Trends in Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation or Parole

In Brief
  • In 2012, an estimated 3.2 million males aged 18 to 49 were on probation, and 900,000 were on parole; the percentage of males aged 18 to 49 who reported being on probation or parole during the past 12 months remained relatively stable between 2002 and 2012 (about 5 percent)
  • Rates of substance use disorders among males aged 18 to 49 on probation or parole were generally similar to rates in previous years; in 2012, 40.3 percent of male probationers and 38.3 percent of male parolees had an alcohol or illicit drug use disorder in the past year
  • There were few statistically significant changes in need for treatment, receipt of substance use treatment (including receipt of treatment in prison or jail), or unmet treatment need between 2002 and 2012 among male probationers and parolees aged 18 to 49

Almost 4.8 million individuals in the United States were under community supervision by the criminal justice system (i.e., probation, parole, or conditional release from prison) at the end of 2011.1,2 The number of persons under community supervision decreased between 2009 and 2011. However, the number in 2011 is about 4 times greater than the number of individuals on community supervision in 1980.1 The large population of individuals under community supervision often has an array of behavioral health problems, with substance misuse being chief among them. Indeed, drug law violations account for the most common type of criminal offense.3

Untreated substance use disorders among probationers and parolees can lead to relapse and a path toward continued criminal behavior, which can lead to probation/parole violations and an increased risk of reincarceration. To address offenders' substance use treatment needs, the criminal justice system—in collaboration with the public health system—has placed greater emphasis on treatment programming within correctional facilities and has improved access and linkages to community-based treatment. Implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act may increase access to treatment for many people who are under community supervision within the criminal justice system.4,5,6 Monitoring substance use disorders and unmet treatment need among offenders is critical for assessing the impact of these efforts.

Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) can be used to examine trends in substance use disorders and receipt of treatment among persons on probation or parole. NSDUH asks respondents if, at any time during the past 12 months, they were (1) on probation or (2) on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison (referred to as "parole"). NSDUH also asks questions to determine whether respondents had a substance use disorder in the past year (i.e., dependence on or abuse of alcohol or illicit drugs) and to determine whether respondents received substance use treatment in the past year. All estimates in this report are based on data from the 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs.


Number on Probation and Parole

In 2012, an estimated 3.2 million males aged 18 to 49 were on probation, and 900,000 were on parole.7 The number of males aged 18 to 49 who reported being on probation during the 12 months before the interview remained relatively stable between 2002 and 2010, decreased in 2011, and then increased in 2012 (Figure 1). The number of males aged 18 to 49 who reported being on parole during the 12 months before the interview remained relatively stable between 2002 and 2012.

Figure 1. Number of Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation or Parole in the Past Year (in Thousands): 2002 to 2012
This is a line graph comparing number of males aged 18 to 49 on probation or parole in the past year (in thousands): 2002 to 2012. Accessible table located below this figure.

Figure 1 Table. Number of Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation or Parole in the Past Year (in Thousands): 2002 to 2012
Probation or Parole 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
On Probation 3,244 3,103 3,084 2,961 3,072 3,274 3,075 3,228 3,418 2,748 3,193
On Parole 1,182    990 1,130 1,034 1,168 1,140 1,100 1,187 1,002 1,040    926
Total on Probation or Parole 3,535 3,364 3,366 3,296 3,399 3,573 3,401 3,580 3,706 3,060 3,417
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs), 2002 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012), and 2011 to 2012.


Substance Use Disorders

More than one quarter (29.8 percent) of male probationers aged 18 to 49 in 2012 had an alcohol use disorder, 19.2 percent had an illicit drug use disorder in the past year, and 40.3 percent had either an alcohol or illicit drug use disorder (Figure 2).8,9 Similarly, 24.9 percent of male parolees had an alcohol use disorder, 19.7 percent had an illicit drug use disorder, and 38.3 percent had an alcohol or illicit drug use disorder in the past year (Figure 3).

Figure 2. Past Year Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation: 2002 to 2012
This is a line graph comparing past year substance use disorders among males aged 18 to 49 on probation: 2002 to 2012. Accessible table located below this figure.

