04a (72.16 - 77.72) 71.98 (69.06 - 74.73) 0.019
North Dakota 69.70 (66.71 - 72.53) 67.93 (64.92 - 70.79) 0.174
Ohio 69.90 (68.22 - 71.54) 69.63 (67.86 - 71.35) 0.739
Oklahoma 70.94 (67.69 - 74.00) 69.38 (66.13 - 72.44) 0.267
Oregon 73.18 (70.18 - 75.99) 72.15 (69.22 - 74.90) 0.414
Pennsylvania 72.18a (70.47 - 73.83) 70.09 (68.26 - 71.86) 0.015
Rhode Island 76.17a (73.31 - 78.81) 72.16 (69.06 - 75.06) 0.002
South Carolina 72.68 (69.87 - 75.33) 72.11 (69.10 - 74.93) 0.656
South Dakota 70.12 (67.10 - 72.97) 68.15 (65.01 - 71.13) 0.152
Tennessee 71.57a (68.65 - 74.32) 67.55 (64.38 - 70.57) 0.003
Texas 74.20 (72.53 - 75.80) 74.32 (72.68 - 75.90) 0.875
Utah 77.25 (74.58 - 79.71) 75.62 (72.89 - 78.16) 0.154
Vermont 77.78b (74.99 - 80.33) 75.44 (72.55 - 78.13) 0.080
Virginia 74.77 (71.94 - 77.39) 73.42 (70.37 - 76.26) 0.280
Washington 74.17 (71.34 - 76.82) 72.69 (69.83 - 75.38) 0.219
West Virginia 68.87b (65.87 - 71.72) 66.12 (62.93 - 69.17) 0.053
Wisconsin 67.81 (64.63 - 70.82) 67.11 (64.00 - 70.08) 0.608
Wyoming 71.38 (68.40 - 74.17) 70.10 (67.09 - 72.95) 0.323
130115
Table 15 – Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 7.73 (7.48 - 7.98) 7.72 (7.46 - 7.98) 0.931
Northeast 7.49 (7.03 - 7.97) 7.70 (7.26 - 8.17) 0.279
Midwest 8.43b (8.05 - 8.84) 8.13 (7.77 - 8.52) 0.087
South 7.21 (6.85 - 7.59) 7.20 (6.84 - 7.59) 0.949
West 8.05 (7.56 - 8.57) 8.14 (7.66 - 8.65) 0.689
Alabama 6.48 (5.38 - 7.78) 6.65 (5.59 - 7.90) 0.700
Alaska 8.02 (6.72 - 9.56) 8.40 (7.06 - 9.96) 0.496
Arizona 8.11 (6.78 - 9.69) 8.00 (6.75 - 9.45) 0.815
Arkansas 7.11 (6.02 - 8.38) 6.95 (5.88 - 8.20) 0.708
California 7.87 (7.12 - 8.69) 8.18 (7.42 - 9.01) 0.384
Colorado 9.35   (7.99 - 10.91) 9.25   (7.86 - 10.86) 0.866
Connecticut 8.42 (7.14 - 9.90) 8.93   (7.55 - 10.54) 0.377
Delaware 7.57 (6.38 - 8.96) 8.19 (6.93 - 9.66) 0.242
District of Columbia 10.03   (8.53 - 11.77) 9.73   (8.24 - 11.46) 0.625
Florida 7.45 (6.66 - 8.32) 7.18 (6.42 - 8.02) 0.479
Georgia 6.72 (5.55 - 8.12) 7.07 (5.91 - 8.44) 0.482
Hawaii 8.57   (6.92 - 10.56) 7.75 (6.36 - 9.40) 0.238
Idaho 7.31 (6.18 - 8.63) 7.37 (6.29 - 8.63) 0.882
Illinois 8.60b (7.80 - 9.48) 7.94 (7.22 - 8.72) 0.056
Indiana 7.14 (5.97 - 8.51) 7.22 (6.12 - 8.50) 0.863
Iowa 8.50   (7.21 - 10.00) 8.85   (7.62 - 10.26) 0.535
Kansas 8.53 (7.27 - 9.99) 8.33 (7.06 - 9.80) 0.688
Kentucky 5.86 (4.85 - 7.07) 6.20 (5.14 - 7.46) 0.418
Louisiana 7.50 (6.28 - 8.94) 7.40 (6.23 - 8.78) 0.841
Maine 7.07 (5.94 - 8.40) 7.01 (5.90 - 8.32) 0.907
Maryland 8.08 (6.75 - 9.64) 7.42 (6.11 - 8.97) 0.250
Massachusetts 8.47 (7.17 - 9.99) 7.68 (6.52 - 9.03) 0.144
Michigan 7.97 (7.22 - 8.80) 7.93 (7.19 - 8.75) 0.916
Minnesota 10.33   (8.82 - 12.06) 9.56   (8.15 - 11.20) 0.193
Mississippi 6.57 (5.45 - 7.90) 6.60 (5.51 - 7.90) 0.943
Missouri 7.93 (6.73 - 9.33) 7.90 (6.76 - 9.21) 0.938
Montana 9.38   (8.03 - 10.94) 9.94   (8.55 - 11.51) 0.356
Nebraska 8.81   (7.50 - 10.33) 8.81   (7.54 - 10.28) 0.995
Nevada 8.12 (6.77 - 9.71) 7.86 (6.58 - 9.35) 0.593
New Hampshire 7.99 (6.77 - 9.39) 7.75 (6.54 - 9.16) 0.642
New Jersey 7.03 (5.82 - 8.46) 6.93 (5.74 - 8.33) 0.830
New Mexico 8.12 (6.89 - 9.54) 8.86   (7.53 - 10.40) 0.163
New York 7.34a (6.57 - 8.18) 8.15 (7.37 - 9.00) 0.015
North Carolina 7.14 (5.99 - 8.50) 6.58 (5.49 - 7.87) 0.223
North Dakota 9.60b   (8.33 - 11.04) 8.69 (7.54 - 9.99) 0.072
Ohio 8.21 (7.47 - 9.02) 7.89 (7.15 - 8.69) 0.349
Oklahoma 7.24 (6.09 - 8.58) 7.84 (6.61 - 9.27) 0.201
Oregon 8.02 (6.78 - 9.46) 8.76   (7.44 - 10.29) 0.159
