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7. Comparison of 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 State Estimates

Chapters 2 through 6 of this report present combined 2007 and 2008 State estimates for 22 measures associated with substance use and mental health problems based on data collected from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). In addition, statistically significant differences between the 2006-2007 and the 2007-2008 estimates (at the 5 percent level of significance) are discussed. In this chapter, statistically significant differences observed over a longer period of time (between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008) are reported for a selected set of prevalence measures. Because NSDUH data on major depressive episodes (MDEs) were first collected in 2004, comparisons between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 for this measure are not available. Comparisons between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 for 21 measures (excluding MDE) are included in Appendix D.

7.1 Illicit Drugs

Five States showed significant changes from 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 in the percentage of persons aged 12 or older who used an illicit drug in the past month: Iowa, Missouri, and Pennsylvania had decreases, and Rhode Island and Tennessee had increases (Table D.1). Among persons aged 12 to 17, 22 States had decreases: Arkansas, California, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, and West Virginia. No States had increases in this age group. Nationally, past month illicit drug use among persons aged 12 to 17 decreased from 11.4 percent in 2002-2003 to 9.4 percent in 2007-2008 and remained unchanged in the other age groups (12 or older, 18 to 25, and 26 or older).

7.2 Marijuana

Between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008, past month marijuana use decreased nationally among persons aged 12 to 17 from 8.0 to 6.7 percent, but not among any other age group presented (Table D.3). Among persons aged 12 or older, four States showed declines (Florida, Iowa, Missouri, and Pennsylvania), while one State's use increased (Tennessee). Among the 12 to 17 year olds, 18 States had declines in past month use of marijuana between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008: Alaska, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, and West Virginia. There were no increases in this age group. Six States also showed decreases in past month marijuana use among 18 to 25 year olds, with no increases observed in any State for this age group.

7.3 Cocaine

Among persons aged 12 or older, use of cocaine in the past year decreased nationally from 2.5 percent in 2002-2003 to 2.2 percent in 2007-2008 (Table D.7). Eleven States also experienced decreases in that age group: Alabama, Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Ohio, and South Dakota. Decreases in past year cocaine use were observed among 12 to 17 year olds in 17 States as well (Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, and West Virginia) and among 18 to 25 year olds in 5 States (Illinois, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Mexico, and Texas). There were no increases in cocaine use observed in any State for any age group.

7.4 Pain Relievers (Nonmedical Use)

Nationally, nonmedical use of pain relievers in the past year among persons aged 12 or older did not change between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 (4.9 percent in 2007-2008 and 4.8 percent in 2002-2003) (Table D.8). However, six States had increases (Arkansas, Minnesota, Montana, Ohio, Tennessee, and Wisconsin), and Florida's rate declined over this time period. Declines in nonmedical use of pain relievers were observed among youths aged 12 to 17 in Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Nebraska, and Vermont. No increases were observed in any State in this age group. Among persons aged 18 to 25, increases were noted in California, Minnesota, Montana, Ohio, and Tennessee; decreases were found in Florida and Illinois.

7.5 Alcohol

Nationwide, past month alcohol use among persons aged 12 or older did not change between 2002-2003 (50.5 percent) and 2007-2008 (51.4 percent) (Table D.9). However, increases occurred in Arkansas, Illinois, Minnesota, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee, while there was a decrease in Idaho. For youths aged 12 to 17, past month alcohol use declined between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 in 21 States and the Nation overall and remained unchanged in all other States for that age group. Among persons aged 26 or older, past month alcohol use increased nationally from 53.2 percent in 2002-2003 to 54.4 percent in 2007-2008; for this age group, alcohol use increased in Arkansas, Illinois, Minnesota, North Carolina, Oregon, and Pennsylvania and decreased in Idaho during the same time period.

7.6 Underage Binge Alcohol Use

Underage (age 12 to 20) binge alcohol use in the past month decreased nationwide from 19.2 percent in 2002-2003 to 18.0 percent in 2007-2008 (Table D.12). Eighteen States showed declines: Arkansas, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia. Underage binge alcohol use increased between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 in the District of Columbia.

7.7 Cigarettes

Cigarette use in the past month decreased nationally between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 across all age groups (12 or older, 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 or older) (Table D.14). The number of States showing decreases in cigarette use between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 diminished with increasing age (12 to 17 year olds: 35 States; 18 to 25 year olds: 26 States; 26 or older: 3 States). No increases were observed in any State or age group.

7.8 Alcohol or Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse

Among persons aged 12 or older, rates of dependence on or abuse of alcohol or illicit drugs in the past year between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008 remained unchanged nationally and for each State except for New Mexico (which showed a decline) (Table D.20). For youths aged 12 to 17, 14 States had declining rates: Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Vermont, and West Virginia. Rates also decreased nationally among this age group (from 8.9 to 7.7 percent). No increases were observed in any State or age group.

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