Figure 2 Table. Past Year Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation: 2002 to 2012
Illicit Drug Use 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Illicit Drug Use Disorder 18.3% 21.7% 19.6% 16.2% 21.9% 18.7% 16.5% 14.3% 18.2% 18.1% 19.2%
Alcohol Use Disorder 33.8%  37.1%* 35.2% 31.5% 32.4% 33.6% 33.5% 33.1% 32.7% 30.8% 29.8%
Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use Disorder 42.5% 45.5% 43.9% 38.8% 42.6% 42.0% 39.8% 38.7% 41.7% 38.4% 40.3%
* Difference between estimate and estimate for 2012 is significant at the .05 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs), 2002 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012), and 2011 to 2012.

Figure 3. Past Year Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Parole: 2002 to 2012
This is a line graph comparing past year substance use disorders among males aged 18 to 49 on parole: 2002 to 2012. Accessible table located below this figure.

Figure 3 Table. Past Year Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Parole: 2002 to 2012
Substance Use 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Illicit Drug Use Disorder 20.8% 17.5% 20.4% 19.1% 18.8% 17.1% 17.3% 12.8% 20.2% 16.7% 19.7%
Alcohol Use Disorder 33.0% 36.0% 33.6% 26.1% 34.3% 32.0% 24.6% 20.3% 29.2% 33.7% 24.9%
Illicit Drug or Alcohol Use Disorder 42.2% 39.3% 43.6% 36.0% 39.4% 40.8% 32.3%  26.1%* 40.2% 42.9% 38.3%
* Difference between estimate and estimate for 2012 is significant at the .05 level. Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs), 2002 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012), and 2011 to 2012.

With one exception, the rates of substance use disorders among male probationers in 2012 were not statistically different from those in any other years (Figure 2). Specifically, the percentage of probationers with past year alcohol disorder was lower in 2012 than in 2003 (29.8 vs. 37.1 percent). Among male parolees, the rates of substance use disorders in 2012 were not statistically different from those in previous years, with one exception; the percentage of male parolees with a past year alcohol or illicit drug use disorder was higher in 2012 than in 2009 (38.3 vs. 26.1 percent; Figure 3).


Receipt of Treatment and Unmet Need

As Table 1 shows, there were no statistically significant changes in need for treatment, receipt of substance use treatment, or unmet treatment need between 2002 and 2012 among male probationers aged 18 to 49.10,11,12 In every year, nearly half of male probationers needed treatment; however, only about a quarter received some treatment in the past year. In any given year, about 10 percent reported that they were receiving treatment currently (at the time of the interview). About 3 to 7 percent had received treatment in prison or jail within the past year.

Table 1. Past Year Treatment for an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Problem among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation: 2002 to 2012
Need for and Receipt of Treatment 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Needed Treatment for an
Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use Problem
48.0% 51.0% 50.8% 44.2% 47.4% 46.7% 45.6% 46.1% 47.3% 46.7% 45.3%
Received Treatment for an
Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use Problem
25.1% 25.9% 25.8% 23.7% 25.6% 25.2% 25.0% 27.1% 25.1% 26.3% 23.8%
Received Treatment at a
Specialty Substance Use Facility
17.1% 15.9% 18.5% 14.8% 16.9% 17.3% 16.3% 18.0% 14.9% 18.9% 16.1%
Received Substance Use
Treatment at Prison/Jail
  3.4%   3.1%   4.1%   4.3%   7.0%   4.4%   5.1%   4.9%   4.3%   7.0%   4.4%
Currently in Treatment for an
Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Problem
11.1%   8.2%   9.5%   9.2% 11.0% 11.6% 10.2% 11.0%   9.1% 11.8%   9.5%
Unmet Need for Alcohol or
Illicit Drug Use Treatment
30.9% 35.1% 32.4% 29.4% 30.6% 29.5% 29.3% 28.1% 32.5% 27.8% 29.2%
* Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs), 2002 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012), and 2011 to 2012.

Among male parolees aged 18 to 49, there were no statistically significant differences in need for treatment (Table 2). In each year from 2002 to 2012, nearly half (41.0 to 53.7 percent) of male parolees needed treatment; however, only about one fifth to one third (19.2 to 34.1 percent) received some treatment in the past year. In any given year, only a small percentage (6.6 to 14.9 percent) reported that they were currently receiving treatment. About 7 to 15 percent received treatment in prison or jail within the past year. The rate of current receipt of treatment was lower in 2012 than in 2008, 2009, and 2011 but was consistent with the rates in 2002 to 2007. Unmet treatment need among this population has also remained consistent between 2002 and 2012, with the exception of 2009.