Pennsylvania 7.20 (6.45 - 8.02) 7.18 (6.43 - 8.01) 0.971
Rhode Island 8.04 (6.77 - 9.52) 8.60   (7.29 - 10.13) 0.281
South Carolina 7.71 (6.47 - 9.15) 8.32 (6.98 - 9.90) 0.296
South Dakota 9.35   (8.02 - 10.87) 10.00   (8.63 - 11.56) 0.262
Tennessee 6.93 (5.80 - 8.27) 6.48 (5.36 - 7.82) 0.349
Texas 7.14 (6.43 - 7.93) 7.26 (6.56 - 8.04) 0.697
Utah 6.80 (5.65 - 8.16) 6.44 (5.33 - 7.76) 0.464
Vermont 7.67 (6.52 - 9.00) 8.12 (6.93 - 9.50) 0.414
Virginia 8.04 (6.80 - 9.49) 8.35 (7.12 - 9.77) 0.551
Washington 8.25a (7.03 - 9.65) 7.32 (6.23 - 8.59) 0.031
West Virginia 6.59 (5.50 - 7.90) 6.73 (5.63 - 8.04) 0.757
Wisconsin 9.07   (7.79 - 10.54) 8.34 (7.12 - 9.75) 0.157
Wyoming 8.96   (7.60 - 10.55) 8.67   (7.44 - 10.09) 0.613
130115
Table 16 – Alcohol Dependence in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 3.64 (3.46 - 3.82) 3.72 (3.54 - 3.91) 0.340
Northeast 3.59 (3.30 - 3.91) 3.69 (3.37 - 4.04) 0.437
Midwest 3.70 (3.46 - 3.96) 3.68 (3.43 - 3.95) 0.870
South 3.52 (3.28 - 3.78) 3.63 (3.36 - 3.92) 0.408
West 3.79 (3.46 - 4.14) 3.93 (3.57 - 4.31) 0.371
Alabama 3.23 (2.58 - 4.03) 3.32 (2.63 - 4.19) 0.753
Alaska 3.99 (3.30 - 4.83) 4.14 (3.31 - 5.17) 0.660
Arizona 3.58 (2.90 - 4.40) 3.67 (2.93 - 4.59) 0.754
Arkansas 3.66 (3.01 - 4.46) 3.41 (2.74 - 4.25) 0.368
California 3.82 (3.34 - 4.37) 4.03 (3.49 - 4.65) 0.384
Colorado 3.91 (3.20 - 4.77) 3.93 (3.15 - 4.89) 0.952
Connecticut 3.65 (2.98 - 4.46) 3.64 (2.89 - 4.56) 0.973
Delaware 3.48 (2.81 - 4.31) 3.66 (2.89 - 4.61) 0.576
District of Columbia 5.21 (4.25 - 6.37) 4.87 (3.92 - 6.03) 0.435
Florida 3.63 (3.12 - 4.22) 3.78 (3.20 - 4.47) 0.546
Georgia 3.51 (2.80 - 4.39) 3.79 (2.96 - 4.85) 0.399
Hawaii 3.63 (2.85 - 4.60) 3.33 (2.59 - 4.27) 0.368
Idaho 3.26 (2.66 - 3.99) 3.39 (2.74 - 4.19) 0.618
Illinois 3.90 (3.40 - 4.46) 3.88 (3.35 - 4.48) 0.937
Indiana 3.47 (2.83 - 4.24) 3.44 (2.75 - 4.28) 0.907
Iowa 3.54 (2.87 - 4.37) 3.52 (2.83 - 4.36) 0.924
Kansas 3.87 (3.17 - 4.72) 3.56 (2.83 - 4.48) 0.289
Kentucky 3.24 (2.63 - 3.99) 3.16 (2.45 - 4.08) 0.790
Louisiana 3.74 (3.06 - 4.58) 3.79 (3.04 - 4.71) 0.881
Maine 3.47 (2.81 - 4.28) 3.40 (2.67 - 4.32) 0.817
Maryland 3.87 (3.15 - 4.75) 3.89 (3.04 - 4.97) 0.963
Massachusetts 3.65 (2.99 - 4.46) 3.77 (3.05 - 4.67) 0.674
Michigan 3.55 (3.09 - 4.08) 3.60 (3.10 - 4.17) 0.847
Minnesota 4.10 (3.35 - 5.00) 4.41 (3.49 - 5.54) 0.385
Mississippi 3.50 (2.83 - 4.32) 3.56 (2.82 - 4.48) 0.846
Missouri 3.30 (2.66 - 4.07) 3.43 (2.74 - 4.30) 0.642
Montana 4.40 (3.60 - 5.38) 4.13 (3.30 - 5.15) 0.425
Nebraska 3.56 (2.94 - 4.32) 3.70 (2.97 - 4.60) 0.635
Nevada 3.56 (2.86 - 4.42) 3.76 (2.98 - 4.73) 0.517
New Hampshire 3.59 (2.93 - 4.38) 3.52 (2.79 - 4.43) 0.818
New Jersey 3.18 (2.49 - 4.05) 3.23 (2.51 - 4.16) 0.849
New Mexico 3.88 (3.17 - 4.75) 4.36 (3.45 - 5.48) 0.205
New York 3.81 (3.32 - 4.38) 4.02 (3.47 - 4.67) 0.371
North Carolina 3.63 (2.91 - 4.52) 3.74 (2.96 - 4.71) 0.747
North Dakota 3.77 (3.12 - 4.55) 3.48 (2.81 - 4.30) 0.325
Ohio 3.72 (3.26 - 4.25) 3.50 (3.02 - 4.05) 0.306
Oklahoma 3.58 (2.92 - 4.38) 3.43 (2.77 - 4.25) 0.586
Oregon 3.74b (3.06 - 4.57) 4.45 (3.50 - 5.66) 0.067
Pennsylvania 3.44 (2.97 - 3.98) 3.43 (2.90 - 4.06) 0.983
Rhode Island 3.96 (3.19 - 4.92) 4.52 (3.55 - 5.74) 0.160
South Carolina 3.79 (3.06 - 4.68) 4.36 (3.39 - 5.58) 0.158
South Dakota 3.77 (3.13 - 4.53) 3.85 (3.10 - 4.76) 0.814
Tennessee 3.43 (2.77 - 4.23) 3.47 (2.74 - 4.37) 0.893
Texas 3.25 (2.80 - 3.78) 3.32 (2.82 - 3.91) 0.752
Utah 3.62 (2.95 - 4.43) 3.44 (2.74 - 4.32) 0.536