Table 2. Past Year Treatment for an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Problem among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Parole: 2002 to 2012
Need for and Receipt of Treatment 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Needed Treatment for an
Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use Problem
47.6% 43.9% 52.1% 42.8% 43.0% 44.6% 41.0% 42.1% 53.7% 50.1% 43.9%
Received Treatment for an
Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use Problem
25.7% 26.2% 26.7% 19.2% 24.8% 26.1% 26.1% 33.1% 34.1% 28.9% 28.4%
Received Treatment at a
Specialty Substance Use Facility
16.7% 17.5% 20.6% 13.3% 15.9% 17.6% 16.9% 26.2% 24.9% 19.6% 17.1%
Received Substance Use
Treatment at Prison/Jail
  7.1%   6.9%   9.3%   9.1%   9.4% 11.6% 10.5% 14.5% 15.2% 13.1%   9.1%
Currently in Treatment for an
Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Problem
11.3%   8.2% 10.7%   6.6% 11.7% 14.2%  14.3%*  14.9%* 11.4%  14.4%*   6.6%
Unmet Need for Alcohol or
Illicit Drug Use Treatment
30.9% 26.4% 31.6% 29.5% 27.2% 27.0% 24.1% 15.9%* 28.8% 30.6% 26.9%
* Difference between estimate and 2012 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs), 2002 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012), and 2011 to 2012.


Discussion

Although the past several decades have witnessed an increased interest in providing substance abuse treatment services for criminal justice offenders, only a small percentage of offenders have received treatment services, especially in jails and community correctional facilities. In 2011, SAMHSA reported it appeared there was some degree of success in the efforts to address the treatment needs of substance-using offenders based on an analysis of levels of substance use disorders and unmet need for substance abuse treatment among adult male probationers and parolees from 2002 to 2009.13 This current report was undertaken to assess whether the improvements found through 2009 have continued in more recent years. However, the most recent data (2010 through 2012) indicate that rates of substance use disorders and unmet need for treatment among males on probation or parole are generally similar to rates in 2002 through 2008. These analyses underscore the importance of monitoring long-term trends because changes observed over a short period of time may reflect statistical anomalies rather than true change, especially when looking at relatively small subpopulations such as those on probation or parole.

Findings in this report highlight the ongoing and increased importance of addressing substance use treatment needs among individuals under correctional supervision. Treatment is the most effective course for interrupting the drug abuse/criminal justice cycle for offenders with drug abuse problems.14 Offenders with untreated substance dependence or abuse are more likely than treated offenders to relapse. Treatment that does not meet the specific needs of offenders may not be as effective in reducing drug use and recidivism.14 These issues can lead to rearrest and reincarceration, risking the health and safety of our communities and placing an increased burden upon the criminal justice system. Continued monitoring of substance use and treatment need and receipt among probationers and parolees will inform the criminal justice and public health systems on the need for substance use treatment services for those offenders under community supervision.


End Notes
1 Maruschak, L. M., & Parks, E. (2012). Probation and parole in the United States, 2011. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
2 Probation refers to adult offenders whom courts place on supervision in the community through a probation agency, generally in lieu of incarceration. However, some jurisdictions do sentence probationers to a combined short-term incarceration sentence immediately followed by probation, which is referred to as a "split sentence." Parole refers to criminal offenders who are conditionally released from prison to serve the remaining portion of their sentence in the community.
3 Glaze, L. E., & Bonczar, T. P. (2009). Probation and parole in the United States, 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
4 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Pub. L. No. 111-148, 124 Stat. 119 (2010).
5 Health Care Education and Reconciliation Act, Pub. L. No. 111-152, 124 Stat. 1029 (2010).
6 TASC Institute for Consulting and Training. (2013, January 23). Leveraging national health reform to reduce recidivism & build recovery. Presentation given to SAMHSA's Adult Treatment Court Collaborative grantees. Retrieved from http://gainscenter.samhsa.gov/cms-assets/documents/97682-829055.aca-sustainability-webinar-slides.pdf
7 The estimated total of males aged 18 to 49 on parole and/or probation must be interpreted carefully. In any given year, about 25 percent of those on probation (about 5 percent of male NSDUH respondents aged 18 to 49) say they were on both probation and parole at some point during the prior 12 months. The number of probationers and parolees presented here are not adjusted for this overlap; instead, they are reported independently, in the same manner in which Bureau of Justice Statistics data for probation and parole would be combined.
8 Illicit drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
9 NSDUH defines dependence on or abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs using criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which include such symptoms as withdrawal, tolerance, use in dangerous situations, trouble with the law, and interference with major obligations at work, school, or home during the past year. For details, see American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
10 An individual was classified as needing treatment for a substance abuse problem if he or she met the criteria for dependence on or abuse of a substance or if he or she received specialty treatment for illicit drugs or alcohol in the past year.
11 Treatment receipt refers to treatment received in order to reduce or stop illicit drug or alcohol use, or for medical problems associated with illicit drug or alcohol use. It includes both specialty and nonspecialty treatment. Specialty treatment includes treatment received at a hospital, rehabilitation facility (inpatient or outpatient), or mental health center. Nonspecialty treatment includes services received at an emergency room, private doctor's office, self-help group, or prison/jail.
12 Unmet treatment need refers to respondents classified as needing substance use treatment but not having received treatment at a specialty facility.
13 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and National Institute of Justice. (2011, Summer). Data Review: Mental and substance use disorders among adult men on probation or parole: Some success against a persistent challenge. Rockville, MD: Authors.
14 National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2012, January). Principles of drug abuse treatment for criminal justice populations—A research-based guide. Bethesda, MD: Author.



Suggested Citation
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (March 6, 2014). The NSDUH Report: Trends in Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation or Parole. Rockville, MD.

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is the agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that leads public health efforts to advance the behavioral health of the nation. SAMHSA's mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities.

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) is an annual survey sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The 2002 to 2012 data used in this report are based on information obtained from 201,400 males aged 18 to 49. The survey collects data by administering questionnaires to a representative sample of the population through face-to-face interviews at their place of residence.

The NSDUH Report is prepared by the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ), SAMHSA, and by RTI International in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. (RTI International is a trade name of Research Triangle Institute.)

Information on the most recent NSDUH is available in the following publication:

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2013). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of national findings (HHS Publication No. SMA 13-4795, NSDUH Series H-46). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Also available online: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH.aspx.

NSDUH_084

Supporting Tables

Table S1. Number (in 1,000s) of Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation or Parole in the Past Year: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Figure 1)
Probation/Parole Status 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
On Probation 3,244 3,103 3,084 2,961 3,072 3,274 3,075 3,228 3,418 2,748 3,193
On Parole1 1,182    990 1,130 1,034 1,168 1,140 1,100 1,187 1,002 1,040    926
Total on Probation or Parole1 3,535 3,364 3,366 3,296 3,399 3,573 3,401 3,580 3,706 3,060 3,417
NOTE: Respondents with nondeterminant probation and/or parole status are excluded from respective analyses.
1Respondents were asked if they were on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison during the past year.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs), 2002 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012), and 2011 to 2012.

Table S2a. Past Year Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Figure 2)
Type of Substance
Use Disorder
2002 2003 2004 2005
Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE
Illicit Drug1 Use
Disorder
   593 18.3 1.82    673 21.7 2.02    604 19.6 1.84    479 16.2 1.59
Alcohol Use Disorder 1,095 33.8 2.30 1,151 37.1 2.55 1,084 35.2 2.23    934 31.5 2.07
Illicit Drug1 or Alcohol
Use Disorder
1,380 42.5 2.36 1,412 45.5 2.55 1,354 43.9 2.27 1,149 38.8 2.24

Table S2b. Past Year Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Figure 2)
Type of Substance
Use Disorder
2006 2007 2008 2009
Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE
Illicit Drug1 Use
Disorder
   673 21.9 2.19    614 18.7 1.79    506 16.5 1.83   460 14.3 1.49
Alcohol Use Disorder    996 32.4 2.17 1,099 33.6 2.42 1,031 33.5 2.30 1,069 33.1 2.21
Illicit Drug1 or Alcohol
Use Disorder
1,310 42.6 2.46 1,374 42.0 2.45 1,222 39.8 2.47 1,248 38.7 2.27