Vermont 3.92 (3.20 - 4.79) 4.03 (3.17 - 5.10) 0.785
Virginia 3.68 (3.00 - 4.49) 3.81 (3.07 - 4.71) 0.640
Washington 3.90 (3.21 - 4.74) 3.63 (2.92 - 4.51) 0.322
West Virginia 3.36 (2.73 - 4.12) 3.50 (2.74 - 4.44) 0.664
Wisconsin 3.85 (3.15 - 4.69) 3.78 (3.01 - 4.75) 0.848
Wyoming 3.51 (2.84 - 4.32) 3.58 (2.90 - 4.43) 0.800
130115
Table 17 – Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 2.60 (2.47 - 2.73) 2.63 (2.50 - 2.77) 0.616
Northeast 2.69b (2.44 - 2.97) 2.88 (2.62 - 3.17) 0.066
Midwest 2.44 (2.25 - 2.65) 2.43 (2.23 - 2.64) 0.836
South 2.64 (2.44 - 2.86) 2.58 (2.38 - 2.79) 0.479
West 2.60 (2.36 - 2.87) 2.72 (2.46 - 3.02) 0.274
Alabama 2.94 (2.23 - 3.86) 2.58 (1.94 - 3.44) 0.151
Alaska 2.66 (1.97 - 3.59) 2.76 (2.07 - 3.67) 0.662
Arizona 2.93 (2.18 - 3.92) 2.80 (2.09 - 3.73) 0.590
Arkansas 2.74 (2.06 - 3.64) 2.66 (1.99 - 3.55) 0.737
California 2.41b (2.06 - 2.82) 2.70 (2.29 - 3.19) 0.058
Colorado 3.15b (2.36 - 4.19) 2.68 (1.97 - 3.63) 0.075
Connecticut 2.71 (2.10 - 3.48) 2.78 (2.07 - 3.73) 0.740
Delaware 2.90 (2.22 - 3.77) 2.69 (2.02 - 3.57) 0.382
District of Columbia 4.52 (3.43 - 5.94) 4.41 (3.34 - 5.81) 0.815
Florida 2.52 (2.09 - 3.05) 2.56 (2.12 - 3.08) 0.850
Georgia 2.94a (2.20 - 3.92) 2.40 (1.77 - 3.26) 0.019
Hawaii 2.27b (1.60 - 3.22) 2.83 (1.97 - 4.03) 0.055
Idaho 2.50 (1.90 - 3.29) 2.79 (2.11 - 3.67) 0.196
Illinois 2.19 (1.82 - 2.62) 2.40 (2.02 - 2.84) 0.121
Indiana 2.81 (2.14 - 3.67) 2.82 (2.11 - 3.76) 0.969
Iowa 1.48 (1.02 - 2.15) 1.65 (1.18 - 2.30) 0.294
Kansas 1.80 (1.28 - 2.53) 2.08 (1.52 - 2.84) 0.106
Kentucky 3.32 (2.55 - 4.32) 3.13 (2.39 - 4.09) 0.436
Louisiana 2.78 (2.09 - 3.68) 2.81 (2.12 - 3.72) 0.887
Maine 2.75 (2.10 - 3.58) 2.73 (2.07 - 3.60) 0.948
Maryland 2.71 (2.01 - 3.64) 2.67 (1.92 - 3.70) 0.901
Massachusetts 2.98 (2.29 - 3.86) 3.38 (2.57 - 4.43) 0.154
Michigan 2.71 (2.31 - 3.18) 2.80 (2.38 - 3.30) 0.587
Minnesota 2.57a (1.95 - 3.37) 2.16 (1.60 - 2.92) 0.030
Mississippi 2.26 (1.67 - 3.05) 2.35 (1.75 - 3.16) 0.650
Missouri 2.56 (1.93 - 3.37) 2.30 (1.71 - 3.09) 0.188
Montana 2.71 (2.05 - 3.58) 2.55 (1.92 - 3.38) 0.438
Nebraska 1.86 (1.35 - 2.56) 1.78 (1.27 - 2.49) 0.627
Nevada 2.97 (2.20 - 4.00) 3.29 (2.41 - 4.49) 0.277
New Hampshire 2.77 (2.11 - 3.62) 3.21 (2.41 - 4.27) 0.122
New Jersey 2.16 (1.59 - 2.94) 2.31 (1.70 - 3.13) 0.418
New Mexico 3.05 (2.30 - 4.05) 2.75 (2.05 - 3.68) 0.278
New York 3.00 (2.54 - 3.53) 3.02 (2.58 - 3.54) 0.889
North Carolina 2.27 (1.69 - 3.03) 2.30 (1.69 - 3.14) 0.854
North Dakota 1.85 (1.36 - 2.51) 2.02 (1.50 - 2.72) 0.316
Ohio 2.78 (2.38 - 3.25) 2.60 (2.20 - 3.07) 0.256
Oklahoma 2.50b (1.84 - 3.38) 2.87 (2.14 - 3.86) 0.093
Oregon 3.27 (2.49 - 4.28) 3.29 (2.50 - 4.32) 0.950
Pennsylvania 2.27a (1.90 - 2.71) 2.70 (2.27 - 3.21) 0.015
Rhode Island 4.35 (3.34 - 5.65) 4.08 (3.03 - 5.46) 0.536
South Carolina 2.96 (2.24 - 3.90) 2.88 (2.08 - 3.98) 0.792
South Dakota 2.04b (1.52 - 2.71) 2.35 (1.75 - 3.15) 0.093
Tennessee 2.71a (2.08 - 3.53) 2.18 (1.59 - 2.98) 0.011
Texas 2.45 (2.07 - 2.89) 2.52 (2.12 - 2.99) 0.618
Utah 2.77 (2.12 - 3.62) 2.73 (2.09 - 3.56) 0.840
Vermont 2.62 (2.03 - 3.37) 2.96 (2.28 - 3.84) 0.139
Virginia 2.67 (2.01 - 3.53) 2.61 (1.95 - 3.48) 0.785
Washington 2.30 (1.72 - 3.07) 2.27 (1.68 - 3.07) 0.871
West Virginia 2.69 (2.02 - 3.59) 3.09 (2.26 - 4.22) 0.121
Wisconsin 2.35 (1.75 - 3.15) 2.25 (1.69 - 2.99) 0.592
Wyoming 2.16 (1.63 - 2.84) 2.05 (1.53 - 2.75) 0.574
130115