Table S2c. Past Year Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Figure 2)
Type of Substance
Use Disorder
2010 2011 2012
Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE
Illicit Drug1 Use
Disorder
   621 18.2 1.66    498 18.1 1.75    612 19.2 2.39
Alcohol Use Disorder 1,118 32.7 2.28    846 30.8 2.20    951 29.8 2.70
Illicit Drug1 or Alcohol
Use Disorder
1,426 41.7 2.36 1,055 38.4 2.28 1,287 40.3 2.67
SE = standard error.
NOTE: Substance Use Disorder is defined as meeting criteria for illicit drug or alcohol dependence or abuse. Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs), 2002 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012), and 2011 to 2012.

Table S3a. Past Year Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Figure 2)
Type of Substance
Use Disorder
2002 2003 2004 2005
Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE
Illicit Drug1 Use
Disorder
246 20.8 3.79 173 17.5 3.06 231 20.4 3.02 197 19.1 3.12
Alcohol Use Disorder 390 33.0 4.29 356 36.0 4.29 380 33.6 3.85 270 26.1 3.41
Illicit Drug1 or Alcohol
Use Disorder
499 42.2 4.47 389 39.3 4.36 493 43.6 3.99 373 36.0 3.88

Table S3b. Past Year Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Figure 2)
Type of Substance
Use Disorder
2006 2007 2008 2009
Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE
Illicit Drug1 Use
Disorder
219 18.8 3.41 195 17.1 2.92 190 17.3 3.13 152 12.8 2.34
Alcohol Use Disorder 401 34.3 4.14 365 32.0 5.17 271 24.6 3.40 241 20.3 3.03
Illicit Drug1 or Alcohol
Use Disorder
460 39.4 4.35 466 40.8 5.00 355 32.3 3.94 309 26.1 3.33

Table S3c. Past Year Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Figure 2)
Type of Substance
Use Disorder
2010 2011 2012
Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE
Illicit Drug1 Use
Disorder
203 20.2 3.15 174 16.7 3.00 182 19.7 3.59
Alcohol Use Disorder 293 29.2 3.72 350 33.7 4.14 230 24.9 4.44
Illicit Drug1 or Alcohol
Use Disorder
403 40.2 3.87 446 42.9 4.36 354 38.3 4.65
SE = standard error.
NOTE: Substance Use Disorder is defined as meeting criteria for illicit drug or alcohol dependence or abuse. Dependence or abuse is based on definitions found in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).
1 Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs), 2002 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012), and 2011 to 2012.

Table S4a. Past Year Treatment for an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Problem among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Table 1)
Past Year Treatment Need/
Receipt Characteristics
2002 2003 2004 2005
Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE
Needed Treatment for an
Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use
Problem1
1,557 48.0 2.42 1,581 51.0 2.56 1,568 50.8 2.28 1,309 44.2 2.31
Received Treatment for
an Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use
Problem2
   813 25.1 2.10    803 25.9 2.30    797 25.8 2.14    703 23.7 2.02
Received Treatment at a
Specialty Substance Use
Facility3
   555 17.1 1.89    494 15.9 1.64    570 18.5 1.97    440 14.8 1.81
Received Substance Use
Treatment at Prison/Jail2
   112   3.4 0.84     95   3.1 0.92    128   4.1 0.95    127   4.3 0.89
Currently in Treatment for
an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use
Problem
   361 11.1 1.61    255   8.2 1.31    293   9.5 1.43    273   9.2 1.45
Unmet Need for Alcohol or
Illicit Drug Use Treatment1,4
1,002 30.9 2.19 1,088 35.1 2.37    998 32.4 2.09    870 29.4 2.02