Table 18 – Illicit Drug Dependence in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Dependence is based on the definition found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 1.87 (1.76 - 1.98) 1.89 (1.78 - 2.01) 0.684
Northeast 1.95a (1.74 - 2.18) 2.21 (1.97 - 2.47) 0.008
Midwest 1.77 (1.61 - 1.95) 1.74 (1.58 - 1.93) 0.739
South 1.87 (1.70 - 2.05) 1.77 (1.61 - 1.95) 0.221
West 1.89 (1.68 - 2.13) 1.96 (1.74 - 2.22) 0.455
Alabama 1.86 (1.36 - 2.55) 1.90 (1.39 - 2.61) 0.810
Alaska 1.98 (1.45 - 2.72) 1.85 (1.32 - 2.59) 0.467
Arizona 1.93 (1.41 - 2.64) 2.03 (1.45 - 2.85) 0.573
Arkansas 1.95 (1.43 - 2.64) 2.00 (1.44 - 2.78) 0.781
California 1.86 (1.55 - 2.23) 1.96 (1.62 - 2.38) 0.433
Colorado 2.02 (1.47 - 2.77) 1.74 (1.22 - 2.50) 0.183
Connecticut 1.89 (1.40 - 2.53) 1.80 (1.29 - 2.50) 0.601
Delaware 2.03 (1.50 - 2.76) 1.96 (1.42 - 2.71) 0.721
District of Columbia 3.13 (2.33 - 4.20) 3.12 (2.28 - 4.24) 0.967
Florida 1.78 (1.45 - 2.19) 1.72 (1.37 - 2.15) 0.645
Georgia 2.04a (1.48 - 2.80) 1.56 (1.10 - 2.21) 0.005
Hawaii 1.57 (1.07 - 2.31) 1.83 (1.22 - 2.74) 0.268
Idaho 1.74b (1.29 - 2.34) 2.07 (1.49 - 2.88) 0.075
Illinois 1.62 (1.32 - 2.00) 1.69 (1.38 - 2.05) 0.603
Indiana 1.90 (1.43 - 2.54) 2.04 (1.47 - 2.83) 0.489
Iowa 1.24 (0.86 - 1.78) 1.11 (0.74 - 1.66) 0.338
Kansas 1.45 (0.99 - 2.11) 1.41 (0.97 - 2.06) 0.835
Kentucky 2.23 (1.66 - 2.99) 2.35 (1.73 - 3.19) 0.547
Louisiana 2.14 (1.59 - 2.86) 2.18 (1.61 - 2.95) 0.809
Maine 1.89 (1.40 - 2.54) 2.12 (1.56 - 2.86) 0.230
Maryland 1.98 (1.43 - 2.74) 2.02 (1.39 - 2.91) 0.872
Massachusetts 2.10b (1.58 - 2.79) 2.50 (1.84 - 3.40) 0.083
Michigan 1.90 (1.58 - 2.29) 1.99 (1.64 - 2.41) 0.530
Minnesota 1.74b (1.30 - 2.33) 1.46 (1.02 - 2.09) 0.053
Mississippi 1.66 (1.18 - 2.33) 1.64 (1.15 - 2.35) 0.915
Missouri 1.82 (1.35 - 2.45) 1.75 (1.24 - 2.46) 0.677
Montana 1.88 (1.38 - 2.55) 1.85 (1.33 - 2.57) 0.867
Nebraska 1.49 (1.05 - 2.11) 1.26 (0.84 - 1.88) 0.169
Nevada 1.83 (1.30 - 2.56) 2.02 (1.42 - 2.87) 0.325
New Hampshire 2.05b (1.52 - 2.76) 2.45 (1.79 - 3.36) 0.097
New Jersey 1.56a (1.12 - 2.17) 1.90 (1.34 - 2.68) 0.048
New Mexico 2.13 (1.53 - 2.95) 2.02 (1.44 - 2.82) 0.624
New York 2.22 (1.84 - 2.67) 2.36 (1.96 - 2.84) 0.338
North Carolina 1.68 (1.23 - 2.29) 1.55 (1.09 - 2.19) 0.374
North Dakota 1.36 (0.95 - 1.93) 1.35 (0.92 - 1.96) 0.945
Ohio 1.99 (1.67 - 2.37) 2.00 (1.66 - 2.40) 0.964
Oklahoma 1.78 (1.27 - 2.48) 1.86 (1.31 - 2.63) 0.661
Oregon 2.42 (1.75 - 3.33) 2.66 (1.97 - 3.60) 0.359
Pennsylvania 1.63a (1.33 - 1.99) 2.05 (1.67 - 2.51) 0.006
Rhode Island 3.05 (2.22 - 4.17) 3.07 (2.21 - 4.25) 0.951
South Carolina 1.79 (1.31 - 2.46) 1.76 (1.21 - 2.56) 0.880
South Dakota 1.41 (1.01 - 1.98) 1.50 (1.06 - 2.12) 0.568
Tennessee 1.92a (1.43 - 2.57) 1.39 (0.95 - 2.02) 0.001
Texas 1.77 (1.46 - 2.15) 1.73 (1.42 - 2.11) 0.715
Utah 1.87 (1.38 - 2.54) 1.71 (1.22 - 2.39) 0.339
Vermont 1.80 (1.35 - 2.41) 2.04 (1.49 - 2.79) 0.188
Virginia 1.90 (1.39 - 2.59) 1.73 (1.22 - 2.45) 0.330
Washington 1.71 (1.25 - 2.33) 1.77 (1.27 - 2.47) 0.709
West Virginia 2.09 (1.52 - 2.87) 2.45 (1.74 - 3.44) 0.104
Wisconsin 1.85 (1.36 - 2.50) 1.58 (1.11 - 2.25) 0.175
Wyoming 1.51 (1.09 - 2.07) 1.28 (0.85 - 1.93) 0.187
130115
Table 19 – Dependence or Abuse of Illicit Drugs or Alcohol in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
NOTE: Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 9.14 (8.87 - 9.42) 9.15 (8.87 - 9.44) 0.940
Northeast 8.97 (8.46 - 9.50) 9.28 (8.78 - 9.81) 0.162
Midwest 9.72   (9.32 - 10.15) 9.41 (9.00 - 9.83) 0.102
South 8.71 (8.30 - 9.13) 8.67 (8.27 - 9.09) 0.848
West 9.41   (8.85 - 10.00) 9.56   (9.04 - 10.11) 0.542
Alabama 8.02 (6.81 - 9.42) 8.29 (7.07 - 9.70) 0.592
Alaska 9.49   (8.11 - 11.08) 9.84   (8.42 - 11.46) 0.557
Arizona 9.65   (8.26 - 11.24) 9.34   (8.01 - 10.87) 0.571
Arkansas 8.70   (7.48 - 10.11) 8.37 (7.13 - 9.79) 0.476
California 9.06 (8.23 - 9.96) 9.63   (8.81 - 10.53) 0.133
Colorado 11.01   (9.40 - 12.85) 10.49   (9.05 - 12.14) 0.423
Connecticut 9.54   (8.18 - 11.10) 10.03   (8.57 - 11.72) 0.415
Delaware 9.32   (7.96 - 10.89) 9.81   (8.38 - 11.46) 0.384
District of Columbia 12.08 (10.43 - 13.96) 11.73 (10.07 - 13.62) 0.619
Florida 8.80 (7.95 - 9.73) 8.64 (7.80 - 9.56) 0.667
Georgia 8.65   (7.31 - 10.20) 8.85   (7.51 - 10.41) 0.704
Hawaii 9.73   (7.92 - 11.90) 9.08   (7.56 - 10.85) 0.370
Idaho 8.67   (7.45 - 10.07) 8.95   (7.71 - 10.38) 0.556
Illinois 9.71   (8.86 - 10.63) 9.29   (8.49 - 10.15) 0.272
Indiana 8.60   (7.34 - 10.04) 8.59   (7.35 - 10.02) 0.995
Iowa 9.23   (7.93 - 10.72) 9.40   (8.15 - 10.82) 0.747
Kansas 9.61   (8.27 - 11.14) 9.22   (7.91 - 10.73) 0.430
Kentucky 8.08 (6.84 - 9.51) 8.15 (6.94 - 9.55) 0.876
Louisiana 8.95   (7.62 - 10.49) 9.08   (7.82 - 10.52) 0.786
Maine 8.68   (7.44 - 10.11) 8.53 (7.28 - 9.97) 0.770
Maryland 9.50   (8.07 - 11.16) 8.80   (7.38 - 10.45) 0.228
Massachusetts 10.19   (8.73 - 11.86) 9.86   (8.52 - 11.39) 0.597
Michigan 9.57   (8.76 - 10.45) 9.56   (8.73 - 10.46) 0.976
Minnesota 11.07   (9.57 - 12.76) 10.39   (8.97 - 12.00) 0.237
Mississippi 7.78 (6.58 - 9.19) 7.77 (6.58 - 9.16) 0.980
Missouri 9.53   (8.23 - 11.01) 9.19   (7.95 - 10.61) 0.506
Montana 10.18   (8.81 - 11.74) 10.62   (9.17 - 12.25) 0.449
Nebraska 9.77   (8.44 - 11.29) 9.73   (8.39 - 11.26) 0.933
Nevada 9.55   (8.13 - 11.19) 9.67   (8.23 - 11.33) 0.831
New Hampshire 9.79   (8.40 - 11.37) 9.83   (8.43 - 11.42) 0.946
New Jersey 8.18 (6.92 - 9.65) 8.24 (6.94 - 9.75) 0.905
New Mexico 9.95   (8.50 - 11.63) 10.30   (8.80 - 12.01) 0.588
New York 9.00b (8.16 - 9.91) 9.68   (8.79 - 10.66) 0.071
North Carolina 8.25 (7.01 - 9.69) 7.87 (6.66 - 9.28) 0.422
North Dakota 10.50   (9.16 - 12.00) 9.79   (8.55 - 11.19) 0.202
Ohio 9.77   (8.93 - 10.67) 9.27   (8.45 - 10.17) 0.179
Oklahoma 8.63   (7.37 - 10.07) 9.50   (8.09 - 11.14) 0.103
Oregon 9.93   (8.52 - 11.54) 10.19   (8.77 - 11.80) 0.665
Pennsylvania 8.45 (7.66 - 9.31) 8.74 (7.91 - 9.65) 0.424
Rhode Island 10.57   (9.10 - 12.23) 10.75   (9.19 - 12.54) 0.768
South Carolina 9.24   (7.93 - 10.75) 9.66   (8.22 - 11.33) 0.482
South Dakota 10.20   (8.84 - 11.75) 10.93   (9.49 - 12.57) 0.203
Tennessee 8.52 (7.29 - 9.93) 7.85 (6.65 - 9.24) 0.190
Texas 8.60 (7.79 - 9.48) 8.64 (7.87 - 9.48) 0.898
Utah 8.72   (7.41 - 10.24) 8.27 (7.02 - 9.73) 0.378
Vermont 9.28   (8.00 - 10.74) 9.59   (8.27 - 11.09) 0.577
Virginia 9.50   (8.16 - 11.04) 9.60   (8.23 - 11.16) 0.863
Washington 9.53b   (8.21 - 11.04) 8.61   (7.37 - 10.05) 0.059
West Virginia 8.19 (6.97 - 9.61) 8.47 (7.17 - 9.98) 0.568
Wisconsin 10.29   (8.87 - 11.90) 9.62   (8.27 - 11.16) 0.248
Wyoming 10.10   (8.74 - 11.64) 9.28   (7.98 - 10.77) 0.141
130115
Table 20 – Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Illicit Drug Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for illicit drugs, but not receiving treatment for an illicit drug problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers). Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens, heroin, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006. See Section B.4.8 in Appendix B of the Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 2.34 (2.22 - 2.46) 2.36 (2.24 - 2.49) 0.727