Table S4b. Past Year Treatment for an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Problem among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Table 1)
Past Year Treatment Need/
Receipt Characteristics
2006 2007 2008 2009
Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE
Needed Treatment for an
Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use
Problem1
1,458 47.4 2.53 1,530 46.7 2.56 1,402 45.6 2.51 1,487 46.1 2.37
Received Treatment for
an Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use
Problem2
   785 25.6 2.35    825 25.2 2.31    770 25.0 2.33    875 27.1 2.24
Received Treatment at a
Specialty Substance Use
Facility3
   519 16.9 2.06    565 17.3 2.24    502 16.3 1.98    580 18.0 1.91
Received Substance Use
Treatment at Prison/Jail2
   214   7.0 1.61    145   4.4 1.22    157   5.1 1.36    157   4.9 1.15
Currently in Treatment for
an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use
Problem
   338 11.0 1.82    381 11.6 1.88    315 10.2 1.59    355 11.0 1.48
Unmet Need for Alcohol or
Illicit Drug Use Treatment1,4
   939 30.6 2.32    965 29.5 2.21    901 29.3 2.22    907 28.1 2.07

Table S4c. Past Year Treatment for an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Problem among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Table 1)
Past Year Treatment Need/
Receipt Characteristics
2010 2011 2012
Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE
Needed Treatment for an
Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use
Problem1
1,618 47.3 2.42 1,283 46.7 2.38 1,446 45.3 2.66
Received Treatment for
an Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use
Problem2
   857 25.1 2.03    723 26.3 2.18    760 23.8 2.33
Received Treatment at a
Specialty Substance Use
Facility3
   509 14.9 1.53    520 18.9 1.97    513 16.1 2.21
Received Substance Use
Treatment at Prison/Jail2
   148   4.3 0.82    193   7.0 1.24    142   4.4 1.26
Currently in Treatment for
an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use
Problem
   311   9.1 1.30    324 11.8 1.55    305   9.5 1.75
Unmet Need for Alcohol or
Illicit Drug Use Treatment1,4
1,109 32.5 2.32    763 27.8 2.11    934 29.2 2.65
SE = standard error.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
1 Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol problem if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependent on illicit drugs or alcohol; (2) abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol; or (3) received treatment for illicit drug or alcohol use at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient only], or mental health center).
2 Received Substance Use Treatment refers to treatment received in order to reduce or stop illicit drug or alcohol use, or for medical problems associated with illicit drug or alcohol use. It includes treatment received at any location, such as a hospital (inpatient), rehabilitation facility (inpatient or outpatient), mental health center, emergency room, private doctor's office, self-help group, or prison/jail.
3 Received Substance Use Treatment at a Specialty Facility refers to treatment received at a hospital (inpatient), rehabilitation facility (inpatient or outpatient), or mental health center in order to reduce or stop illicit drug or alcohol use, or for medical problems associated with illicit drug or alcohol use. Estimates include persons who received treatment specifically for illicit drugs or alcohol, as well as persons who received treatment but did not specify for what substance(s).
4 Unmet Need for Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for illicit drugs or alcohol, but who have not received treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol problem at a specialty facility.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs), 2002 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012), and 2011 to 2012.

Table S5a. Past Year Treatment for an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Problem among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Parole: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Table 2)
Past Year Treatment Need/
Receipt Characteristics
2002 2003 2004 2005
Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE
Needed Treatment for an
Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use
Problem1
563 47.6 4.49 435 43.9 4.52 589 52.1 3.93 443 42.8 4.07
Received Treatment for
an Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use
Problem2
303 25.7 3.49 260 26.2 3.94 302 26.7 3.52 199 19.2 2.99
Received Treatment at a
Specialty Substance Use
Facility3
198 16.7 2.83 174 17.5 3.26 233 20.6 3.20 138 13.3 2.64
Received Substance Use
Treatment at Prison/Jail2
  84   7.1 2.03   69   6.9 2.29 105   9.3 2.40   94   9.1 2.28
Currently in Treatment for
an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use
Problem
134 11.3 2.38   81   8.2 2.22 121 10.7 2.33   68   6.6 1.63
Unmet Need for Alcohol or
Illicit Drug Use Treatment1,4
365 30.9 4.26 261 26.4 3.75 357 31.6 3.54 305 29.5 3.80