Northeast 2.34 (2.12 - 2.59) 2.48 (2.25 - 2.73) 0.146
Midwest 2.15 (1.97 - 2.33) 2.18 (1.99 - 2.39) 0.619
South 2.38 (2.20 - 2.58) 2.32 (2.13 - 2.54) 0.521
West 2.46 (2.21 - 2.73) 2.50 (2.24 - 2.79) 0.709
Alabama 2.52 (1.89 - 3.37) 2.31 (1.74 - 3.06) 0.336
Alaska 2.50 (1.85 - 3.39) 2.75 (2.04 - 3.70) 0.369
Arizona 2.75 (2.03 - 3.71) 2.55 (1.90 - 3.40) 0.441
Arkansas 2.37 (1.76 - 3.20) 2.45 (1.83 - 3.29) 0.736
California 2.32 (1.96 - 2.75) 2.53 (2.12 - 3.00) 0.224
Colorado 3.02b (2.24 - 4.05) 2.47 (1.87 - 3.25) 0.051
Connecticut 2.34 (1.75 - 3.12) 2.38 (1.76 - 3.22) 0.866
Delaware 2.72 (2.04 - 3.62) 2.40 (1.81 - 3.19) 0.212
District of Columbia 3.70 (2.79 - 4.88) 3.29 (2.51 - 4.29) 0.177
Florida 2.38 (1.98 - 2.87) 2.32 (1.91 - 2.82) 0.751
Georgia 2.68a (1.98 - 3.61) 2.20 (1.62 - 2.98) 0.036
Hawaii 2.26 (1.55 - 3.29) 2.54 (1.77 - 3.64) 0.341
Idaho 2.44 (1.83 - 3.24) 2.62 (1.98 - 3.46) 0.468
Illinois 1.91a (1.60 - 2.29) 2.17 (1.82 - 2.57) 0.043
Indiana 2.42 (1.82 - 3.22) 2.44 (1.85 - 3.21) 0.926
Iowa 1.40 (0.98 - 1.98) 1.62 (1.17 - 2.24) 0.151
Kansas 1.60 (1.13 - 2.25) 1.86 (1.36 - 2.54) 0.116
Kentucky 2.66 (1.98 - 3.55) 2.84 (2.12 - 3.80) 0.470
Louisiana 2.49 (1.86 - 3.34) 2.48 (1.88 - 3.26) 0.949
Maine 2.56 (1.93 - 3.39) 2.60 (1.96 - 3.44) 0.883
Maryland 2.44 (1.79 - 3.31) 2.30 (1.69 - 3.12) 0.583
Massachusetts 2.52 (1.92 - 3.30) 2.93 (2.23 - 3.84) 0.123
Michigan 2.28 (1.94 - 2.68) 2.43 (2.05 - 2.88) 0.326
Minnesota 2.18 (1.62 - 2.93) 2.00 (1.49 - 2.68) 0.322
Mississippi 1.83b (1.35 - 2.47) 2.14 (1.59 - 2.88) 0.097
Missouri 2.37 (1.79 - 3.15) 2.15 (1.60 - 2.88) 0.295
Montana 2.59 (1.96 - 3.42) 2.28 (1.70 - 3.05) 0.165
Nebraska 1.81 (1.29 - 2.53) 1.65 (1.18 - 2.29) 0.377
Nevada 2.84 (2.08 - 3.88) 2.91 (2.15 - 3.92) 0.837
New Hampshire 2.59 (1.92 - 3.48) 2.82 (2.12 - 3.74) 0.432
New Jersey 1.85 (1.36 - 2.52) 1.90 (1.41 - 2.56) 0.779
New Mexico 3.10b (2.29 - 4.17) 2.57 (1.92 - 3.43) 0.074
New York 2.65 (2.23 - 3.13) 2.68 (2.26 - 3.18) 0.817
North Carolina 2.07 (1.53 - 2.79) 2.06 (1.53 - 2.76) 0.951
North Dakota 1.64 (1.19 - 2.25) 1.89 (1.41 - 2.54) 0.151
Ohio 2.49 (2.12 - 2.92) 2.40 (2.01 - 2.85) 0.536
Oklahoma 2.27 (1.66 - 3.11) 2.55 (1.87 - 3.46) 0.227
Oregon 2.80 (2.12 - 3.69) 2.88 (2.17 - 3.83) 0.770
Pennsylvania 1.92b (1.60 - 2.30) 2.20 (1.84 - 2.64) 0.053
Rhode Island 3.84 (2.89 - 5.10) 3.40 (2.56 - 4.51) 0.232
South Carolina 2.55 (1.90 - 3.41) 2.45 (1.80 - 3.34) 0.739
South Dakota 1.77 (1.29 - 2.41) 2.02 (1.49 - 2.73) 0.199
Tennessee 2.29 (1.71 - 3.06) 2.01 (1.46 - 2.75) 0.170
Texas 2.30 (1.94 - 2.72) 2.34 (1.97 - 2.79) 0.753
Utah 2.40 (1.76 - 3.27) 2.26 (1.69 - 3.02) 0.549
Vermont 2.42 (1.82 - 3.20) 2.74 (2.09 - 3.57) 0.187
Virginia 2.38 (1.79 - 3.17) 2.27 (1.71 - 3.02) 0.588
Washington 2.01 (1.49 - 2.70) 2.04 (1.53 - 2.72) 0.850
West Virginia 2.37b (1.77 - 3.17) 2.79 (2.04 - 3.80) 0.091
Wisconsin 2.04 (1.51 - 2.75) 1.97 (1.47 - 2.64) 0.735
Wyoming 2.05 (1.52 - 2.78) 1.90 (1.40 - 2.58) 0.429
130115
Table 21 – Needing But Not Receiving Treatment for Alcohol Use in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Needing But Not Receiving Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for alcohol, but not receiving treatment for an alcohol problem at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities [inpatient or outpatient], hospitals [inpatient only], and mental health centers).
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 7.33 (7.09 - 7.58) 7.30 (7.05 - 7.55) 0.759
Northeast 7.08 (6.64 - 7.54) 7.26 (6.81 - 7.74) 0.362
Midwest 7.95b (7.57 - 8.35) 7.63 (7.29 - 7.99) 0.063
South 6.91 (6.55 - 7.28) 6.88 (6.53 - 7.25) 0.838
West 7.61 (7.11 - 8.15) 7.66 (7.20 - 8.16) 0.828
Alabama 6.05 (4.97 - 7.34) 6.33 (5.30 - 7.53) 0.526
Alaska 7.35 (6.10 - 8.83) 7.72 (6.54 - 9.10) 0.468
Arizona 7.83 (6.55 - 9.32) 7.52 (6.35 - 8.89) 0.522
Arkansas 6.71 (5.62 - 8.00) 6.61 (5.55 - 7.86) 0.819
California 7.45 (6.67 - 8.31) 7.77 (7.04 - 8.57) 0.370
Colorado 8.80   (7.52 - 10.28) 8.54   (7.25 - 10.04) 0.636
Connecticut 8.00 (6.73 - 9.50) 8.55   (7.20 - 10.14) 0.341
Delaware 7.11 (5.92 - 8.52) 7.57 (6.34 - 9.00) 0.372
District of Columbia 9.42   (8.00 - 11.06) 8.95   (7.60 - 10.51) 0.385
Florida 7.14 (6.35 - 8.03) 6.89 (6.16 - 7.70) 0.431
Georgia 6.49 (5.36 - 7.85) 6.79 (5.65 - 8.13) 0.499
Hawaii 8.24   (6.60 - 10.24) 7.42 (6.08 - 9.02) 0.249
Idaho 6.85 (5.76 - 8.13) 6.94 (5.92 - 8.12) 0.840
Illinois 8.33a (7.51 - 9.24) 7.60 (6.86 - 8.41) 0.044
Indiana 6.39 (5.35 - 7.62) 6.66 (5.66 - 7.82) 0.530
Iowa 8.08 (6.85 - 9.52) 8.21 (6.97 - 9.65) 0.810
Kansas 8.13 (6.86 - 9.62) 7.82 (6.66 - 9.18) 0.523
Kentucky 5.50 (4.47 - 6.76) 5.98 (4.98 - 7.16) 0.251
Louisiana 7.29 (6.07 - 8.74) 7.16 (6.05 - 8.45) 0.771
Maine 6.73 (5.58 - 8.09) 6.63 (5.59 - 7.84) 0.824
Maryland 7.70 (6.42 - 9.22) 6.98 (5.78 - 8.39) 0.151
Massachusetts 8.03 (6.74 - 9.54) 7.24 (6.13 - 8.54) 0.139
Michigan 7.55 (6.79 - 8.39) 7.37 (6.65 - 8.15) 0.583
Minnesota 9.72   (8.25 - 11.41) 9.01   (7.68 - 10.56) 0.224
Mississippi 6.19 (5.11 - 7.49) 6.30 (5.23 - 7.56) 0.793
Missouri 7.35 (6.24 - 8.65) 7.35 (6.20 - 8.68) 0.988
Montana 8.53   (7.24 - 10.04) 9.31   (7.97 - 10.85) 0.174
Nebraska 8.43 (7.13 - 9.95) 8.49 (7.26 - 9.91) 0.913
Nevada 7.87 (6.54 - 9.44) 7.55 (6.38 - 8.92) 0.540
New Hampshire 7.72 (6.51 - 9.14) 7.44 (6.31 - 8.76) 0.566
New Jersey 6.70 (5.55 - 8.07) 6.53 (5.41 - 7.86) 0.699
New Mexico 7.85 (6.61 - 9.30) 8.33 (7.03 - 9.83) 0.375
New York 6.87a (6.13 - 7.71) 7.66 (6.89 - 8.51) 0.022
North Carolina 6.78 (5.59 - 8.20) 6.34 (5.22 - 7.67) 0.341
North Dakota 9.02b   (7.76 - 10.47) 8.15 (7.04 - 9.43) 0.081
Ohio 7.72 (6.96 - 8.55) 7.44 (6.73 - 8.23) 0.418
Oklahoma 6.86 (5.71 - 8.23) 7.36 (6.19 - 8.73) 0.298
Oregon 7.46 (6.25 - 8.88) 7.79 (6.58 - 9.21) 0.496
Pennsylvania 6.79 (6.06 - 7.60) 6.75 (6.03 - 7.55) 0.897
Rhode Island 7.80 (6.59 - 9.22) 8.07 (6.79 - 9.56) 0.594
South Carolina 7.34 (6.09 - 8.81) 7.80 (6.50 - 9.33) 0.406
South Dakota 8.69   (7.41 - 10.16) 9.14   (7.83 - 10.65) 0.404
Tennessee 6.67 (5.59 - 7.95) 6.32 (5.23 - 7.61) 0.435
Texas 7.00 (6.26 - 7.80) 7.07 (6.36 - 7.86) 0.803
Utah 6.57 (5.42 - 7.94) 6.22 (5.14 - 7.50) 0.455
Vermont 7.28 (6.16 - 8.59) 7.72 (6.54 - 9.09) 0.390
Virginia 7.55 (6.39 - 8.90) 7.59 (6.44 - 8.92) 0.923
Washington 7.59b (6.39 - 9.00) 6.82 (5.79 - 8.02) 0.073
West Virginia 6.12 (5.07 - 7.36) 6.02 (5.01 - 7.20) 0.814
Wisconsin 8.50 (7.22 - 9.97) 7.73 (6.56 - 9.09) 0.135
Wyoming 8.39 (7.07 - 9.92) 7.98 (6.80 - 9.34) 0.456
130115
Table 22 – Had at Least One Major Depressive Episode in the Past Year among Persons Aged 18 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages, and P Values from Tests of Differences between Percentages, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 NSDUHs
State 2007-2008
(Estimate)
2007-2008
(95% Confidence Interval)
2008-2009
(Estimate)
2008-2009
(95% Confidence Interval)
P Value
NOTE: State and census region estimates, along with the 95 percent Bayesian confidence (credible) intervals, are based on a survey-weighted hierarchical Bayes estimation approach and are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, with their p values being the Bayes posterior probability of no change between the 2007-2008 and the 2008-2009 estimates. The "Total U.S." estimates, along with the 95 percent confidence intervals and p values, are based on design-based (direct) estimation methods.