Table S5b. Past Year Treatment for an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Problem among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Parole: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Table 2)
Past Year Treatment Need/
Receipt Characteristics
2006 2007 2008 2009
Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE
Needed Treatment for an
Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use
Problem1
503 43.0 4.45 509 44.6 4.98 451 41.0 4.14 499 42.1 4.16
Received Treatment for
an Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use
Problem2
290 24.8 4.49 297 26.1 4.34 288 26.1 3.78 392 33.1 4.23
Received Treatment at a
Specialty Substance Use
Facility3
185 15.9 3.30 201 17.6 3.89 186 16.9 3.23 311 26.2 4.15
Received Substance Use
Treatment at Prison/Jail2
110   9.4 2.64 132 11.6 3.64 116 10.5 2.99 172 14.5 3.76
Currently in Treatment for
an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use
Problem
136 11.7 3.27 162 14.2 3.95 157 14.3 3.14 177 14.9 2.92
Unmet Need for Alcohol or
Illicit Drug Use Treatment1,4
318 27.2 3.97 308 27.0 4.79 265 24.1 3.56 189 15.9 2.56

Table S5c. Past Year Treatment for an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Problem among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Parole: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs (Supports Table 2)
Past Year Treatment Need/
Receipt Characteristics
2010 2011 2012
Number Percent SE Number Percent SE Number Percent SE
Needed Treatment for an
Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use
Problem1
539 53.7 4.14 522 50.1 4.47 407 43.9 4.44
Received Treatment for
an Alcohol/Illicit Drug Use
Problem2
341 34.1 3.87 300 28.9 4.12 263 28.4 4.10
Received Treatment at a
Specialty Substance Use Facility3
250 24.9 3.62 204 19.6 3.60 158 17.1 3.24
Received Substance Use
Treatment at Prison/Jail2
153 15.2 2.94 136 13.1 2.83   84   9.1 2.66
Currently in Treatment for
an Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use
Problem
114 11.4 2.56 149 14.4 3.40   61   6.6 1.84
Unmet Need for Alcohol or
Illicit Drug Use Treatment1,4
289 28.8 3.54 318 30.6 4.19 249 26.9 4.36
SE = standard error.
NOTE: Illicit Drugs include marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used nonmedically, including data from original methamphetamine questions but not including new methamphetamine items added in 2005 and 2006.
1 Respondents were classified as needing treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol problem if they met at least one of three criteria during the past year: (1) dependent on illicit drugs or alcohol; (2) abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol; or (3) received treatment for illicit drug or alcohol use at a specialty facility (i.e., drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility [inpatient or outpatient], hospital [inpatient only], or mental health center).
2 Received Substance Use Treatment refers to treatment received in order to reduce or stop illicit drug or alcohol use, or for medical problems associated with illicit drug or alcohol use. It includes treatment received at any location, such as a hospital (inpatient), rehabilitation facility (inpatient or outpatient), mental health center, emergency room, private doctor's office, self-help group, or prison/jail.
3 Received Substance Use Treatment at a Specialty Facility refers to treatment received at a hospital (inpatient), rehabilitation facility (inpatient or outpatient), or mental health center in order to reduce or stop illicit drug or alcohol use, or for medical problems associated with illicit drug or alcohol use. Estimates include persons who received treatment specifically for illicit drugs or alcohol, as well as persons who received treatment but did not specify for what substance(s).
4 Unmet Need for Alcohol or Illicit Drug Use Treatment refers to respondents classified as needing treatment for illicit drugs or alcohol, but who have not received treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol problem at a specialty facility.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs), 2002 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012), and 2011 to 2012.

Additional Tables

Table A1. Percentage of Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation or Parole in the Past Year: 2002 to 2012 NSDUHs
Probation/Parole Status 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
On Probation 5.0% 4.8% 4.7% 4.5% 4.7% 5.0% 4.7% 4.9% 5.2% 4.2% 4.9%
On Parole1 1.8% 1.5% 1.7% 1.6% 1.8% 1.7% 1.7% 1.8% 1.5% 1.6% 1.4%
Total on Probation or Parole1 5.5% 5.2% 5.2% 5.0% 5.2% 5.4% 5.2% 5.4% 5.6% 4.7% 5.2%
NOTE: Respondents with nondeterminant probation and/or parole status are excluded from respective analyses.
1 Respondents were asked if they were on parole, supervised release, or other conditional release from prison during the past year.
Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs), 2002 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012), and 2011 to 2012.