NOTE: The 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 estimates may differ from estimates published prior to 2012 due to updates (see Section 1.5 of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs).
NOTE: Major depressive episode (MDE) is defined as in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which specifies a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of specified depression symptoms. For details, see Section A.11 in Appendix A of the report on State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 NSDUHs.
a Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
b Difference between the 2007-2008 estimate and the 2008-2009 estimate is statistically significant at the 0.10 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Revised March 2012).
Total U.S. 6.60 (6.35 - 6.86) 6.53 (6.28 - 6.78) 0.548
Northeast 6.44 (5.98 - 6.93) 6.42 (5.96 - 6.92) 0.937
Midwest 6.74 (6.37 - 7.14) 6.72 (6.34 - 7.11) 0.890
South 6.61 (6.23 - 7.01) 6.44 (6.08 - 6.83) 0.339
West 6.60 (6.11 - 7.12) 6.57 (6.09 - 7.08) 0.902
Alabama 5.84 (4.72 - 7.20) 6.35 (5.20 - 7.74) 0.303
Alaska 6.32 (5.14 - 7.75) 5.86 (4.71 - 7.28) 0.404
Arizona 7.06 (5.78 - 8.59) 6.94 (5.65 - 8.49) 0.817
Arkansas 7.38 (6.12 - 8.88) 7.86 (6.40 - 9.61) 0.441
California 6.12 (5.40 - 6.93) 6.05 (5.35 - 6.84) 0.838
Colorado 6.84 (5.61 - 8.32) 7.56 (6.16 - 9.24) 0.187
Connecticut 6.78 (5.60 - 8.20) 5.95 (4.83 - 7.31) 0.112
Delaware 6.22 (5.07 - 7.61) 6.43 (5.22 - 7.89) 0.673
District of Columbia 6.60 (5.44 - 7.99) 5.93 (4.82 - 7.26) 0.170
Florida 6.56 (5.79 - 7.42) 6.40 (5.61 - 7.28) 0.675
Georgia 6.54 (5.35 - 7.98) 6.26 (5.09 - 7.68) 0.576
Hawaii 5.90 (4.68 - 7.42) 6.15 (4.92 - 7.65) 0.657
Idaho 7.44 (6.19 - 8.91) 7.47 (6.20 - 8.97) 0.958
Illinois 5.91 (5.20 - 6.71) 6.17 (5.45 - 6.97) 0.446
Indiana 8.23 (6.78 - 9.96) 8.14 (6.74 - 9.81) 0.884
Iowa 6.25 (5.22 - 7.48) 5.87 (4.84 - 7.12) 0.413
Kansas 7.28 (6.00 - 8.81) 6.61 (5.41 - 8.07) 0.201
Kentucky 7.66 (6.28 - 9.32) 7.14 (5.85 - 8.67) 0.355
Louisiana 6.21 (5.09 - 7.56) 5.75 (4.68 - 7.05) 0.345
Maine 7.38 (5.99 - 9.05) 6.81 (5.58 - 8.28) 0.302
Maryland 6.17 (5.04 - 7.52) 6.17 (4.95 - 7.68) 0.990
Massachusetts 6.57 (5.40 - 7.97) 6.77 (5.60 - 8.17) 0.684
Michigan 6.60 (5.85 - 7.42) 6.65 (5.91 - 7.47) 0.876
Minnesota 7.04 (5.77 - 8.56) 7.55 (6.21 - 9.15) 0.351
Mississippi 5.40 (4.34 - 6.72) 5.80 (4.72 - 7.11) 0.400
Missouri 7.04 (5.85 - 8.46) 7.03 (5.78 - 8.52) 0.977
Montana 6.76 (5.57 - 8.19) 6.76 (5.57 - 8.17) 0.992
Nebraska 5.63 (4.55 - 6.95) 6.31 (5.22 - 7.61) 0.178
Nevada 7.02 (5.73 - 8.56) 6.88 (5.58 - 8.45) 0.818
New Hampshire 7.75 (6.35 - 9.42) 7.61 (6.25 - 9.24) 0.816
New Jersey 5.87 (4.72 - 7.28) 5.98 (4.85 - 7.36) 0.823
New Mexico 7.36 (5.96 - 9.07) 6.47 (5.27 - 7.91) 0.142
New York 6.52 (5.71 - 7.43) 6.64 (5.87 - 7.51) 0.727
North Carolina 7.06 (5.76 - 8.63) 6.85 (5.63 - 8.31) 0.686
North Dakota 6.58 (5.43 - 7.96) 6.26 (5.15 - 7.59) 0.550
Ohio 6.61 (5.88 - 7.42) 6.18 (5.46 - 6.98) 0.212
Oklahoma 7.93 (6.48 - 9.67) 7.40 (6.02 - 9.07) 0.383
Oregon 7.01 (5.71 - 8.58) 7.44 (6.10 - 9.03) 0.447
Pennsylvania 6.21 (5.46 - 7.05) 5.92 (5.15 - 6.79) 0.433
Rhode Island 7.55a (6.22 - 9.12) 9.34   (7.53 - 11.52) 0.009
South Carolina 6.23 (5.09 - 7.60) 7.02 (5.76 - 8.53) 0.184
South Dakota 6.07 (4.92 - 7.48) 5.71 (4.63 - 7.04) 0.466
Tennessee 7.63 (6.22 - 9.33) 6.83 (5.60 - 8.31) 0.198
Texas 6.05 (5.34 - 6.85) 5.97 (5.26 - 6.77) 0.820
Utah 7.07 (5.93 - 8.41) 7.51 (6.30 - 8.93) 0.386
Vermont 6.52 (5.33 - 7.95) 6.52 (5.36 - 7.91) 0.999
Virginia 6.88 (5.65 - 8.37) 6.30 (5.15 - 7.69) 0.276
Washington 7.63 (6.28 - 9.23) 7.19 (5.92 - 8.70) 0.420
West Virginia 8.51   (6.99 - 10.32) 7.77 (6.35 - 9.47) 0.250
Wisconsin 7.35 (6.10 - 8.83) 7.28 (6.04 - 8.74) 0.900
Wyoming 7.85 (6.44 - 9.55) 7.37 (6.10 - 8.88) 0.415

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